Citizen Science And a Manufacturing Revolution: Major trends research notes


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Major trends research notes:
We are entering an expansive period marked by the proliferation of low cost and higher performing personal and small business manufacturing tools. New types of manufacturing increasingly lower cost and higher sophisticated manufacturing tools a manufacturing revolution and the exponential growth of experimentation and innovation.

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Citizen Science And a Manufacturing Revolution: Major trends research notes

  1. 1. Democratization of Innovation Professional grade scientific and engineering tools are increasingly affordable and blurring the lines between professionals and amateurs . Many believe we are approaching an innovation and manufacturing Renaissance, similar to the emergence of home computing. Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 1 Citizen Science And a Manufacturing Revolution
  2. 2. Convergence of 10 Major Trends Minimal & Diminishing Startup Costs All Location Independent Social Networks Easier Access To Capital Freelance & Offshoring Innovation Ecosystem Open Scientific Inquiry & Manufacturing Revolution Big Data Artificial Intelligence Growth & Connectivity of Internet Population Collaborative Culture Risk Management Innovation Ecosystem • Open Science Movement • Open Access To Research • Affordable And Free Access to Advanced Software • Maker Movement / Do It Yourself (DIY) • 3D Printing / Additive Manufacturing 2
  3. 3. Open Scientific Inquiry An open scientific inquiry revolution is underway that is propelled by the power of open knowledge stores, collaboration and the diminishing cost of professional grade tools. 3
  4. 4. In much the same way as online readers of the New York Times are unable to read stories without paying for access, the academic publishing industry keeps large “knowledge stores” of scholarly research locked behind an industry “pay-wall.” As a result, scientific and intellectual inquiry and innovation has been stunted because of siloed knowledge that can only be accessed by those who can afford to pay. The Pay-Wall Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 4
  5. 5. • Harvard now spends $3.75 million annually on academic journal subscriptions. • Some journals cost schools up to $40,000 every year, with the two top publishers increasing the price of content 145% over the last six years. • To review the latest scientific research one can expect to spend nearly $30 to $40 for a single paper. 5 • 52 Nobel Laureates have subsequently co-authored an open letter to Congress supporting the open access bill and encouraging its passage. • If passed, the legislation would create a knowledge and research commons that is more transparent, accessible and participatory. Cracks Are Forming In The Pay-Wall The problem: • Nearly 5,000 scholars are now boycotting Elsevier (research publisher), in protest of price-gouging • Pending federal legislation seeks to compel open access to publications that are derived from tax payer funded research. The Response: Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  6. 6. Open Scientific Inquiry Just as the open access movement seeks to free up knowledge stores, a growing number of scientists, mathematicians and engineers want to encourage a collaborative environment in which science can be pursued by anyone who is inspired to discover something new about the natural world. The movement is frequently called Open Science. Open Access publications, Open Data, and Open Source software, are the pillars of the Open Science movement. A complimentary trend is the emergence of Citizen Science which is a broadly defined term that describes the participation of average citizens in scientific inquiry. Frequently it includes the use of crowdsourcing volunteers who assist professional scientist with the classification of data for which computers are equipped. There is no hard and fast definition for Open Science but it is a general term representing the application of various open approaches (Open Access, Open Source, Open Data) to scientific endeavor. Open Science is gaining adherents but still faces headwinds from a culture that traditionally favors secrecy and hoards data. Access to knowledge stores, data and professional grade scientific software is becoming more readily available to everyone, and the lines between professional scientist, enthusiasts and hobbyist are blurring. 6
  7. 7. Scientific Software Is Going To The Cloud Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 7
  8. 8. Powerful Technology For Everyone Based on high level discussions with Wolfram Research, we know that Wolfram is currently developing a cloud-based version of it’s computational engine, Mathmatica. Mathmatica supports dynamic modeling across a broad spectrum of industries and will likely be released on a subscription model and is expected to be open to third party API plugins. Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 8
  9. 9. Wolfram’s Computation Engine Core Algorithms Numerical Computing Application Areas Graphics & Visualization Productivity & Usability Data Sources & Analysis Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  10. 10. Engineering Aerospace Engineering and Defense>> Chemical Engineering » Control Systems » Electrical Engineering » Image Processing » Industrial Engineering » Materials Science » Mechanical Engineering » Operations Research » Optics » Petroleum Engineering » Biotechnology and Medicine Bioinformatics Medical Imaging Software Engineering, Application Development, and Content Delivery Authoring and Publishing Interface Development Software Engineering Web Development Design, Arts, and Entertainment Game Design, Special Effects, and Generative Art » Design, Arts, and Entertainment Game Design, Special Effects, and Generative Art » Finance, Statistics, and Business Analysis Actuarial Sciences » Data Analysis and Mining » Econometrics » Economics » Financial Engineering and Mathematics » Financial Risk Management » Statistics » Science Astronomy » Biological Sciences » Chemistry » Environmental Sciences » Geosciences » Social and Behavioral Sciences » “100% of the Fortune 50 companies rely on Mathematica to maintain their competitive edge in innovation.” ~Source: Wolfram Research 10
  11. 11. Powered By Wolfram Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 11
  12. 12. Reinventing Discovery The New Era Of Networked Science “The internet is causing a radical change in how science is done.” “Online citizen science projects are enabling amateurs to make scientific discoveries.” “We can use online tools to amplify our collective intelligence, and so extend our scientific problem-solving ability.” ~Source: InTech Blog Michael Nielsen: Doing Science In the Open at the University Campus in Rijeka, Croatia Posted on June 2, 2011 “We are living at the dawn of the most dramatic change in science in more than 300 years. This change is being driven by powerful new cognitive tools, enabled by the internet, which are greatly accelerating scientific discovery. “The internet is transforming the nature of our collective intelligence and how we understand the world.” ~Source: Reinventing Discovery, Princeton Press Michael Nielsen is an internationally known scientist who helped pioneer the field of quantum computation. He co-authored the standard text in the field, and wrote more than 50 scientific papers, including invited contributions to Nature and Scientific American. His work on quantum teleportation was recognized in Science Magazine’s list of the Top Ten Breakthroughs of 1998. He worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the Richard Chace Tolman Prize Fellow at Caltech, was Foundation Professor of Quantum Information Science and a Federation Fellow at the University of Queensland, and a Senior Faculty Member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. In 2008, he gave up his tenured position to work fulltime on open science.Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  13. 13. The First Industrial Revolution Was Powered By Steam IR 1.0 Manual labor to machines Agrarian to industrial society Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 13
  14. 14. The Second Industrial Revolution Was Forged Through Manufacturing Automation IR 2.0 Mass production, standards, interchangeability Disruptive innovations; electricity, engines, steel Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 14
  15. 15. The Information Technology Revolution Fairchild Semiconductor co-Founders, 1960 Computers and telecommunications to store, retrieve and transmit information Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 15
  16. 16. The New Industrial Revolution The third industrial revolution is about democratizing the tools of creation and distribution. IR 3.0 Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 16
  17. 17. What Is 3D Printing? These programs allows for the creation of digital, geometric representations of products in virtual 3D. This data is then converted into an industry standard file format know as .STL, which captures the data as a series of 2D slices. In this form, the data is sent to an AM machine where the product is built layer by layer according to the 2D cross section at each sequential point, so ‘growing’ a final product within hours. New layers can be added to previous layers in various ways, which has given rise to number of different AM processes or 3D printing technologies, each with their own strengths. What is 3D Printing? Additive Manufacturing (AM) is often to as 3D printing, is a process that builds physical 3D products binding layer upon layer of material, in powder or liquid form, directly from CAD data. How the process works... Typically, Computational Assisted Data (CAD) is generated through traditional design programs (for example, AutoCAD, Rhino, SolidWorks) by professional trained CAD users such as engineers, product designers and architects. ~Source: Digital Forming Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 17
  18. 18. $3.1 Billion Industry By 2016 “Low-cost 3D printers affect both the professional and consumer markets. The increased sale of these machines over the past few years has taken additive manufacturing (AM) mainstream more than any other single development. 3D printers have helped spread the technology and made it more accessible to students, researchers, do-it-yourself enthusiasts, hobbyists, inventors, and entrepreneurs.” ~Source: 2011 Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of revenues produced by all AM products and services in 2010 was 24.1%. The CAGR for the industry's 23-year history is an impressive 26.2%. ~source: Wohler Associates 3D Printing Industry Will Reach $3.1 Billion Worldwide by 2016. March 27, 2012 Terry Wohler sits inside a 3D printed car called the Urbee The Urbee uses electric motors and is capable of 200 mpg when running on an 8 hp ethanol-powered engine, which serves as a backup. The car is expected to reach 70 mph. 18Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  19. 19. Additive Manufacturing: Past Is Prologue? “The parallel with the hobbyist computer movement of the 1970s is striking. In both cases enthusiastic tinkerers, many on America’s West Coast, began playing with new technologies that had huge potential to disrupt business and society. Back then the machines manipulated bits; now the action is in atoms. This has prompted predictions of a new industrial revolution, in which more manufacturing is done by small firms or even by individuals. “The tools of factory production, from electronics assembly to 3D printing, are now available to individuals, in batches as small as a single unit,” writes Chris Anderson, the editor of Wired magazine.” ~source: The Economist More than just digital quilting December 3 2011 Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 19
  20. 20. Noted VC, Fred Wilson, Is Investing In 3D Printing Fred Wilson has been a highly regarded and successful early stage venture capitalist since 1987. Based out of New York, he currently is a managing partner at Union Square Ventures and also founded Flatiron Partners. Fred has a Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering from MIT and an MBA from The Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania. In 2004 Wilson and Brad Burnham founded Union Square Ventures and have since invested in companies such as Twitter, Tumblr, Foursquare, Meetup BugLabs, ,Zynga, Covestor,, Etsy, FeedBurner, Heyz ap,, Tacoda, Oddcast, Disqus, Zemanta, and ClickableCopyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  21. 21. The 3D Printing Market Is Growing 3D Printing Services Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 21
  22. 22. The Growth of Shapeways’ 3D Printing Market • In 2011, Shapeways 3D printed over 750,000 individual products and delivered them to people around the world • Over 238,000 3D models were uploaded to Shapeways in 2011 by our community of over 100,000 members • Shapeways shop owners earned over $270,000 in revenue in 2011 alone, compared to $100,000 from our launch in 2008 through April 2011 • Over 2,500 shops opened in 2011 alone Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 22
  23. 23. 3D Printing Costs 3D printers range from $600 for a small do-it-yourself DIY kits to large industrial machines that may approach a million dollars or more. However the average machine ranges in the $3-4,000 range and prices are expected to reduce over time Project prints range from sub $100 to several thousand dollars depending on the time, materials, quality and complexity . 3D printing is still too expensive for many large scale manufacturing but is ideal for rapid prototyping and manufacturing on demand. $3,920.00 Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 23
  24. 24. Printing A Jet Engine In The Classroom “It whirs like a real jet engine, but this tabletop replica of a Rolls-Royce engine used in UAVs cost the University of Virginia engineering class that built it less than $2000 in materials.” That's thanks to the revolution in 3D printing, which allowed Professor David Sheffler's group to build plastic engine parts to within thousandths of an inch, matching the level of precision that goes into a real jet engine. Not only did 3D printing allow the team to create parts within such tight specifications, but the technique also made this project financially viable for a college class. "If you could get the time and design all this stuff, by my estimate it would cost a quarter-million dollars to fabricate what we did," he says. The class's fabrication costs using 3D printing? Fifteen hundred dollars for the plastic and another $300 for the bearings, nuts, and bolts. By Steve Rousseau June 14, 2011 3:00 PM How to Build a Working Replica Jet Engine With a 3D Printer University of Virginia’s Professor David Sheffler and his working 3D printed turbo fan jet engine Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 24
  25. 25. 3D Printing Revolutionizes Prototyping, Manufacturing, Engineering & Science Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 25
  26. 26. 3D Printing Enables Rapid And Inexpensive Prototyping of Ideas Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 26
  27. 27. 3D Printing Architecture Design 3-D Printing Spurs a Manufacturing Revolution By ASHLEE VANCE Published: September 13, 2010 “A wealth of design software programs, from free applications to the more sophisticated offerings of companies including Alibre and Autodesk allows a person to concoct a product at home, then send the design to a company like Shapeways, which will print it and mail it back.” Charles Overy, founder of LGM, with a model of a resort in Vail, Colo. “We used to take two months to build $100,000 models,” he said, adding that now they cost about $2,000. Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 27
  28. 28. Outsourced Engineering and 3D Printing Global spend for Engineering Services is approximately $750 billion per year, an amount nearly half of India’s entire gross domestic product. Currently only $10-15 billion is currently being offshored, a tiny fraction of the total. A significant component of Engineering Services Outsourcing (ESO) is comprised of CAD / CAM (computer aided manufacturing / design), drafting, testing and R&D which compliment a growing 3D Printing industry. By 2020, the worldwide spend on Engineering Services is projected to exceed $1 trillion, of which $150 to $225 billion is estimated to be offshored. ~Source: Booz Allen Hamilton: Globalization of Engineering Services 28Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs
  29. 29. Bio Printing Dentures Prosthetics Orthopedics Joints Reconstructive Surgeries Tissues Organs Vasculature Trachea Bladders Kidneys With a modified inkjet printing device, military-funded researchers at Wake Forest University's Institute for Regenerative Medicine are "printing" blood-vessel, heart and bone tissue. Bioprinting: A 'printer' that prints 3D tissue structures using human cells. Additive Manufacturing in Medicine Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 29
  30. 30. Maker Movement The maker movement is primarily the name given to the increasing number of people employing do-it-yourself (DIY) and do-it-with-others ( DIWO) techniques and processes to develop unique technology products. Generally, DIY and DIWO enables individuals to create sophisticated devices and gadgets, such as printers, robotics and electronic devices, using diagrammed, textual and or video demonstration. With all the resources now available over the Internet, virtually anyone can create simple devices, which in some cases are widely adopted by users. Technology The DIY 'Maker Movement' Meets the VCs By Alexandra Dean on February 16, 2012 “The maker movement is “as significant as the shift from agriculture to the early industrial era,” says Jeremy Rifkin, a Wharton economist.” Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 30
  31. 31. Private Skunkworks “The maker movement is both a response to and an outgrowth of digital culture, made possible by the convergence of several trends. New tools and electronic components let people integrate the physical and digital worlds simply and cheaply. Online services and design software make it easy to develop and share digital blueprints. And many people who spend all day manipulating bits on computer screens are rediscovering the pleasure of making physical objects and interacting with other enthusiasts in person, rather than online.” Monitor More than just digital quilting Technology and society: The “maker” movement could change how science is taught and boost innovation. It may even herald a new industrial revolution Dec 3rd 2011 Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 31
  32. 32. Autodesk Acquired DIY Community Site, Instructables for $30 Million Autodesk adds DIY site Instructables to its stable By Terrence O'Brien 8/2/2011 “Autodesk has really decided to embrace the DIY community recently. First the company launched 123D, a free design tool for hobbyists, now it's snatched up Instructables, an online repository for everything from quadrocopter plans to bruschetta recipes. Instructables is the most popular project-sharing community on the Internet. Started in August 2005, Instructables provides accessible publishing tools to enable passionate, creative people to share their most innovative projects, recipes, ideas, and hacks. The site is currently home to over 40,000 projects covering all subjects, including crafts, art, electronics, kids, home improvement, pets, outdoors, reuse, bikes, cars, robotics, decorating, woodworking, costuming, and games. Instructables monthly user base has doubled since September 2009 to nearly 9 million. ~Source: Graph Quantcast Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 32
  33. 33. Cambrian Cloud Inflection Points Rise of Citizen Science & a Manufacturing Revolution • Open and Participatory Science • Likely passage of open access bill • Open Access to scholarly research • Open source software • Open Data • Affordable access to professional grade SaaS for heavy computation and computer-based modeling. • Access to knowledge stores and scientific, engineering and mathematical software and emerging collaborative communities blur the line between scholars, professionals, hobbyists, and entrepreneurs. • Additive Manufacturing / 3D Printing • A new Industrial Revolution that changes the economics of niche custom manufacturing, and distribution. • A Rapidly expanding list of potential applications of 3D Printing. Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 33
  34. 34. Conclusion Like the advent of personal computing, when average citizens have affordable access to information and tools within an emergent domain, innovation and economic activity tends to expand exponentially. We believe that “open” Scientific Inquiry and Additive Manufacturing represent such an inflection point. SparkFire Labs will be positioned to take advantage of these and other emerging trends by creating a project-based collaborative ecosystem that supports access to professional grade tools, and manufacturing. Copyright 2012 SparkFire Labs 34