Approaches and ResearchMethods•How to write the perfect study for the 2ndpaperA2 Psychology for OCR exam board (canalso be...
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types    STRENGTHS                 WEAKNESSES more control of the      Lacks ecologi...
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types    STRENGTHS            WEAKNESSES Higher ecological    Can be unethical:  val...
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types    STRENGTHS               WEAKNESSES Higher ecological       Difficult to rep...
Design of the Experiment    STRENGTHS              WEAKNESSES Less demand            More difficult to  characteristics ...
Design of the Experiment    STRENGTHS            WEAKNESSES More accurate and    Demand  easy to compare       character...
Design of the Experiment    STRENGTHS             WEAKNESSES Less demand           Using different  characteristics as  ...
Appropriate Hypothesis   Alternate hypothesis    ◦ Testable statement that proposes the expected      outcome of the stud...
Operationalising a Hypothesis Hypothesis should contain a clear  statement of the IV and the DV as well  as the word ‘sig...
The Procedure   IV – if looking for differences between 2 people, you need 2    groups of participants. This is the varia...
The Procedure continued...   Ethical guidelines – ensure the study    follows for participants:    1.   Consent    2.   N...
Decide on a Sample    STRENGTHS                  WEAKNESSES Varied selection of        Can be  participants             ...
Decide on a Sample    STRENGTHS                 WEAKNESSES Completely fair           No theory behind Mixture of       ...
Decide on a Sample    STRENGTHS                  WEAKNESSES Ethically sound            Not always a ◦ Informed consent  ...
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Approaches and research methods

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Tailored for the G544 exam - OCR A2 Psychology. Has notes on how to write a good study

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Approaches and research methods

  1. 1. Approaches and ResearchMethods•How to write the perfect study for the 2ndpaperA2 Psychology for OCR exam board (canalso be used in conjunction with the ASspec.)
  2. 2. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES more control of the  Lacks ecological experiment validity – not in More ethical as it is natural setting easy to get consent  High demand characteristics as they can see what is expected of them
  3. 3. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological  Can be unethical: validity difficult to get Lower demand consent e.g. characteristics Piliavin  Experimenter has Piliavin less control
  4. 4. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological  Difficult to repeat validity as there is as the IV is no tempering with naturally occurring the IV
  5. 5. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand  More difficult to characteristics as compare as there they will not learn could be several conditions reasons such as gender etc.
  6. 6. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES More accurate and  Demand easy to compare characteristics: the results participants may Costs less than become familiar getting twice as with what is many participants expected
  7. 7. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand  Using different characteristics as participants in the study won’t be same condition not learnt over time as accurate as originally thought to be
  8. 8. Appropriate Hypothesis Alternate hypothesis ◦ Testable statement that proposes the expected outcome of the study ◦ Suggests significant difference between results of the two conditions Null hypothesis ◦ Findings not consequences of predicted effect but due to chance Two-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome could fall in one of two directions One-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome will fall in one direction
  9. 9. Operationalising a Hypothesis Hypothesis should contain a clear statement of the IV and the DV as well as the word ‘significant’ and an indication as to whether it is one- tailed, two-tailed or null. People in a village will post a significantly greater number of apparently mislaid letters than people in a city [example]
  10. 10. The Procedure IV – if looking for differences between 2 people, you need 2 groups of participants. This is the variable that CHANGES DV – this has an effect on the materials used to measure this variable. This is the variable that is MEASURED Controls – ensure extraneous variables are controlled as far as possible (particularly for simple things such as age, gender etc.) Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debreifing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
  11. 11. The Procedure continued... Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debriefing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
  12. 12. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Varied selection of  Can be participants ethnocentric (biased towards experimenters cultural influence) Available Participants
  13. 13. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Completely fair  No theory behind Mixture of how sample is participants chosen An equal chance of being chosen
  14. 14. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Ethically sound  Not always a ◦ Informed consent varied sample received ◦ Participants may have time ◦ Participants may be more motivated Volunteers
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