Introduction to Supply Chain Management


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Introduction to Supply Chain Management

  1. 1. Introduction to Supply Chain Management Chap 01 王仁宏 助理教授 國立中正大學企業管理學系 ©Copyright 2001 製商整合科技中心
  2. 2. Motivation of Supply Chain Evolution • Short life cycle • heightened expectations of customers • advances in communication and transportation technologies – mobile communication – overnight delivery
  3. 3. Supply Chain Components • Suppliers • Manufacturing centers • Warehouses • Distribution centers • Retail outlets • Raw material • Work-in-Process inventory • Finished products
  4. 4. Logistics Network Field Customers, demand centers Sources: Regional Warehouses: plants Warehouses: stocking sinks vendors stocking points ports points Supply Inventory & warehousing costs Production/ purchase Transportation Transportation costs costs costs Inventory & warehousing costs
  5. 5. Supply Chain Management • Definition: Supply Chain Management is primarily concerned with the efficient integration of suppliers, factories, warehouses and stores so that merchandise is produced and distributed in the right quantities, to the right locations and at the right time, and so as to minimize total system cost subject to satisfying service level requirements. • Notice: – Everyone is involved – Systems approach to reducing costs – Integration is the key
  6. 6. Conflicting Objectives in the Supply Chain 1. Purchasing • Stable volume requirements • Flexible delivery time • Little variation in mix • Large quantities 2. Manufacturing • Long run production • High quality • High productivity • Low production cost
  7. 7. Conflicting Objectives in the Supply Chain 3. Warehousing • Low inventory • Reduced transportation costs • Quick replenishment capability 4. Customers • Short order lead time • High in stock • Enormous variety of products • Low prices
  8. 8. The Dynamics of the Supply Chain Order Size Customer Demand Retailer Orders Distributor Orders Production Plan Time Source: Tom Mc Guffry, Electronic Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998
  9. 9. What Management Gets... Order Size Customer Demand Production Plan Time Source: Tom Mc Guffry, Electronic Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998
  10. 10. What Management Wants… Volumes Production Plan Customer Demand Time Source: Tom Mc Guffry, Electronic Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998
  11. 11. The Dynamic Supply Chain • Increasing customer power leads to increased demands on retailers • Increased retailer power leads to increased demands on suppliers
  12. 12. Example 1.1 • A Korean manufacturer of electrical products is facing: – 70% service level – 4 turnover rate • Leading electronic companies: – 9 turnover rate
  13. 13. Supply Chain: The Magnitude • In 1998, American companies spent $898 billion in supply-related activities (or 10.6% of Gross Domestic Product). – Transportation 58% – Inventory 38% – Management 4% • Third party logistics services grew in 1998 by 15% to nearly $40 billion
  14. 14. Supply Chain: The Magnitude • It is estimated that the grocery industry could save $30 billion (10% of operating cost) by using effective logistics strategies. – A typical box of cereal spends more than three months getting from factory to supermarket. – A typical new car spends 15 days traveling from the factory to the dealership, although actual travel time is 5 days.
  15. 15. Supply Chain: The Magnitude • Compaq computer estimates it lost $500 million to $1 billion in sales in 1995 because its laptops and desktops were not available when and where customers were ready to buy them. • In 1993, IBM lost a major fraction of its potential sales of desktop computers because it could not purchase enough chips that control the computer displays.
  16. 16. Supply Chain: The Magnitude • Boeing Aircraft, one of America’s leading capital goods producers, was forced to announce write-downs of $2.6 billion in October 1997. The reason? “Raw material shortages, internal and supplier parts shortages…”. (Wall Street Journal, Oct. 23, 1997)
  17. 17. Supply Chain: The Potential • Procter & Gamble estimates that it saved retail customers $65 million through logistics gains over the past 18 months. “According to P&G, the essence of its approach lies in manufacturers and suppliers working closely together …. jointly creating business plans to eliminate the source of wasteful practices across the entire supply chain”. (Journal of Business Strategy, Oct./Nov. 1997)
  18. 18. Supply Chain: The Potential • In two years, National Semiconductor reduced distribution costs by 2.5%, delivery time by 47% and increased sales by 34% by - Shutting six warehouses around the globe. - Air-freighting microchips to customers from a new centralized distribution center.
  19. 19. Supply Chain: The Potential • In 10 years, Wal-Mart transformed itself by changing its logistics system. It has the highest sales per square foot, inventory turnover and operating profit of any discount retailer. • Laura Ashley turns its inventory 10 times a year, five times faster than three years ago. This is achieved by using - New Information System - Centralized Warehouse
  20. 20. Supply Chain: The Potential “For a company with annual sales of $500 million and a 60% cost of sales, the difference between being at median in terms of supply chain performance and in the top 20% is $44 million of additional working capital.” -- PRTM Director Mike Aghajanian
  21. 21. Supply Chain: The Complexity National Semiconductors: • Production: – Produces chips in six different locations: four in the US, one in Britain and one in Israel – Chips are shipped to seven assembly locations in Southeast Asia. • Distribution – The final product is shipped to hundreds of facilities all over the world – 20,000 different routes – 12 different airlines are involved – 95% of the products are delivered within 45 days – 5% are delivered within 90 days.
  22. 22. Supply Chain: The Complexity 1. Supply Chain Integration (network) • Conflicting Objectives • The Dynamics of the Supply Chain 2. Matching Supply and Demand 3. System Variations over Time (parameters) 4. Status of Logistics Knowledge • Many problems are new • Incomplete understanding of issues • Methodology is rather narrow • No historical data available
  23. 23. Example 1.3.1 • National semiconductor: – one of the world’s largest chipmakers – short lead time – In 1994, 95% demands received within 45 days, the remaining 5% received within 90 days – 12 different airline carriers – 20,000 different routes – Who will be in the lucky 5%?
  24. 24. ISSUES: Decision Classification • Strategic Planning: Decisions that typically involve major capital investments and have a long-term effect. 1. Determination of the number, size and location of new plants, distribution centers and warehouses 2. Acquisition of new production equipment and the design of working centers within each plant 3. Design of transportation facilities, communications equipment, data processing means, etc.
  25. 25. ISSUES: Decision Classification • Tactical Planning: Effective allocation of manufacturing and distribution resources over a period of several months 1. Purchasing and production decisions 2. Work-force size 3. Inventory policies 4. Definition of the distribution channels 5. Selection of transportation and trans-shipment alternatives
  26. 26. ISSUES: Decision Classification • Operational Control: Includes day-to-day operational decisions 1. The assignment of customer orders to individual machines 2. Dispatching, expediting and processing orders 3. Vehicle scheduling, routing
  27. 27. ISSUES: Why Keep Inventory? • Uncertainty in customer demands • Uncertainty in the supply – Uncertainty in quantity and quality – Uncertainty in delivery time – Uncertainty in costs • Economies of scale
  28. 28. ISSUES: Distribution Strategies • The structure of the distribution network • The distribution strategy – The Classical Strategy – Cross Docking (Wal-Mart) – Direct Shipping
  29. 29. ISSUES: Demand Forecast • The three principles of all forecasting techniques: – Forecasting is always wrong – The longer the forecast horizon the worse the forecast – Aggregate forecasts are more accurate
  30. 30. ISSUES: Inventory control • How much inventory to keep? • Can uncertainty be reduced? • What size should orders be? • How does forecasting tool effect inventory level?
  31. 31. ISSUES: The Challenge of Inventory Management • Matching supply and demand accurately is a critical challenge – “Dell Computers predicts a loss; stock plunges. Dell acknowledged that the company was sharply off in its forecast of demand, resulting in inventory write-downs”. (WSJ, August 1993) – “IBM continues to struggle with shortages in the Think Pad line”. (WSJ, May 1994) – “Liz Claiborne said its unexpected earnings decline is the consequence of higher than anticipated excess inventories”. (WSJ, August 1993)
  32. 32. ISSUES: Purchasing • What to Purchase - In-house production Vs. external suppliers • Where to purchase - Domestic Vs. international • From whom to purchase - Cost - Reliability: quality and on time delivery - Availability and flexibility
  33. 33. ISSUES: Purchasing • Centralized Vs. Decentralized • Number of suppliers: Single sourcing Vs. Multiple sourcing • Supply contracts
  34. 34. Integration and Strategic Partnering • Successful Keys: – Information sharing – Operational planning • What information should be shared? • How should it be used?
  35. 35. ISSUES: Production • Location of manufacturing plants – Production cost – Taxes – Incentives (by government) – Proximity to markets and/or raw materials – Transportation infrastructure – Political stability and culture
  36. 36. ISSUES: Production • Flexibility – The ability to produce different products simultaneously and efficiently – The ability to produce new products efficiently
  37. 37. ISSUES: Production • Efficiency – Low cost – Short lead time • Reliability – On-time delivery – Quality
  38. 38. ISSUES: Product Design • Product designs can affect: – inventory holding cost – transportation costs – lead time • What role does product design play in supply chain management? • When is redesigning products worth the cost? • Can product design compensate for uncertainty in customer demand?
  39. 39. ISSUES: Information Systems • The advantages of advanced information systems • The challenge of unlimited data and data analysis • The roll of e-commerce • Impact of the internet • Decision support system (DSS)
  40. 40. ISSUES: What’s New in Logistics? • Global competition • Shorter product life cycle • Increasing product variety • New, low-cost distribution channels • More powerful well-informed customers
  41. 41. ISSUES: What’s New in Logistics? • New communications and information technologies POS and EDI technology – Wireless technology • Decision Support Systems • Integrated systems • Multi-modal transportation