Approaches and ResearchMethods•How to write the perfect study for the 2ndpaperA2 Psychology for OCR exam board (canalso be used in conjunction with the ASspec.)
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES more control of the Lacks ecological experiment validity – not in More ethical as it is natural setting easy to get consent High demand characteristics as they can see what is expected of them
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological Can be unethical: validity difficult to get Lower demand consent e.g. characteristics Piliavin Experimenter has Piliavin less control
Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological Difficult to repeat validity as there is as the IV is no tempering with naturally occurring the IV
Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand More difficult to characteristics as compare as there they will not learn could be several conditions reasons such as gender etc.
Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES More accurate and Demand easy to compare characteristics: the results participants may Costs less than become familiar getting twice as with what is many participants expected
Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand Using different characteristics as participants in the study won’t be same condition not learnt over time as accurate as originally thought to be
Appropriate Hypothesis Alternate hypothesis ◦ Testable statement that proposes the expected outcome of the study ◦ Suggests significant difference between results of the two conditions Null hypothesis ◦ Findings not consequences of predicted effect but due to chance Two-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome could fall in one of two directions One-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome will fall in one direction
Operationalising a Hypothesis Hypothesis should contain a clear statement of the IV and the DV as well as the word ‘significant’ and an indication as to whether it is one- tailed, two-tailed or null. People in a village will post a significantly greater number of apparently mislaid letters than people in a city [example]
The Procedure IV – if looking for differences between 2 people, you need 2 groups of participants. This is the variable that CHANGES DV – this has an effect on the materials used to measure this variable. This is the variable that is MEASURED Controls – ensure extraneous variables are controlled as far as possible (particularly for simple things such as age, gender etc.) Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debreifing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
The Procedure continued... Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debriefing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Varied selection of Can be participants ethnocentric (biased towards experimenters cultural influence) Available Participants
Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Completely fair No theory behind Mixture of how sample is participants chosen An equal chance of being chosen
Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Ethically sound Not always a ◦ Informed consent varied sample received ◦ Participants may have time ◦ Participants may be more motivated Volunteers
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