The Life and Times of Higher Education Birmingham Wednesday 17 October 2012 Matthew Andrews
Introduction to the History of Higher Educationthe first three thousand years
The Oldest University in the UK?
King AlfredI shall now proceed to give my readers an account of thatfamous UNIVERSITY, which is equalled by nonein Europe, except it be by her Sister Oxford; and, evenof her, she has the seniority by 265 yearsBut no one will question Cambridge’s being the seat ofthe learned in the reign of King Alfred, the Solomon of theSaxon-line. And at the Norman invasion, it was becomeso famous, that the Conqueror committed the instructionof his youngest son, afterwards king Henry I, to thegovernors of this learned body, who improved so muchunder his Cambridge tutors, that he ever after obtainedthe additional name of Beauclerk, or the learned student.
Ancient StamfordWas the first University in the world founded inStamford in the 9th century BC by a descendant ofAeneas of Ionian Troy?Bladuds University at Stamford, founded in 863 BC
Actual OriginsDevelopment of Universitas and theStudium Generale.Issues of jurisdiction between the powerto grant the licence ubique docendi (theright to teach across Christendom) andlocal guild protections.Colleges are a later invention to supportstudents in the higher faculties.
University of Stamford 1333-35In the Michaelmas term of  abattle-weary group of northern mastersmigrated to Stamford. ...As soon as it became obvious that thesecessionist masters had created anew university and were attractingstudents, Oxford invoked the aid of thecrown to get it suppressed. Supposed Gateway of Brazen Nose Hall
Restricted Development(1) to keep and observe the statutes, privileges, customs and liberties of theUniversity.(2) You also swear that in the Faculty to which you are now admitted Graduate, youshall not solemnly perform your readings as in a University anywhere in thisKingdom but here in Oxford or in Cambridge; nor shall you take degrees, as in aUniversity, in any Faculty whatsoever, nor shall you consent that any person whohath taken his degree elsewhere shall be admitted as a master here in the saidfaculty, to which he shall be elsewhere admitted.(3) You shall also swear that you will not read lectures, or hear them read, atStamford, as in a University study, or college general.
University of Dublin 1311 John Lech, Archbishop of Dublin obtained a Bull from Clement V establishing: An university of Schools, and more over a general school in every science and lawful faculty, to flourish there for ever, in which masters might freely teach and scholars be auditors in the said faculties
Scotland: A different story1413 St. Andrews - war and schism1451 Glasgow - where the air is mild, victuals are plentiful1495 King’s College - northern focus1583 Edinburgh - the first civic founding1593 Marischal College - reformation
London University & Henry VIII• Sir Nicholas Bacon was Solicitor to the Court of Augmentations, which had been established to manage Church property passed to the Crown.• He proposed to Henry VIII that a London University should be funded by the proceeds of the dissolution of the monasteries.• The University was intended for the study of law and the training of ambassadors and statesmen.
The C16 "University" of London Writing in 1587 William Harrison described three noble universities in England.
The Third Vniversitie Although no formal institution existed in London as a university there was higher learning (as understood in the seventeenth century). Some argued this constituted a third university, including Sir George Buck in 1615.
University of Dublin 1591Trinity College, Dublin‘A College for learning, wherebyknowledge and civility might beincreased by the instruction of ourpeople there, wherof many haveusually heretofore used to travaile intoffrance, Italy and Spaine to get learningin such forreigne universities, wherebythey have been infected with poperieand other ill qualities, and soe becameevill subjects.’
The University of Ripon• The revenues of Ripon Minster had been in the hands of the Crown since the Dissolution• On 4 July 1604, the corporation of Ripon sent a petition to Queen Anne, wife of James I, requesting these funds be used for a college "after the manner of a university" for the benefit of the "Borders of England and Scotland"• An order was issued and provision made...• ...but nothing happened
The CommonwealthThe Commonwealth: 1649 to 1660 As we the inhabitants of the northern parts ... have been looked upon as a rude and barbarous people in respect of those parts which, by reason of their vicinity to the universities, have more fully partaken of the light and influence, so we cannot but be importunate in this request. (1652)
Cromwells College in Durham15 May 1657Letters Patent were issued for theestablishment of ‘the Provost, Fellows, andScholars of the College in Durham of theFoundation of Oliver, Lord Protector of theCommonwealth of England’
Dissenting AcademiesPhilip Doddridges curriculum at Northampton Academy 1740First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth YearLogic Trigonometry Natural and Civil Law Civil HistoryRhetoric Conic sections Anatomy Mythology & HieroglyphicsGeography Celestial Jewish English History Mechanics AntiquitiesMetaphysics Natural & Divinity History of Experimental Nonconformity philosophyGeometry Divinity Orations DivinityAlgebra Orations Preaching and pastoral care
The Early Nineteenth CenturyFirm Proposals • London - 1825 • York - 1825 • Leeds - 1826 • Liverpool - late 1820s? • Dumfries - 1829-31 • Newcastle - 1831 • Durham - 1831 • Bath - 1839 Queens College, Bath
St Davids College, Lampeter
Proposed Metropolitan University Thomas Campbell address an open letter to Henry Brougham, in The Times on 9 February 1825
Competing Interests in 1828 Lectures and Examinations for Kings College Students Sense and Science vs Money and Interest
Durham University • Established in 1831, Act of Parliament in 1832, admitted students in 1833, received a Charter in 1837. • Subjects included science, engineering, medicine, law, history, theology and Arts. • Introduced external examiners to put space between teaching and examining - early quality assurance!
An Era of Federal Universities1836: University of LondonUCL and KCL and supporting Colleges in Exeter, Bristol, Southampton, Leicester,Nottingham, Wales, et al1845: Queen’s University of IrelandBelfast, Cork and Galway1880: Victoria UniversityManchester (Owens College, 1851), Liverpool 1884, Leeds 18871893: University of WalesUniv College Wales (1872, now Aberystwyth University), Univ College North Wales(1884, now Bangor University) and Univ CollegeSouth Wales and Monmouthshire (1883, now Cardiff University)
The Sense of a SectorBreak-up of federal systems in England •Liverpool (1903), Leeds (1904), Victoria Manchester (1904)University Grants Committee (UGC) •Very little direct Government funding of HE during C19 •Proposed in 1904 and realised in 1918 •Became University Funding Council in 1989Committee of Vice-Chancellors & Principals (CVCP) • More informal meetings had occurred before • Founded in 1918 • Included the heads of 22 universities
Post-War Development• UCCA 1961• Robbins Report 1963• CNAA 1964• Hatfield Polytechnic 1967• Open University 1971 • Colleges of Advanced Technology • Green Field Universities • University Grants
Anthony Crosland 1965‘Why should we not aim at … a vocationally orientated non-university sector which isdegree-giving and with appropriate amount of postgraduate work with opportunitiesfor learning comparable with those of the universities, and giving a first classprofessional training … under state control, directly responsible to social needs’
New Universities University of Stirling opened on Monday 18 September 1967 to 164 undergraduates and 31 postgraduates.
Universities and the 1980sThe government reduced expenditureon higher education and the UGCintroduced a cap on student intakes(1981). The block grant was dividedinto core funding and a separateelement for research (RAE in 1986).Commissioned by the CVCP, theJarratt Report (1985) adopted theview that higher education was abusiness and downplayed its socialand cultural role. The controversialreport reflected and accelerated anadoption of business models withinhigher education.
Overseas Students• Robbins considered the subsidy for overseas students as a form of aid.• 1950/1 - 12,500• 1958/9 - 42,100• 1968/9 - 69,819• 1978/9 - 119,559• From 1980/1 international student fees were to cover the full cost of tuition.• University grants were reduced accordingly
1990The student maintenance grant was The CVCP establish the Academicfrozen and future increases were Audit Unit (AAU), which only existed forinstead to be delivered via a top-up two years before being replaced by theloan; the Student Loans Company Higher Education Quality Council(SLC) was established to administer (HEQC).the scheme.
Mission Groups• Russell Group – 24 members - formed in 1994• 1994 Group – 15 members - formed in 1994• Million Plus – 27 members - formed in 1997• University Alliance – 23 members - formed in 2009
Further and Higher Education Act • 1992 and all that • Converted all polytechnics and Scottish Central Institutions into Universities • Created the funding councils in the devolved administrationsSince 1992 some colleges of HE have become universities, e.g. Edge Hill University(formerly Edge Hill College) and University of Wales, Newport (formerly GwentCollege of HE)
The Dearing Report: 1997UK-wide enquiry of the purposes, shape, structure, size and funding of highereducation led by Sir (later Lord) Ron Dearing. The Enquiry found that in the twentyyears to 1996: • the number of students has much more than doubled; • public funding for higher education has increased in real terms by 45 per cent; • the unit of funding per student has fallen by 40 per cent; • public spending on higher education, as a percentage of gross domestic product, has stayed the same.
Dearing on Student FinanceRecommendation 78We recommend ... income contingent terms for the payment of any contributiontowards living costs or tuition costs sought from graduates in work.Recommendation 79We recommend ... a flat rate contribution of around 25 per cent of the average costof higher education tuitionMortgage-style repayments were replaced by income-contingent payments butfees remained means-tested and payable upfront.
Who won the war of Dearing’s ear?"The treatment of the complexities of the funding question were generally well-handled, the options fairly described, and broadly the correct conclusions werereached. The Government’s subsequent reaction is hard to understand and difficultto justify."Was response to Browne any different?
Devolution in the United KingdomTony Blair was elected in 1997 and carried through a manifesto promise to holddevolution referenda.
Scotland take a different road• The Cubie report (after Sir Andrew Cubie) recommended that tuition fees should be abolished and replaced with a graduate endowment.• Students were only required to pay back £3,000 worth of fees when their earnings reached £25,000, through taking out a student loan.• Scrapped altogether in 2007.
The Era of Acronyms and Quangos 1988 - CUC 1990 - SLC 1993 - HESA 1993 - JISC 2004 - HEA 2004 - OIA 2004 - OFFA 2005 - NSS
Students in the History of Higher Educationthe students have always been revolting
The Student University 1088The first Universitas – guild – was of students in BolognaFew rules for students themselves, but… • The doctors were compelled, under pain of a ban which would have deprived them of pupils and income, to swear obedience to the students’ rector, and to obey any other regulations which the universities might think fit to impose on them – • A professor requiring leave of absence even for a single day was compelled to obtain it first from his own pupils… • The professor was obliged to begin his lecture when the bells of S.Peter’s began to ring for mass, under a penalty of 20 solidi for each offence … while he is forbidden to continue his lecture one minute after the bell has begun to ring for tierce.
Nineteenth Century Student Life At the wine parties also that he attended he became rather greater adept at cards than he had formerly been.
Nineteenth Century Student Life ...finding the streamers of his gown had been put to a use never intended for them.
Social Life at Lancaster University
The Daily Mail: 1 January 2011 Pass the sick bag: The antics of these Imperial College medical students should worry us all Here, we would like to assume, the next generation of brilliant British scientists and technologists is being groomed for great things... the buckets were made available on the orders of the student union. We recognise that there is a good chance of people vomiting on a Wednesday night and so provide orange buckets for this purpose.’
The Daily Mail: 2 May 2011 Stripping, vomiting and fighting: Shame of Cambridge students after drunken Bank Holiday party in park ruins family picnics. Visitors to Jesus Green, including many with children, were subjected to views of students fighting, stripping off, vomiting and urinating in bushes and flower beds.
Cambridge MoralsOne great cause of the acknowledged laxity prevailing in that University is thesystem permitting the undergraduates to lodge in the town during their whole course,whereby, of course, very little true supervision can be kept up. ... I myself can supplyinstances of gross violation of the Seventh Commandment, which were committeeby out-college men during my own term of residence.The Guardian, 23 February 1859
The Times: 24 December 1828Students are generally ‘inconsiderate, rude and mischievous’. If the building goesahead, the correspondent opined, its presence would be ‘far more turbulent, andvastly more mischievous, than the bears, the kangaroos, the wolves, and the tiger-cat in the adjacent menagerie’.
Serious Student Misbehaviour We collected stories of physical attacks, stalking, verbal abuse and sexual harassment by students.
Living Together, Working Together In response to increasing concerns amongst residents in some areas that the growing number of students living in the private rented sector has resulted in more rubbish and litter, noise, antisocial behaviour, poor housing quality and feelings of a ‘loss of community and neighbourhood’. UUK, GuildHE and the NUS are committed to developing partnerships to tackle problems and the perception of problems. June 2010
Contemporary Higher Educationthe relevance of historic precedences to policy making and administration
Linking HE and SchoolsUniversity of London Oxford Brookes University
Capacity in Higher EducationIf one of the highest and most The government is also seeking toimperative of our national needs is to expand student numbers without extrabe adequately met, a carefully cost to the taxpayer, and hasconsidered and prudently carried-out considered a controversial proposal toincrease in the number of English let students pay for extra "off-quota"universities is expedient and indeed places that would not be funded by thenecessary. state.A.W.Ward The GuardianNovember 1878 June 2011
Accelerated DegreesIt brought more men up, it is true; but Two-year degrees have been shown toDurham got the discredit of being an appeal particularly to mature students,institution which gave degrees on people from ethnic minorities andeasier terms than any other university. employers with skills shortages.Whiting on 1862 Royal Commission BIS Technical Consultation, 2011
Institutional SizeYear: Oxford - Cambridge Do you agree with our proposal to reduce the numbers criterion for1580: 445 - 465 university title to 1,000 FTE HE1680: 321 - 294 students of which at least 750 are1780: 254 - 171 studying for a degree alongside a1880: 766 - 927 requirement that more than 50% FTE of an organisation’s overall student body is studying HE? BIS Technical Consultation, 2011
The lasting appeal of "prestige"When the point had been duly settled, that Mr. Verdant Green was to receive auniversity education, the next question to be decided was, to which of the threeUniversities should he go? To Oxford, Cambridge, or Durham? But this was amatter which was soon determined upon. Mr. Green at once put aside Durham, onaccount of its infancy, and its wanting the prestige that attaches to the names of thetwo great Universities. Cambridge was treated quite as summarily, because Mr.Green had conceived the notion that nothing but mathematics were ever thought ortalked of there.NB London was not even mentioned!
The Life and Times of Higher Education Birmingham Wednesday 17 October 2012 Matthew Andrews