The Life and Times of Higher Education Manchester Thursday 20 October 2011
PresentersMatthew Andrews FAUA Mike Ratcliffe FAUAmandrews@brookes.ac.uk firstname.lastname@example.org
Your QuestionsQuestions from participants: 1. Funding arrangements 2. Institutional groupings 3. Influence of stakeholder groups 4. International students 5. Quality assurance
Programme10.00 - 10.10 Welcome10.10 - 11.40 Introduction to the history of higher education11.40 - 12.00 Break and refreshments12.00 - 1.00 The definition of a university1.00 - 2.00 Lunch2.10 - 3.10 Themes in the history of higher education3.10 - 3.30 Break and refreshments3.30 - 4.00 Contemporary higher education
Introduction to theHistory of Higher Education the first three thousand years in an hour and a half
Why does history matter?A strong organisational saga orlegend as the central ingredientof the distinctive college……the capturing of allegiance …The organisational motifbecomes individual motive,much more than a statement ofpurpose, a cogent theme, adoctrine of administration, or alogical set of ideas… Anorganisational saga turns anorganisation into a community.
King AlfredI shall now proceed to give my readers anaccount of that famous UNIVERSITY, which isequalled by none in Europe, except it be by herSister Oxford; and, even of her, she has theseniority by 265 yearsBut no one will question Cambridge’s being theseat of the learned in the reign of King Alfred,the Solomon of the Saxon-line. And at theNorman invasion, it was become so famous,that the Conqueror committed the instruction ofhis youngest son, afterwards king Henry I, tothe governors of this learned body, whoimproved so much under his Cambridge tutors,that he ever after obtained the additional nameof Beauclerk, or the learned student.
Peck - Academia tertia AnglicanaWas the first University in the world foundedin Stamford in the 9th century BC by adescendant of Aeneas of Ionian Troy?Bladuds University at Stamford, founded in863 BC
Myths, Lies & CommitteesCirc. AM 2855, and 1180,before Christ, Gerion and 12more learned Greeksaccompanied the ConquerorBrutus, into this isle; others,soon after, delighted with arelation of the country came andseated themselves with them, ata place, the most agreeable andconvenient at that time, forstudy, called in their native ormother tongue Greeklade...For a degree, or completion of their studies in divinity, thestudents should complete their lectures full 20 years…
Actual OriginsDevelopment of Universitasand the Studium Generale.Issues of jurisdiction between thepower to grant the licence ubiquedocendi (the right to teach acrossChristendom) and local guildprotections.Colleges are a later invention tosupport students in the higherfaculties.
University FoundationAbout this same time  a certain clerk who was studying in Artsat Oxford slew by chance a certain woman, and, finding that she wasdead, sought safety in flight. But the mayor and many others, comingto the place and finding the dead woman, began to seek the slayer inhis hostel which he had hired with three other clerks gis fellows; andnot finding the guilty man, they took his three fellow-clerks aforesaid,who knew nothing whatsoever of the homicide, and cast them intoprison; and, after a few days, at the kings bidding but in contempt ofall ecclesiastical liberties, these clerks were led out from the city andhanged. Whereupon some three thousand clerks, both masters andscholars, departed from Oxford, so that not one of the wholeUniversity was left; of which scholars some pursued their study of theliberal Arts at Cambridge, and others at Reading, leaving Oxfordutterly empty.Roger of Wendover - Coulton, 1956, p58
University of Stamford 1333-35In the Michaelmas term of a battle-weary group of northernmasters migrated to Stamford. ...As soon as it became obviousthat the secessionist mastershad created a new university andwere attracting students, Oxfordinvoked the aid of the crown toget it suppressed. Supposed Gateway of Brazen Nose Hall
Restrictions on other universities(1) to keep and observe the statutes, priviledges, customs andliberties of the University.(2) You also swear that in the Faculty to which you are nowadmitted Graduate, you shall not solemnly perform yourreadings as in a University anywhere in this Kingdom but herein Oxford or in Cambridge; not shall you take degrees, as in aUniversity, in any Faculty whatsoever, nor shall you consentthat any person who hath taken his degree elsewhere shall beadmitted as a master here in the said faculty, to which he shallbe elsewhere admitted.(3) You shall also swear that you will not read lectures, or hearthem read, at Stamford, as in a University study, or collegegeneral.Parker I, 1914,Dissenting Academies in England, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p66
University of Dublin 1311 John Lech, Archbishop of Dublin obtained a Bull from Clement V establishing: An university of Schools, and more over a general school in every science and lawful faculty, to flourish there for ever, in which masters might freely teach and scholars be auditors in the said faculties
Scotland1413 St. Andrews - war and schism1451 Glasgow - where the air is mild, victuals are plentiful1495 King’s College - northern focus1583 Edinburgh - the first civic founding1593 Marischal College - reformation
A University of London & Henry VIII● Sir Nicholas Bacon was Solicitor to the Court of Augmentations, which had been established to manage Church property passed to the Crown.● He proposed to Henry VIII that a London University should be funded by the proceeds of the dissolution of the monasteries.● The University was intended for the study of law and the training of ambassadors and statesmen.
The C16 "University" of London Writing in 1587 William Harrison described three noble universities in England.
The Third Vniversitie Although no formal institution existed in London as a university there was higher learning (as understood in the seventeenth century). Some argued this constituted a third university, including Sir George Buck in 1615.
University of Dublin 1591Trinity College, Dublin‘A College for learning,whereby knowledge andcivility might be increased bythe instruction of our peoplethere, wherof many haveusually heretofore used totravaile into ffrance, Italy andSpaine to get learning in suchforreigne universities,whereby they have beeninfected with poperie andother ill qualities, and soebecame evill subjects.’
The University of Ripon ● The revenues of Ripon Minster had been in the hands of the Crown since the Dissolution ● On 4 July 1604, the corporation of Ripon sent a petition to Queen Anne, wife of James I, requesting these funds be used for a college "after the manner of a university" for the benefit of the "Borders of England and Scotland" ● An order was issued and provision made... ● ...but nothing happened
Harvard ColledgeAfter God had carried us safe to New England, and wee hadbuilded our houses, provided necessaries for our liveli-hood,rear’d convenient places for Gods worship, and setled the CivillGovernment: One of the next things we longed for, and lookedafter was to advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity:dreading to leave an illiterate Ministery to the Churches, whenour present Ministers shall lie in the Dust.
Attempts during the CommonwealthThe Commonwealth: 1649 to 1660 As we the inhabitants of the northern parts ... have been looked upon as a rude and barbarous people in respect of those parts which, by reason of their vicinity to the universities, have more fully partaken of the light and influence, so we cannot but be importunate in this request. (1652)
Cromwells College in Durham15 May 1657Letters Patent were issued for theestablishment of ‘the Provost, Fellows,and Scholars of the College in Durhamof the Foundation of Oliver, LordProtector of the Commonwealth ofEngland’
Dissenting academies 1662And be it further Eacted by the Authority aforesaid, That every Dean, Canon,and Prebendary of every Cathedral, or Collegiate Church, and all Masters, andother Heads, Fellows, Chaplains, and Tutors of, or in any Colledge, Hall, Houseof Learning, or Hospital, and every Publick Professor, and Reader in either ofthe Universities, and in every Colledge elsewhere, and every Parson, Vicar,Curate, Lecturer, and every other person in holy Orders, and every School-master keeping any publick, or private School, and every person Instructing, orTeaching any Youth in any House or private Family as a Tutor, or School-master, ... subscribe the Declaration or Acknowledgement following,A. B. Do declare that it is not lawful upon any pretence whatsoever to takeArms agains the King; and that I do abhor that Traiterous Position of takingArms by His Authority against His Person, or against those that areCommissionated by him; and that I will conform to the Liturgy of the Church ofEngland, as it is now by Law established. ...
Dissenting AcademiesPhilip Doddridges curriculum at Northampton Academy 1740 First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth Year Logic Trigonometry Natural and Civil Law Civil History Rhetoric Conic Anatomy Mythology & sections Hieroglyphics Geography Celestial Jewish English Mechanics Antiquities History Metaphysics Natural & Divinity History of Experimental Nonconformit philosophy y Geometry Divinity Orations Divinity Algebra Orations Preaching and pastoral care McLaughlan, 1931, p147
The Early Nineteenth CenturyFirm Proposals ● London - 1825 ● York - 1825 ● Leeds - 1826 ● Liverpool - late 1820s? ● Dumfries - 1829-31 ● Newcastle - 1831 ● Durham - 1831 ● Bath - 1839 Queens College, Bath
Proposal for a Metropolitan University Thomas Campbell address an open letter to Henry Brougham, in The Times on 9 February 1825
Competing Interests in 1828 Lectures and Examinations for Kings College Students Sense and Science vs Money and Interest
Durham University ● Established in 1831, Act of Parliament in 1832, admitted students in 1833, received a Charter in 1837. ● Subjects included science, engineering, medicine, law, history, theology and Arts. ● Introduced external examiners to put space between teaching and examining - early quality assurance!
An Era of Federal Universities1836: University of LondonUCL and KCL and supporting Colleges in Exeter,Bristol, Southampton, Leicester, Nottingham, Wales, et al1845: Queen’s University of IrelandBelfast, Cork and Galway1880: Victoria UniversityManchester (Owens College, 1851), Liverpool 1884, Leeds 18871893: University of WalesUniv College Wales (1872, now Aberystwyth University), Univ CollegeNorth Wales (1884, now Bangor University) and Univ CollegeSouth Wales and Monmouthshire (1883, now Cardiff University)
The Sense of a SectorBreak-up of federal systems in England ● Liverpool (1903), Leeds (1904), Victoria Manchester (1904)University Grants Committee (UGC) ● Very little direct Government funding of HE during C19 ● Proposed in 1904 and realised in 1918 ● Became University Funding Council in 1989Committee of Vice-Chancellors & Principals (CVCP) ● More informal meetings had occurred before ● Founded in 1918 ● Included the heads of 22 universities
Post-War Development● UCCA 1961● Robbins Report 1963● CNAA 1964● Hatfield Polytechnic 1967● Open University 1971 ● Colleges of Advanced Technology ● Green Field Universities ● University Grants
Anthony Crosland 1965‘Why should we not aim at … a vocationally orientated non-universitysector which is degree-giving and with appropriate amount ofpostgraduate work with opportunities for learning comparable withthose of the universities, and giving a first class professional training… under state control, directly responsible to social needs’
New Universities University of Stirling opened on Monday 18 September 1967 to 164 undergraduates and 31 postgraduates.
Universities and the 1980sThe government reducedexpenditure on higher educationand the UGC introduced a cap onstudent intakes (1981). The blockgrant was divided into core fundingand a separate element for research(RAE in 1986). Commissioned bythe CVCP, the Jarratt Report(1985) adopted the view that highereducation was a business anddownplayed its social and culturalrole. The controversial reportreflected and accelerated anadoption of business models withinhigher education.
Overseas Students● Robbins considered the subsidy for overseas students as a form of aid.● 1950/1 - 12,500● 1958/9 - 42,100● 1968/9 - 69,819● 1978/9 - 119,559● From 1980/1 international student fees were to cover the full cost of tuition.● University grants were reduced accordingly
1990The student maintenance The CVCP establish thegrant was frozen and future Academic Audit Unit (AAU),increases were instead to be which only existed for twodelivered via a top-up loan; years before being replacedthe Student Loans Company by the Higher Education(SLC) was established to Quality Council (HEQC).administer the scheme.
Mission Groups● Russell Group – 20 members - formed in 1994● 1994 Group – 19 members - formed in 1994● Million Plus – 27 members - formed in 1997● University Alliance – 23 members - formed in 2009
1992 Further and Higher Education Act ● Converted all polytechnics and Scottish Central Institutions into Universities ● Created the funding councils in the devolved administrationsSince 1992 some colleges of HE have become universities, e.g. Edge Hill University (formerly Edge Hill College) andUniversity of Wales, Newport (formerly Gwent College of HE)
The Dearing Report: 1997UK-wide enquiry of the purposes, shape, structure, size andfunding of higher education led by Sir (later Lord) Ron Dearing.The Enquiry found that in the twenty years to 1996: ● the number of students has much more than doubled; ● public funding for higher education has increased in real terms by 45 per cent; ● the unit of funding per student has fallen by 40 per cent; ● public spending on higher education, as a percentage of gross domestic product, has stayed the same.
Dearing on Student FinanceRecommendation 78We recommend ... income contingent terms for the payment ofany contribution towards living costs or tuition costs soughtfrom graduates in work.Recommendation 79We recommend ... a flat rate contribution of around 25 per centof the average cost of higher education tuitionMortgage-style repayments were replaced by income-contingent payments but fees remained means-tested andpayable upfront.
Who won the war of Dearing’s ear?"The treatment of the complexities of the funding question weregenerally well-handled, the options fairly described, and broadlythe correct conclusions were reached. The Government’ssubsequent reaction is hard to understand and difficult tojustify."Was response to Browne any different?
Devolution in the United KingdomTony Blair was elected in 1997 and carried through a manifestopromise to hold devolution referenda.
Scotland take a different road ● The Cubie report (after Sir Andrew Cubie) recommended that tuition fees should be abolished and replaced with a graduate endowment. ● Students were only required to pay back £3,000 worth of fees when their earnings reached £25,000, through taking out a student loan. ● Scrapped altogether in 2007.
The Era of Acronyms and Quangos 1988 - CUC 1990 - SLC 1993 - HESA 1993 - JISC 2004 - HEA 2004 - OIA 2004 - OFFA 2005 - NSS
The Definition of a Universityits not just about Newman
What is a University?● What activities and responsibilities are necessary? ○ teaching and learning? ○ examination and assessment? ○ research? ○ and what discipline(s)?● Does a University have to be able to award degrees? ○ what is a degree anyway? ○ who gives degree-awarding authority?● How big should the institution and does size matter anyway?● To be a University do all of the above need to apply or will some only be sufficient?
Thomas Hobbes: 1651 That which is now called a University is a joining together and an incorporation under one government of many public schools in one and the same town and city. In which the principal schools were ordained for the three professions, that is to say, of the Roman religion, of the Roman law, and of the art of medicine. Leviathan
George Dyer: 1824‘Besides being a generale studium’ being a permanent institution with‘its settled endowments, its public laws, its distinct officers, andestablished magistrates, its regular degrees and privileges, itspermanent Rector or Chancellor; combining, among us, togethervarious smaller Corporations or Colleges in one larger Corporation;and all, - dropping now the Papal claims, - under the sanction of theRoyal authority’.Privileges of the University of Cambridge
Robert Southey: 1829‘There was’, remarked Southey, ‘acurious and threefold impropriety inassuming the title of University for asingle college, which the crown had notcreated, and from which the science ofdivinity was specially excluded! Anyset of men might as well affect toconstitute themselves a corporation inan unchartered town, as these personsto set up a University!’. Indeed, toSouthey, ‘Mr. O’Connell has just asmuch right to institute an Order ofKnighthood, as this Council to erect aUniversity’.Quarterly Review
John Newman: 1852Advocate of liberal education. The role ofthe University is to train a real cultivation ofmind to the benefit of the individual studentand society. However, a University is not aplace for research.The Idea of a University
John Newman ‘A university is according to the usual description, an Alma Mater, knowing her children one by one, not a foundry, or a mint, or a treadmill’ A University training “aims at raising the intellectual tone of society, at cultivating the public mind, at purifying the national taste, at supplying true principles to popular enthusiasm and fixed aims to popular aspirations, at giving enlargement and sobriety to the ideas of the age, at facilitating the exercise of political powers, and refining the intercourse of private life’
Should a University do research? “The word research as a university ideal had, indeed, been ominously spoken in Oxford by that extremely cantankerous person, Mark Pattison, some years ago; but the notion of this ideal, threatening as it did to discredit the whole tutorial and examinational system which was making Oxford into the highest of high schools for boys, was received there with anger and contempt. In Balliol, the birthplace and most illustrious home of this great system, it was regarded with especial scorn.”
Should a University do research?“This ideal of endowment for researchwas particularly shocking to BenjaminJowett, the great inventor of thetutorial system which it threatened. Iremember once, when staying withhim at Malvern, inadvertentlypronouncing the ill-omened word.Research! the Master exclaimed.Research! he said. A mere excusefor idleness; it has never achieved,and will never achieve any results ofthe slightest value.‘”Sutherland, J, 1975, Oxford Book of Literary Anecdotes,London, Oxford University Press, p273
John Stuart Mill: 1867 A university ‘is not a place of professional education’. Universities are ‘not intended to teach the knowledge required to fit men for some special mode of gaining their livelihood. Their object is not to make skilful lawyers, or physicians, or engineers, but capable and cultivated human beings’.
The useful university: Wisconsin It has bred pedigree strains of barley, oats and wheat, The Babcock fat test is used all over the world. The which have increased the grain crop of the state millions moisture test for butter, the Wisconsin curd test, the of dollars. These varieties won the worlds championship, Farrington acid test and the Hart casein test are the 1910-1911, at the national corn show. other great improvements which have been worked out. It has produced a kind of corn which can be grown in the New methods of making cheese, utilizing butter, have northern part of the state. been worked out. It has produced grasses and legumes which formerly The round wood silo was first used by this station. could not be bred in the state. A new system of ventilation for stables now universally It has made extensive investigations in the sugar beets used was worked out here. Even new methods of in relation to the development of that industry in the blasting and pulling stumps have been discovered. state. The agricultural department has demonstrations all over It has found remedies for noxious weeds. the state; grain growing contests, pedigree high grade It has maintained trial orchards in the northern part of the seed contests are started and directed. state, so that where formerly very little fruit existed, now The fight against tuberculosis in cattle by demonstration all kinds of fruit are growing. has been kept up vigorously. It has discovered new methods of managing marsh soils. Fertilizers and feeding stuffs have been inspected and It has worked out new methods of cranberry culture, analyzed. increasing the product of cranberries from one to ten A system of stallion registration has already reduced the barrels per acre to seventy to eighty barrels per acre. percentage of grade stallions over 15 per cent in the It has worked out scientific rations for cattle. Five of the state. six tests now everywhere used in dairying were Plans have been made to reclaim 116,000 acres by discovered by this department. drainage surveyage within the next five years
H G Wells: 1926A University stands not for material but for mentalinterests. It should function as the brain of a socialbody. Its business is with ideas. It maintains anddevelops the idea of the human community through itsthinkers and investigators, its teachers whose businessit is to weave and sustain the network of ideas thatholds human society together in willing and intelligentco-operation, its doctors who attend to its physicalhealth and well-being, its lawyers who work out theendless problems of human interaction.Wells, H G., 1926, ‘Introduction’, in Humberstone, T L, 1926, UniversityReform in London, London, George Allen & Unwin
John Brookes: 1954 ‘A goal of all formal education should be to graduate students to lead lives of consequence. ● Education for livelihood ● Apprenticeship
A University System: Robbins In our submission there are at least four objectives essential to any properly balanced system. We begin with instruction in skills suitable to play a part in the general division of labour. We put this first, not because we regard it as the most important, but because we think that it is sometimes ignored or undervalued… But, secondly, while emphasising that there is no betrayal of values when institutions of higher education teach what will be of some practical use, we must postulate that what is taught should be taught in such a way to promote the general powers of the mind. The aim should be to produce not mere specialists but rather cultivated men and women…
A University System: Robbins Thirdly, we must name the advancement of learning… the search for truth is an essential function of institutions of higher education and the process of education is itself most vital when it partakes of the nature of discovery… Finally there is a function that is more difficult to describe concisely, but that is none the less fundamental: the transmission of a common culture and common standards of citizenship. Institutions of higher education vary both in their functions and in the way they discharge them. … Our contention is that, although the extent to which each principle is realised in the various types of institution will vary, yet, ideally there is room for at least a speck of each in all. The system as a whole must be judged deficient unless it provides adequately for all of them.
Maskell & Robinson: 2001 Liberal education in England may survive in the twenty-first century, not very conspicuously, at two universities. In Wales (which we know) liberal education has no prospects, and we are not optimistic about its chances in Scotland or Ireland. We think this matters. The New Idea of a University
The Idea of the UniversityDiscussing why students had been effective in disrupting policymaking in the student disturbances in the 1960s, John Searle noted:Most faculty members really have no underlying theory of theuniversity or philosophy of higher education to offer as an alternative… Bthey have no overall vision of the University or of higher education… ifone were to ask of them how their [specialized] thing was supposed tofit into any broad educational scheme, what broad humanistic goals itwas supposed to serve, and how those goals related to the goals ofthe Institute, and even what were the goals of the Institute, most ofthem would be stumped for an answer. They simply never give thesematters a thought.
Dearings Purposes The four main purposes of higher education are: to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life, so that they grow intellectually, are well equipped for work, can contribute effectively to society and achieve personal fulfilment; to increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and to foster their application to the benefit of the economy and society; to serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge-based economy at local, regional and national levels; to play a major role in shaping a democratic, civilised, inclusive society.
Themes in the History of Higher Educationthe students have always been revolting
In this section1. Your institutions2. Gender3. Student Life
Freiburg StatutesOf the prohibition toassociate with women withinthe House of WisdomNo women shall be allowedto visit our House. A scholarwho does not observe thisrule shall be deprived of thebenefits of the House for amonth, unless such a womanbe engaged as night-nurseduring severe illness or bethe washerwoman of thescholar in question
Alfred Tennyson 1847... O I wishThat I were some great princess, I would buildFar off from men a college like a mans,And I would teach them all that men are taught;We are twice as quick! ...
Queens College Bedford CollegeF D Maurice Elisabeth J ReidOn Monday 1 May , the Ladies College, Bedfordfirst pupil arrived... she sat Square October 1849.there debating whether or notto take off her bonnet; when The want of success of ourthe next student arrived they College is very discouragingdiscussed it together... Their and would be dreadful indeedbonnets came off. A little could the past be conceivednervously, yet excited by their as a fair trial of the scheme.new adventure, they soonwalked up the elegantstaircase to the lecture room.
Vassar College 1861It occurred to me, that woman, having received from herCreator the same intellectual constitution as man, has thesame right as man to intellectual culture and development- Matthew Vassar
Emily Davies 1866‘Among the most necessary and the most easily andimmediately applicable, is the extension to women of suchexaminations as demand a high standard of attainment. Thetest of a searching examination is indispensable as a guaranteefor the qualifications of teachers; it is wanted as a stimulus byyoung women studying with no immediate object in view, andno incentive to exertion other than the high, but dim and distant,purpose of self-culture.
Women at Cambridge: GirtonIn 1866 Miss Emily Davies and others interested in the highereducation of women initiated a scheme for founding by publicsubscription a college for women designed to hold, in relation togirls’ schools and home teaching, a position analogous to thatoccupied by the Universities towards the public schools forboys. On 16 October 1869, the College was opened at BenslowHouse, Hitchin, under the name of the College for Women. In1872 the present site was purchased, and the College wasrenamed Girton college: the removal to the new buildings tookplace in October 1873.For reasons of Victorian respectability, the College was locatedtwo miles north of the town centre to discourage maraudingmale undergraduates!
Royal HollowayFoundationDeed drawson Vassarsvision.Hollowaysown mix ofviewsincludes:all sectarian influences should be carefully excluded;but the training of our students should never beentrusted to the skeptical, the irreligious or the immoral
Separate provision - KingsLadies Department Household Management 1916Womens Department The Brides CourseKings College for Women the course was designed toQueen Elizabeth College awaken in students "an intelligentKings College interest in, and knowledge of, matters of importance in domestic and public life" and to "prepare themselves for the efficient management of their own homes" (Marsh, 1986, p98)
Girls Own Paper 1882University Hoods and The special form of vanity which displays itself in a fondness for adornment has generally beenhow to make them considered to prevail exclusively in these days among the weaker sex, and to be one of those points of weakness which have earned for the whole sisterhood that contempt-tinged classification. Yet when we note the more than gratified pride with which our husbands and brothers don these bright and distinctive badges of their well-won honours, we are tempted to that behind the just and praiseworthy consciousness of having achieved a difficult success there lies a certain amount of pleasure in the bright colouring or silken sheen of the precious ornament it has pleased the University to bestow upon its meritorious sons.
Women at Cambridge‘They provide … a published list …shewing the place in order ofstanding and merit which suchstudents would have occupied if theyhad been men. But they do notpermit the University to actuallyconfer upon women the time-honoured degree of BA or MA, andthey do not admit them to thestanding of Members of theUniversity’Fitch, J, 1900, Educational Aims and Methods,Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p400
Women at Oxford - reactionMake me dictator of Oxford for a day and I could bring aboutthe change between sunrise and sunset. At the head of theOld Guard - the Greats men, the Modern Greats men, theHistorians, the Lawyers, and the English students, I shouldadvance upon the Parks. The flames from the laboratorieswould be watched by awe-struck villagers on Hinskey Hill until,of those temples of commercial culture, not one stone was leftupon another. Thence our familiar steps would turnnorthwards. The affrighted amazons of Lady Margaret Hallwould outstrip their sisters of St Hughs in their race for thesanctuary of the Up platform of the Great Western Station.Diplock, 1929, pp92-93
The Student University 1088The first Universitas – guild – was of students in BolognaFew rules for students themselves, but… ● The doctors were compelled, under pain of a ban which would have deprived them of pupils and income, to swear obedience to the students’ rector, and to obey any other regulations which the universities might think fit to impose on them – ● A professor requiring leave of absence even for a single day was compelled to obtain it first from his own pupils… ● The professor was obliged to begin his lecture when the bells of S. Peter’s began to ring for mass, under a penalty of 20 solidi for each offence … while he is forbidden to continue his lecture one minute after the bell has begun to ring for tierce.
Freiburg StatutesThe President shall show a newcomer to hisroom. He shall also require the candidate thusselected to make up a list of the furnishingswithin that room, so that when he takes hisdeparture he may be made accountable for them.So that the distribution of rooms causes neitherdissension nor envy, we do decree that thosescholars that are to be considered first whopromise to be most worthy. All are to lie down tosleep in a common dormitory, and nowhere else,although here accommodated in differentcubicles. Here they shall observe completesilence whenever it is time for either study orrepose. Each room shall be cleaned once aweek by the occupant.
Freiburg StatutesUt vnusquisque domum sapience inhabitansmane de lecto surgat ad studuim congruotemporeEach scholar shall rise at the fifth hour of the dayin summer and at the sixth hour in the winter, inorder to apply himself to his studies...De Lectorum preparacioneIt is our wish that each scholar shall make hisown bed immediately after he has risen in themorning. Failure to comply as a result of laziness,when noticed during the weekly inspection andreported to the President, shall be punished bythe removal of wine, but if this should happenfrequently, then the scholar in question shall bedeprived of his bed...
Freiburg StatutesDe discordia seminantibusDisturbers of the peace shall be expelled fromour house. The same penalty awaitsblasphemers who have to be admonished for asecond time.De non ferendis armisIt is our wish that our pupils should carry noarms. He who disregards this ruling shall beexpelled from our house. A newcomer shalldeliver his arms immediately into the hands of thePresident. Should he need to journey outside thetown, he may be given back his arms but thesemust be handed in again to the Presidentimmediately on his return.
Freiburg StatutesNe cantilene lasciue vel mundane siue impudicaproferantur verbaOur House shall be kept free of very loose,frivolous and obscene song; of blasphemy and ofall kinds of boasting.Hij ludi prohibenturDice, cards, and sticks for casting lots and allgames of chance are forbidden. Disregard of thisrule shall be punished with the loss of wine for aweek. Chess, however, is allowed.
Durham University Regulations: 183311. All play with Dice and Cards, and generally all Betting andGambling are strictly prohibited.12. Students must not hire any Room or House in the Town,nor frequent Inns, Public-Houses, Cooks’ or Confectioners’Shops.13. It is forbidden to Students to go to the neighbouring Towns,(as Sunderland, Newcastle &c.) or to hire Horses, Gigs,Chaises, or other Vehicles, without reasonable cause assigned,and notice given to the Censor, either verbally or by entrybeforehand in the Butler’s Book
Nineteenth Century Student Life At the wine parties also that he attended he became rather greater adept at cards than he had formerly been.
Nineteenth Century Student Life ...finding the streamers of his gown had been put to a use never intended for them.
The Daily Mail: 1 January 2011 Pass the sick bag: The antics of these Imperial College medical students should worry us all Here, we would like to assume, the next generation of brilliant British scientists and technologists is being groomed for great things... the buckets were made available on the orders of the student union. We recognise that there is a good chance of people vomiting on a Wednesday night and so provide orange buckets for this purpose.’
The Daily Mail: 2 May 2011 Stripping, vomiting and fighting: Shame of Cambridge students after drunken Bank Holiday party in park ruins family picnics. Visitors to Jesus Green, including many with children, were subjected to views of students fighting, stripping off, vomiting and urinating in bushes and flower beds.
The Times: 24 December 1828Students are generally ‘inconsiderate, rude andmischievous’. If the building goes ahead, the correspondentopined, its presence would be ‘far more turbulent, and vastlymore mischievous, than the bears, the kangaroos, the wolves,and the tiger-cat in the adjacent menagerie’.
Serious Student Misbehaviour We collected stories of physical attacks, stalking, verbal abuse and sexual harassment by students.
Living Together, Working Together In response to increasing concerns amongst residents in some areas that the growing number of students living in the private rented sector has resulted in more rubbish and litter, noise, antisocial behaviour, poor housing quality and feelings of a ‘loss of community and neighbourhood’. UUK, GuildHE and the NUS are committed to developing partnerships to tackle problems and the perception of problems. June 2010
Student LifeYouth cannot know how age thinks and feels. But old men areguilty if they forget what it was to be young.Albus DumbledoreHarry Potter and the Orderof the Phoenix, 2003
Contemporary Higher Educationthe relevance of historic precedences to policy making and administration
Linking HE and SchoolsUniversity of London Oxford Brookes University
Capacity in Higher EducationIf one of the highest and most The government is alsoimperative of our national seeking to expand studentneeds is to be adequately numbers without extra cost tomet, a carefully considered the taxpayer, and hasand prudently carried-out considered a controversialincrease in the number of proposal to let students payEnglish universities is for extra "off-quota" placesexpedient and indeed that would not be funded bynecessary. the state.A.W.Ward The GuardianNovember 1878 June 2011
Student Grants and FeesFollowing on from the Lord Browne wanted torecommendations of the introduce a system of funding forAnderson Report (1960) new higher education which wouldstudent financial arrangements last beyond only a few years.were introduced by the 1962 How long do systems tend toEducation Act: all fees were now last?paid by LEAs and studentsreceived a maintenance grant. 20111960
Accelerated DegreesIt brought more men up, it is Two-year degrees have beentrue; but Durham got the shown to appeal particularlydiscredit of being an to mature students,institution which gave people from ethnic minoritiesdegrees on easier terms than and employers with skillsany other university. shortages.Whiting on 1862 BIS Technical Consultation,Royal Commission 2011
Institutional SizeYear: Oxford - Cambridge Do you agree with our proposal to reduce the1580: 445 - 465 numbers criterion for1680: 321 - 294 university title to 1,000 FTE1780: 254 - 171 HE students of which at1880: 766 - 927 least 750 are studying for a degree alongside a requirement that more than 50% FTE of an organisation’s overall student body is studying HE? BIS Technical Consultation, 2011
The lasting appeal of "prestige"When the point had been duly settled, that Mr. Verdant Greenwas to receive a university education, the next question to bedecided was, to which of the three Universities should hego? To Oxford, Cambridge, or Durham? But this was a matterwhich was soon determined upon. Mr. Green at once put asideDurham, on account of its infancy, and its wanting the prestigethat attaches to the names of the two greatUniversities. Cambridge was treated quite as summarily,because Mr. Green had conceived the notion that nothing butmathematics were ever thought or talked of there.
Recognition of new universitiesTo an Englishman, a university ‘The … Englishman … [is]is something very old, very aghast at our newness, ourvenerable, very picturesque, inconspicuousness, our uglyvery large, very select, very mundane surroundings, ourdetached, and, of course, very incompleteness in range oflearned. Those who have had studies, our poverty in theto fight the cause of the new number of learned men, ouruniversities have found poverty in halls of residence,themselves between the upper our strange new studiesand nether millstones which about leather, dyeing, andbound this conception of a brewing.’university.’