Cleaner Production to Green Supply Chain to Industrial Ecology

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  • 1. Emerging Role of EID in Asian Green Economy Dr. Anthony SF Chiu De La Salle University-Manila and Philippine National Pollution Adjudication Board Green Growth, UN ESCAP June 7, 2007 BITEC Bangkok Cleaner Production to Green Supply Chain to Industrial Ecology Source: ISIE Source: Brattebo, ISIE 2001 Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis [C.G. Francis - adapted from J. Christensen, 1999] Fertiliser Lake Farms Water Water Industry Tissø (NH4)2S2O3 Novo Steam Statoil Nordisk Water Refinery Biomass Water Sulphur- and & Yeast Artificial Ammonia-rich Slurry Steam Effluents Lake Gas Used Water Asnæs Power Station Waste Fly Ash Water Residual Gypsum Source: UNEP Bioteknis Heat k Gyproc Jordrens Sludge Cement Municipality Residual Fish Industry of Kalundborg Heat Farms Nickel & Vanadium 1
  • 2. Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis - Waste Flow Fertiliser Farms Industry (NH4)2S2O3 Novo Statoil Biomass Nordisk Refinery Sulphur- and & Yeast Ammonia-rich Slurry Effluents Gas Used Water Asnæs Power Station Waste Gypsum Fly Ash Water Bioteknis k Gyproc Jordrens Sludge Cement Municipality Industry of Kalundborg Nickel & Vanadium Source: UNEP Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis - Water Flow Lake Water Water Tissø Novo Steam Statoil Nordisk Water Refinery Water Artificial Steam Lake Used Water Asnæs Power Station Waste Water Municipality of Kalundborg Source: UNEP Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis - Energy Flow Novo Steam Statoil Nordisk Refinery Steam Gas Asnæs Power Station Residual Heat Gyproc Source: UNEP Municipality Residual Heat Fish Farms of Kalundborg 2
  • 3. Kwiho Lee, Korea NCPC Conceptual Diagram of EIP Raw Mat’l Raw Mat’l & Product Management Product Discharge Zero Recycle/ Discharge Reuse Waste Waste Treatment Treatment Manufacture Wastes Social Manufacture Wastes Social Image Image Zero Present Industrial Park Eco-Industrial Park EID Components [Chiu] (Scale … Temporal, geographical, human factors) Primary (Hardware): Interaction - Industrial Metabolism Energy and material flow (physical accountability) System Design: Product, process, and service (determinants) [e.g. micro-forest design at Burnside for the social benefits vs. ISO14001- certified reservoir design] [e.g. Factor X, green planning and architecture, transportation system, ecosystem restoration, etc.] information management (catalyst) Supportive (Software): Inter-relationship among the elements in the industrial system Stakeholders participation (government, citizen, NGO, academe, researchers, etc.) – network concept, political will, policies, management, participatory process, PPP ... Quality of life, consumer education, capacity development EIP Initiatives in Asia Pacific Region . Korea . Vietnam China Sri Lanka Singapore . Source: Anthony SF Chiu for Asia Pacific (updated on Nov 2, 2004) Source: Updated by Anthony SF Chiu on June 7, 2007 3
  • 4. Selected EIP Initiatives in Asia Pacific Asian economies (source Some participating agencies Location of some EID initiatives reference) (updated June 22, 2004) Australia (3,4) Western Australian Water Corp., University of Shenton Sustainability Park, Synergy Park Brisbane, Gladstone, Projects involved by Curtin University Cleaner Canberra Production Program and Australian BCSD.(Kwinana) China (1) SEPA, UNEP, Dalian Univ of Tech, Tsinghua Dalian, Yantai, Soo Chow, Tianjin, Guiging, Yixing, Taihu, Shanghai, Chong Yuan, Guiyang and Jiangsu, Shi Conference 2004 (3) JCP Special Issue on IE (4) personal Univ IE Team, EU, Dalhousie, Indigo, GTZ Hezi, Guigang, Nanhai, Quzhou, Zaozhuang, Lubei Sources: (1) IEAsia Conference 2001 (2) EIEAsia Philippines (1,2) UNDP PRIME and EPIC projects, Yale Laguna International Industrial Park, Light Industry and Science Park, Carmelray Industrial Park, LIMA, Laguna University, USAEP Technopark, Philippine National Oil Company Petrochem Industrial Park, Clean City Center project (USAID). GTZ project with PEZA & EPIC. Indonesia (1) Kaiserslautern University, GTZ Lingkungan (LIK), Tangerang; Semarang; Industri Sona Maris India (1) Kaiserslautern University, ICAST, Technology Naroda; Tirupur Textile sector; Tamil Nadu tanneries; Calcutta foundries; Tamil Nadu paper/sugar; Bangalore Exchange Network water project; Ankleshwar, Nandeseri, Thane-Belapur. Malaysia (1) USAEP LHT resources linkage. Japan (1,2) UNEP, Tokyo - Osaka - Toyo Univ, Japanese 19 eco-towns (e.g. Kawasaki, Kitakyushu, Itabashi), Fujisawa, Toyota city. government contacts Korea (3) NCPC Korea 15 year 3-phase Master EIP Plan launched in 2003. Six proposals submitted.(Banwol Siwha, Mipo Onsan, Yeosu, Chungju, Jinhae Haman Jinju, and Pohang) Taiwan (1,2) ITRI, EPA, academe Tainan Technology and Industrial Park, Changhua Coastal Industrial Park; CSS II (corporate synergy system II) projects, Hua Lian and Kaohsiung (2003) Taoyuan and Tainan Ta Shin 3/23/2004 (40,22,31,30 hectares Vietnam (1) Amata developer, USAEP, University of Natural Amata (environment management), Hanoi Sai Dong II (feasibility study). Sciences Thailand (1) GTZ, IEAT Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand plans (Map Ta Phut, northern region, Amata Nakorn, eastern sea-board, Bang Poo); Samut Prakarn province CPIE project (ADB-funded); Bangkok (Panapanaan). Singapore (2,4) JTC developer, National University of Singapore Jurong Island Industrial Park Sri Lanka (1) Ministry of Economic and Industrial ADB supported major policy studies in 2002 Development Initial EIP Networking in Asia the conclusion of the Conference came out with seven concerned issues: 1. Terminology (indicator/reporting) 2. Communications 3. Policies 4. Financing 5. Research and Development 6. Management Structure 7. Future of Eco-Industrial Development Source: Chiu JIE 5:2 Recycling-Oriented Economic Society: A Knowledge-based Society System Distribution / Use / sales consumption Information Social Products Use Infrastructure Reuse Parts Use Design / Disposal / manufacturing Reuse recycling Use Materials Technology Public Awareness Proper Value- Recycling disposal adding Natural environment Activity Society 4
  • 5. Regional Environmental Effects by Networking Eco-towns [Fujita & Chiu, GRC 2004 Oxford] Second Generation of Eco towns Industrial Symbiosis by Networking EIEs in Tokyo Bay Region G lobal Networking UNE IE P/ TC C Eco-town C C C C C C C C C C C C C Eco-town C C C C Eco-town C C Urban Environmental C Eco-town Urban C Renaissance District C Tokyo Bay C C Regional Eco-town Environmental Eco-town Sustainable Company Networking Environmental Revolution Intra City C + energy and resource Kawasaki/ Chiba/Tokyo Business N orking etw exchanges Management 11 Overall framework for Circular Economy development [Zhao, UNEP SCP 8 Mexico] Eco-industry Eco- Service Eco-industrial Agriculture industry circulation system Nature Water supply conservation Waste management Greening Infrastructure Ecological of the city energy supply circulation system circulation system Green buildings Air quality transportation control EID Stage: Internally Neutral EID Stage: Externally Neutral Local Local Community EIP Community EIP IP IP EIN SAI SAI IP IP Company Company SAI = Stand alone industry EIP = Eco Industrial Park IP = Conventional Industrial Park EIN = Eco Industrial Network IP = Conventional Industrial Park SAI= Stand Alone Industry EID Stage: Internally Supportive EID Stage: Externally Supportive Local Local Community C Community C EIP C C IP C C C IP C EIP C C EIN C C C C C EIN SAI C C C C C SAI C C IP IP C C C Company C Company EIP = Eco Industrial Park EIP = Eco Industrial Park EIN = Eco Industrial Network EIN = Eco Industrial Network Continuum Stages Model of EIP Development in Southeast Asia Source: Chiu, 2001 5
  • 6. Description of the Continuum Model Stages Internal Neutral Internal Supportive External External Neutral Supportive Industry-level Optimization Tenant Business Partner Network Estate-level Optimization Estate as asset to neighboring entities Description Minimizes individual industry Takes on Minimizes environmental impact Provides environmental services as environmental impact supportive role on business at estate level competitive edge to regional network partners’ environmental (e.g. neighboring estates, stand alone performance within the industrial industries, communities) estate system Environmental impact of (0) (+) (++) (+++) individual tenant (unit) Environmental impact of (-) (-) (0) (+) industrial estate (system Economic performance of (+) (++) (+++) (++++) system Social image of system (-) (-) (0) (+) Programs Cleaner Production (CP) Greening the Supply Chain Extended Product Integrated Resource Recovery Environmental Management Corporate Synergy System (CSSII) Responsibilities (EPR) System System (EMS) Green Procurement Product Stewardship Regional Resource Management Ecodesign Eco-labeling Material and Water Recycling Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Programmatic Cleaner Production Energy Cascading Substance Flow Accounting (SFA) Environmental Management (P-CP) Co-generation Material Flow Accounting (MFA) Accounting (EMA) Programmatic Environmental Collective Utility Sharing of National Policy on Circular Environmental Performance Impact Assessment (P-EIA) transportation, warehousing Economy Indicator (EPI) By Product Exchange (BPX) logistics, training, recruitment, Intra- and Inter-estate Collaboration Corporate Social Responsibility Packaging material take back marketing, procurement (CSR) Design for Environment (DfE) Green architecture Reverse Manufacturing / End of Landscape Ecology life Disassembly Centralized WWTF (see Kalundborg Box) Cross Industry By product Exchange (BPX) Emergency Response System Park Environmental Management Note: (0) means neutral, no positive or negative contribution to the parameter (+) means positive (good) impact on the environment or good social image (-) means negative (bad) impact on the environment INTERNATIONAL Business Opportunity and PPP BUSINESS GOVERNMENT Manila National SECTOR PARTNERS Bangkok LGU Government Other eco-town Dalian, etc. projects Govt.-to-govt. Eco-Industrial Eco-Town Business industries Centre Eco-industries UN and other Intl. NPOs, financial organizations institutions international Training and R&D PRIVATE SECTOR STAKEHOLDERS supplier / buyer institutes ENRICHMENT Key partners PARTNERS Success Factor 2: Networking and Responsible Leadership COMMUNITY SECTOR Consumption Policies Eco-Town patterns Strategies Baseline Database Demand GOVERNMENT SECTOR Finances Life Cycle TBL Economy Reporting Criteria and indicators Just do it! Guidelines Input-Output Mgmt Tools PRIVATE Best Tables Practices SECTOR RESEARCH What can we do? AND ANALYSIS 6
  • 7. Success Factor 3: Business Minded for POTENTIAL EID advantage: Sustainability ENTRANTS Competitors become partners EID as value-adding to Threat of strengthen global new entrants competitiveness INDUSTRY Bargaining power Bargaining power COMPETITORS of buyers of suppliers SUPPLIERS BUYERS Rivalry Among • Greening Supply Existing Firms Chain Threat of Management substitute products Michael Porter’s 5Fs •Product Service or services System •Corporate Social SUBSTITUTES Value-added EST Responsibility 7