eSupply Chains and eBusiness Applications


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eSupply Chains and eBusiness Applications

  1. 1. eSupply Chains and eBusiness Applications Dr Sherif Kamel Department of Management School of Business, Economics and Communication
  2. 2. eSupply Chains <ul><li>Definitions and Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eSupply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A supply chain that is managed electronically, usually with Web technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream supply chain </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Managing Supply Chains <ul><li>Managing supply chains can be difficult due to the need to coordinate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several business partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several internal corporate departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly many customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information technology provides two types of software solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain management (SCM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise resource planning (ERP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Managing eSupply Chains <ul><li>eSupply chain management (eSCM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The collaborative use of technology to improve the operations of supply chain activities as well as the management of supply chains and it depends on… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of all supply chain partners to view partner collaboration as a strategic asset </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information visibility along the entire supply chain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed, cost, quality, and customer service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating the supply chain more tightly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. eSupply Chains Activities <ul><li>eProcurement </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative planning </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative design and product development </li></ul><ul><li>eLogistics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Infrastructure for eSupply Chains <ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) </li></ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Supply chains can be very long, involving many internal and external partners located in different places </li></ul><ul><li>Both materials and information must flow among several entities, and these transfers, especially when manually handled, can be slow and error-prone </li></ul><ul><li>Other problems along the EC supply chain mainly stem from the need to coordinate several activities and internal units and business partners </li></ul>Supply Chain Problems
  8. 8. Supply Chain Information Required <ul><li>A supply chain includes the flow of information to and from all participating entities including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit and financial information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology news </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. EC Solutions on the Supply Chain <ul><li>Order taking can be done over the Internet, extranet, and may be fully automated </li></ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment can become instant if the products can be digitized </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic payments can expedite both the order fulfillment cycle and the payment delivery period </li></ul><ul><li>Inventories can be minimized by introducing a build-to-order (on-demand) manufacturing process as well as by providing fast and accurate information to suppliers (collaborative commerce) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is the process of capturing or creating knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Internal Supply Chain Solutions Intrabusiness <ul><li>The internal parts of the supply chain are related to the value chain and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrabusiness can include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between a business and its employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between units within the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Among employees in the same business </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals <ul><li>corporate (enterprise) portal </li></ul><ul><li>A gateway for entering a corporate website, enabling communication, collaboration, and access to company information </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for implementing corporate portals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To cut costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To free up time for busy executives and managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get access to information all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing collaboration – sharing knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Collaboration-Enabling Tools <ul><ul><li>virtual meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online meetings whose members are in different locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>group decision support system (GDSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semi-structured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference </li></ul>
  13. 13. Collaboration-Enabling Tools <ul><ul><li>Voice-over-IP (VOIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication systems that transmit voice calls over Internet Protocol-based networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>screen sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instant video </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time replays with extensive memory for random access to materials streamed </li></ul>
  14. 14. eGovernment <ul><li>eGovernment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of ICT and eCommerce to provide access to government information and delivery of public services to citizens and business partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of information and communication technology as well as business processes to transform how the government interact with citizens and businesses </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. eGovernment Objectives <ul><li>Transforming the quality of services offered to citizens by the government </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a single gateway to the government </li></ul><ul><li>Building services around citizens needs </li></ul><ul><li>Making government services more accessible, efficient and effective </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring social inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Optimizing the use of information </li></ul>
  16. 16. So it is all about… <ul><li>Electronic Government </li></ul><ul><li>and not </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Government </li></ul><ul><li>and hopefully </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Government </li></ul>
  17. 17. eGovernment is about… <ul><li>Transforming a relationship than about deploying technology </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing information about services </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling various new channels </li></ul><ul><li>Diversifying the levels of services </li></ul><ul><li>Developing front and back business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Re-engineering organizational structures </li></ul>
  18. 18. eGovernment models <ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government2citizens (G2C) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government2business (G2B) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govrnment2government (G2G) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government2employees (G2E) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intragovernmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal efficiency and effectiveness (IEE) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. eGovernment <ul><li>government-to-citizens (G2C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eGovernment category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens (voting and benefit transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>government-to-business </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernment category that includes interactions between governments and businesses (government selling to businesses and providing them with services and businesses selling products and services to government) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government eProcurement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group purchasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax collection and management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. eGovernment <ul><li>government-to-employees (G2E) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eGovernment category that includes activities and services between government units and their employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government-to-employees and internal efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ePayroll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eRecords management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eTraining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>government-to-government (G2G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eGovernment category that includes activities within government units and those between governments </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Implementing eGovernment <ul><li>The Transformation to eGovernment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 – Information publishing/dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 – Official two-way transactions with one department at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 – Multipurpose portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4 – Portal personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5 – Clustering of common services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6 – Full integration and enterprise transformation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Stages of eGovernment
  23. 23. eGovernment Adoption
  24. 24. eGovernment Phases (different model) <ul><li>Publish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using information and communication technology to expand access to government information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadening civic participation in government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making government information available online </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 5 elements for eGovernment transformation <ul><li>Process reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new processes and relationships between the governor and the governed and not just automate existing processes and inefficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avail technology sponsors and champions at all levels who would represent the push drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize programs according to the needs, available funds and scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore new collaboration schemes among government agencies as well as with the private sector and NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civic engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage invaluable role and input of the citizen as a contributor to the decision making process </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Online Publishing eBooks <ul><li>Online publishing </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic delivery of newspapers, magazines, books, news, music, videos, and other digitizable information over the Internet (eBooks, print onDemand) </li></ul><ul><li>eZines </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic magazine or newsletter delivered over the Internet via eMail </li></ul><ul><li>Webcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Live shows broadcast on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Webinars </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars on the Web (Web-based seminars) </li></ul>
  27. 27. eLearning <ul><li>Basics of eLearning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The online delivery of information for purposes of education, training, or knowledge management…benefits could include…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and cost reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large volume and diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher content retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated and consistent material </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. eLearning <ul><li>Drawbacks include… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for instructor retraining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment needs and support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of face-to-face interaction and campus life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and updating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student retention </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. eLearning <ul><li>The use of hybrid models (traditional and unconventional means </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology acceptance model theory adaptation </li></ul>
  30. 30. eTraining <ul><li>Online Corporate Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Drivers of eTraining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition and cost pressures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continual learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. eDutainment <ul><li>Edutainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of education and entertainment, often through games, movies, books, music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management (content sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2P applications </li></ul></ul>