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From Simple, Standardized Global Product to Complex Global Supply Chain
T. Friedman, From The Lexus and The Olive Tree to the World is Flat 
Friedman believes the world is flat in the sense that the competitive playing fields between industrial and emerging market countries are leveling. Friedman recounts many examples in which companies in India and China are becoming part of large global complex supply chains that extend across oceans, providing everything from service representatives and X-ray interpretation to component manufacturing. He also describes how these changes are made possible through intersecting technologies, particularly the Internet . Friedman criticizes those who resist these changes, arguing that global change is inevitable. He also warns that companies that are now part of a supply chain may eventually want to build a supply chain of their own. As he puts it, "they are racing us to the top." The World is Flat is part global reporting, part theory and reflection about how the world got here and what the ramifications are for education, government policy and readers.
“ MNCs must build global efficiency through a worldwide infrastructure or distributed but specialized assets and capabilities that exploit comparative advantages, scale economies, and scope economies simultaneously….”