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Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies  By Paul J. Turek MD, FACS, FRSM Director, The Turek Clinic, San Francisco (WARNING: Images in slides not appropriate for all audiences due to subject matter)
 

Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies By Paul J. Turek MD, FACS, FRSM Director, The Turek Clinic, San Francisco (WARNING: Images in slides not appropriate for all audiences due to subject matter)

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Urologist and male fertility doctor for vasectomy and vasectomy reversal, sperm retrieval, testicular mapping, varicocele repair and ejaculatory duct repair, Dr. Paul Turek, speaks about Fertility ...

Urologist and male fertility doctor for vasectomy and vasectomy reversal, sperm retrieval, testicular mapping, varicocele repair and ejaculatory duct repair, Dr. Paul Turek, speaks about Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies. Dr. Turek is director of The Turek Clinic. Located in San Francisco, California, The Turek Clinic provides world-class patient care with an essential holistic approach. (WARNING: Images in slides not appropriate for all audiences due to subject matter.)

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    Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies  By Paul J. Turek MD, FACS, FRSM Director, The Turek Clinic, San Francisco (WARNING: Images in slides not appropriate for all audiences due to subject matter) Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies By Paul J. Turek MD, FACS, FRSM Director, The Turek Clinic, San Francisco (WARNING: Images in slides not appropriate for all audiences due to subject matter) Presentation Transcript

    • Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies Paul J. Turek MD, FACS, FRSM Director, The Turek Clinic San Francisco
    • Preservation Sperm banking Sperm harvest; electroejaculation Finding sperm during treatment Finding sperm after treatment Hormonal suppression Restoration Germ cell transplants Germ cell maturation in vitro Stem cell to germ cell maturation Techniques to Preserve or Restore Fertility
    • Cryopreservation of Sperm
      • The Recipe
      • Place sperm in 1 mL ampules with egg yolk, citrate, glycerol and antibiotics
      • Bring down to -196 0 C without stirring
      • Thaw at room temperature
    • History of Sperm Cryopreservation
      • 1776 Italian priest and physiologist, Spallanzini
        • noted sperm left in snow were motile after thaw.
      • 1940’s Cattlebreeders refine bull semen banking.
      • 1953 First human birth after sperm banking.
      • 1992 Gulf war soldiers encouraged to bank sperm.
      • Current: 50% recovery of motility after thaw.
      Issues: Not covered by insurance (not “medically necessary”) Health care utilization (patient, provider) is low. Freezing technology is virtually unchanged since the 1950’s
    • Sperm Banking with Cancer: Patient and Provider Attitudes PROVIDERS Survey of 718 oncology staff Two tertiary cancer centers 91% believed banking should be offered 52% actually offered it to patients Reasons: high cost, convenience PATIENTS 904 men with cancer Two tertiary cancer centers 51% wanted future fertility 60% recall being informed 24% banked sperm Reasons: Lack of information Serious room for improvement: Practice standards? Team medicine? Schover et al. J Clin Oncol. 20:1880, 2002 Schover et al. J Clin Oncol. 20:1890, 2002
      • Multidisciplinary programs.
      • UCSF : Sperm banking for underage teenagers from low- income families free for 5 years.
      • Northwestern : Involves 12 medical and legal departments. Excellent social media/internet presence. Grant funded.
      • LiveStrong/LAF : Preservation Options and risk calculators on line. Legendary champion.
      • - Superb ways to increases overall awareness among providers and patients
    • Preservation Sperm banking Sperm harvest; electroejaculation Finding sperm during treatment Finding sperm after treatment Hormonal suppression Restoration Germ cell transplants Germ cell maturation in vitro Stem cell to germ cell maturation Techniques to Preserve or Restore Fertility
    • The Seager Electroejaculator
    • (n=44 couples @UCSF) Issues: Currently a limited/limiting resource Couples pregnant 64% Vib Stim only 14% Couples with ICSI 59% Preg. without tech. 10%
    •  
    • Preservation Sperm banking Sperm harvest; electroejaculation Finding sperm during treatment Finding sperm after treatment Hormonal suppression Restoration Germ cell transplants Germ cell maturation in vitro Stem cell to germ cell maturation Techniques to Preserve or Restore Fertility
    • Banking Sperm Before Radical Orchiectomy Banking Sperm During Radical Orchiectomy Not Doing Radical Orchiectomy…. Other Ways to “Bank….”
    • “ Smarter” Radical Surgery -Partial Orchiectomy
    • Finding Sperm after Cancer Treatment Microdissection FNA Mapping
    • How is FNA Mapping Different from Microdissection? Office FNA Map Office FNA Map Sperm Found? Yes Yes No No IVF/ICSI "Directed" TESE IVF/ICSI "Directed" TESE Donor Sperm Adoption Donor Sperm Adoption FNA Mapping Microdissection TESE in OR Sperm Found? IVF/ICSI Yes No Donor Sperm Adoption +/- Pregn Microdissection
    • Where is FNA Mapping Today? FNA Sites/Testicle Sperm Detection Rate Beliveau and Turek. Asian J Androl 13; 225, 2011
    • Damani et al. JCO 15: 930, 2002 Chan et al. Cancer 92: 1632, 2001 Chemotherapy and Fertility: Finding Sperm after Treatment 17 23 #Pts % With Sperm 9/20 (45%) 15/23 (65%) No birth defects…yet Zorn et al. Int J Androl 29: 521, 2006 13 58% Hsiao et al. JCO 29: 1607, 2011 73 27/73 (37%)
    • The Issue of Sperm Genotoxicity Chromosomal Damage DNA Damage T G A C G C T A A T
    • -100 0 100 200 300 0 50 100 150 200 Hyperhaploid sperm Days NOVP CHEMO Genotoxicity: Sperm Aneuploidy with Chemotherapy WA Robbins et al. Nat Genet. 16: 74-78, 1997 Hodgkins Disease FISH on chromos: X, Y, 8
    • 0 20 30 60 70 0 5% 10% 15% 20% Comet Tail Length (um) 25% 10 40 50 80 90 Frequency (%) Genotoxicity: Sperm DNA Strand Breaks with Chemotherapy Chatergee et al. Hum Reprod. 15: 762-66, 2000 CLL patient, fludarabine chemo, Comet assay of individual sperm 8 weeks chemo 11months post-chemo Baseline
    • Chemotherapy and Fertility: Finding Sperm after Treatment Special cases: Bone Marrow Transplant Paternity after hematologic malignancies that involve high dose chemotherapy , total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation Ignatov et al. BMT 45; 1474, 2010
    • Special cases: Pubertal patients 13 y.o. Tanner III-IV male with L knee synovial sarcoma. Chemotherapy planned. During Broviac line placement, testis tissue extraction performed for cryopreservation. Mature sperm found.
    • Preservation Sperm banking Finding sperm during treatment Finding sperm after treatment Hormonal suppression Restoration Germ cell transplants Germ cell maturation in vitro Stem cell to germ cell maturation Techniques to Preserve or Restore Fertility
    • GnRH Flut Cytoxan Both 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Repopulation of Rat Testis Meistrich et al. J Androl. 16: 334, 1995 Chemotherapy and Fertility: Spermatogenic Shutdown Pre-chemotherapy treatment with total androgen blockade
    • Chemotherapy and Fertility: Spermatogenic Shutdown Issues: Promising research but feasibility unclear (lead time needed). Giving androgen blockade to rats AFTER chemotherapy improved spermatogenesis. Meistrich ML et al. Cancer Res. 59: 3557, 1999 Udagawa et al. Int J Urol. 8: 615-622, 2001 Androgen blockade in humans AFTER chemotherapy has not improved spermatogenesis (i.e. testis biopsy and semen quality). Thomson AB et al. Hum Reprod. 17: 1715, 2002
    • Preservation Sperm banking Finding sperm during treatment Finding sperm after treatment Hormonal suppression Restoration Germ cell transplants Germ cell maturation in vitro Stem cell to germ cell maturation Techniques to Preserve or Restore Fertility
    • Germ Cell Transplantation: Stem cells (LacZ) Brinster RL.Science. 296: 2174, 2002 1:5000 w-/w- Busulfan
    • In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Germ Cells L-X Feng et al. Science. 297: 392, 2002
      • Spermatogonia (Type A) either self-renew or differentiate
      • Male germline stem cells express high levels of telomerase that is lost during differentiation
      • mTERT (telomerase catalytic component) expression can extend cell lifespan
      • Use mTERT overexpression to maintain undifferentiated spermatogonia in vitro
    • Spermatogonial In Vitro Maturation 1N 4N SCF Induced 1 week Normal Mouse Testis Spermatogonial Cell line SCF Induced 3 weeks
    • Spermatogonial In Vitro Maturation L-X Feng et al. Science. 297: 392, 2002 Synaptonemal complexes Crossovers Spermatids! (Acr3-EGFP)
    • Embryonic stem cells Germ line stem cells Stem Cells, Germ Cells and Sperm Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm Kossack et al. Stem Cells 27:138, 2009 IPS
    • Germ Line Cells
    • Embryonic stem cells Germ line stem cells Stem Cells, Germ Cells and Sperm Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm Kossack et al. Stem Cells 27:138, 2009 IPS
    • How Far Can You Go in a Dish? Current Fertility
    • An Artificial Human Testicle
    • Sertoli Cells
    • Myoid cells/Leydig cells/Stroma
    • What Does an Artificial Human Testicle Look Like? Sertoli cells Fibronectin Stromal cells Leydig cells “ Germ cells” (hESCs, iPSCs)
      • Preservation techniques are well established but underutilized.
      • Restoration science is sizzling.
      • Every sperm is sacred, but is it safe?
      Fertility Restoration after Cancer: Current and Future Therapies
    • Thanks to : Uche Ezeh M.D. Mark Fox Ph.D Shai Shefi M.D. Amander Clark Ph.D Connie John Ph.D Renee Reijo Pera Ph.D Lance Armstrong Foundation California Urology Foundation National Institutes of Health California Institute of Regenerative Medicine