BT 1: Concrete Hollow Blocks

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BT 1: Concrete Hollow Blocks

  1. 1. Concrete Hollow Blocks Concrete Hollow BlocksAggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan,and John Paul Halili, Raymond M. Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  2. 2. Introduction Concrete Hollow BlocksCapuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  3. 3. What is Concrete Hollow Blocks? A Concrete masonry unit (CMU) – also called Concrete block, cement block, and foundation block – is a large rectangular brick used in construction. Concrete blocks are made from cast concrete, example: Portland cement and aggregate, usually sand and fine gravel for high-density blocks. Lower density blocks may use industrial wastes as an aggregate. Concrete Hollow BlocksAggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan,and John Paul Halili, Raymond M. Premrose BiulidindBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Technology 1/ 8:00-9:0am
  4. 4. What is Masonry?• Any building material made of stone.• Used for walls. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  5. 5. Two types of Masonry• Structured/load-bearing – this is used for exterior walls.• Non structured/non load-bearing – this is used for interior walls. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  6. 6. Parts of a masonry unit• Core• Stretcher or Face Shell• Header• Web Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  7. 7. Arrangements of Masonry Unit Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  8. 8. Two types of load-Bearing Blocks• Type N - Blocks rated N are rated for use as exterior walls both above and below grade• Type S - concrete blocks rated S are not rated for moisture penetration and are used instead as interior walls or as above grade exterior walls with a weather protective coating. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  9. 9. 5 Main types of Concrete hollow blocks: Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  10. 10. Hollow load-bearing concrete blockLoad bearing concrete hollowblock are block that can orintended to carry load asidefrom its own weight. Easierhandling and facility forconducting or steelreinforcement through thehollows. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  11. 11. Solid load-bearing Concrete BlockSolid masonry, without steelreinforcement, tends to havevery limited applications inmodern wall construction.Such walls can, however, bequite economical and suitablein some applications; solidunreinforced masonry wallstend to be low and thick as aconsequence of their lack oftensile strength. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  12. 12. Hollow non load-bearing concrete block• Non-load bearing concrete hollow block are used for fences, wall partition or divider and this is not intended to carry load. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  13. 13. Concrete building tile• Concrete tiles are made from sand, water, cement and pigments, and are not fired like clay tiles, but cured at temperatures of approximately 60 degrees Celsius. The curing process makes them sturdy enough to be transported and laid within a few days of manufacture, and they get stronger over time. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  14. 14. Concrete Brick• Concrete brick is made from solid concrete. These bricks are used to cover the facade of a home, build fences, and enhance the overall beauty of a homes exterior.• Concrete bricks are quickly becoming a popular alternative to other home facade materials. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. Halili, Raymond M.Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan, and John Paul Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  15. 15. Other types of Concrete Hollow Blocks Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  16. 16. Stretcher A stretcher block is the most commonly used block in construction. It is laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. Halili, Raymond M.Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan, and John Paul Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  17. 17. Corner Corner. A corner block is used for corners at simple window and door openings. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  18. 18. Double Corner or Pier A double-corner or pier block is used for constructing piers pilasters or for any other purpose where both ends of the block would be visible. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. Halili, Raymond M.Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan, and John Paul Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  19. 19. Bull Nose• A bull-nose block serves the same purpose as a corner block, but it is used where round corners are desired. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. Halili, Raymond M.Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan, and John Paul Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  20. 20. Jamb A wood-sash jamb block is used with a stretcher and a corner block around elaborate window openings. The recess in the block allows room for the various casing members, as in a double-hung window. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  21. 21. Examples of Masonry Units• Veneer masonry• A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural. The brick veneer is generally connected to the structural wall by brick ties (metal strips that are attached to the structural wall, as well as the mortar joints of the brick veneer). There is typically an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall. As clay-based brick is usually not completely waterproof, the structural wall will often have a water-resistant surface (usually tar paper) and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks, real and cultured stones, and veneer adobe are sometimes used in a very similar veneer fashion.
  22. 22. • Dry set masonry• The strength of a masonry wall is not entirely dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the friction between the interlocking blocks of masonry is often strong enough to provide a great deal of strength on its own. The blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, and some dry set masonry structures forgo mortar altogether.
  23. 23. • Solid masonry• Solid masonry, without steel reinforcement, tends to have very limited applications in modern wall construction. While such walls can be quite economical and suitable in some applications, susceptibility to earthquakes and collapse is a major issue. Solid unreinforced masonry walls tend to be low and thick as a consequence.• Brick• Solid brickwork is made of two or more layers of bricks with the units running horizontally (called stretcher bricks) bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall (called "header" bricks). Each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different bonds such as the common bond (with every sixth course composed of headers), the English bond, and the Flemish bond (with alternating stretcher and header bricks present on every course). Bonds can differ in strength and in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond.
  24. 24. Uses• Bricks are used for building and pavement. In the USA, brick pavement was found incapable of withstanding heavy traffic, but it is coming back into use as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts. For example, in the early 1900s, most of the streets in the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan were paved with brick. Today, there are only about 20 blocks of brick paved streets remaining (totalling less than 0.5 percent of all the streets in the city limits).
  25. 25. BRICKS PAVER BLOCKS (PAVEMENTS, SIDEWALKS)
  26. 26. • Stones - a concretion of earthy or mineral matter: a : such a concretion of indeterminate size or shape :ROCK b : a piece of rock for a specified function: as (1) : a building block : a paving block : a precious stone : GEM :GRAVESTONE : GRINDSTONE : WHETSTONE: a surface upon which a drawing, text, or design to be lithographed is drawn or transferred.
  27. 27. Sustainable Modern Concrete Products Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P.Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan,Premrose Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  28. 28. Fly ash concrete (a sustainable, environment-friendly material)• Fly ash is an inexpensive replacement for portland cement used in concrete, while it actually improves strength, segregation, and ease of pumping of the concrete.• Fly ash is also used as an ingredient in brick, block, paving, and structural fills. Fly ash is a fine, glass-like powder recovered from gases created by coal-fired electric power generation. Concrete Hollow Blocks Aggregates Capuno, Azaleah P. Halili, Raymond M.Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John and Malan, and John Paul Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  29. 29. Two Classifications of Fly ash• Class F fly ash - with particles covered in a kind of melted glass, greatly reduces the risk of expansion due to sulfate attack, as may occur in fertilized soils or near coastal areas.• Class C fly ash - is also resistant to expansion from chemical attack, has a higher percentage of calcium oxide, and is more commonly used for structural concrete. Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan,Premrose Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am
  30. 30. Light-transmitting concrete• LiTraCon is a trademark for a translucent concrete building material. The name is short for "light-transmitting concrete". The technical data sheet from the manufacturer[1]says the material is made of 96% concrete and 4% by weight of optical fibers,[2][3] it was developed in 2001 by Hungarian architect Áron Losonczi working with scientists at the Technical University of Budapest.• known also as translucent concrete Concrete Hollow Blocks Capuno, Azaleah P. and Malan, Premrose Aggregates Halili, Raymond M. and John Paul Building Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00amBuilding Technology 1/ 8:00-9:00am

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