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Approaches and research methods

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Tailored for the G544 exam - OCR A2 Psychology. Has notes on how to write a good study

Tailored for the G544 exam - OCR A2 Psychology. Has notes on how to write a good study

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  • 1. Approaches and ResearchMethods•How to write the perfect study for the 2ndpaperA2 Psychology for OCR exam board (canalso be used in conjunction with the ASspec.)
  • 2. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES more control of the  Lacks ecological experiment validity – not in More ethical as it is natural setting easy to get consent  High demand characteristics as they can see what is expected of them
  • 3. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological  Can be unethical: validity difficult to get Lower demand consent e.g. characteristics Piliavin  Experimenter has Piliavin less control
  • 4. Strengths & Weaknesses ofExperiment Types STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Higher ecological  Difficult to repeat validity as there is as the IV is no tempering with naturally occurring the IV
  • 5. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand  More difficult to characteristics as compare as there they will not learn could be several conditions reasons such as gender etc.
  • 6. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES More accurate and  Demand easy to compare characteristics: the results participants may Costs less than become familiar getting twice as with what is many participants expected
  • 7. Design of the Experiment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Less demand  Using different characteristics as participants in the study won’t be same condition not learnt over time as accurate as originally thought to be
  • 8. Appropriate Hypothesis Alternate hypothesis ◦ Testable statement that proposes the expected outcome of the study ◦ Suggests significant difference between results of the two conditions Null hypothesis ◦ Findings not consequences of predicted effect but due to chance Two-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome could fall in one of two directions One-tailed hypothesis ◦ Predict that the outcome will fall in one direction
  • 9. Operationalising a Hypothesis Hypothesis should contain a clear statement of the IV and the DV as well as the word ‘significant’ and an indication as to whether it is one- tailed, two-tailed or null. People in a village will post a significantly greater number of apparently mislaid letters than people in a city [example]
  • 10. The Procedure IV – if looking for differences between 2 people, you need 2 groups of participants. This is the variable that CHANGES DV – this has an effect on the materials used to measure this variable. This is the variable that is MEASURED Controls – ensure extraneous variables are controlled as far as possible (particularly for simple things such as age, gender etc.) Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debreifing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
  • 11. The Procedure continued... Ethical guidelines – ensure the study follows for participants: 1. Consent 2. No deception 3. Right to withdraw 4. No psychological harm 5. Confidentiality 6. Debriefing A step by step procedure of what participants will be doing is ideal
  • 12. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Varied selection of  Can be participants ethnocentric (biased towards experimenters cultural influence) Available Participants
  • 13. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Completely fair  No theory behind Mixture of how sample is participants chosen An equal chance of being chosen
  • 14. Decide on a Sample STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Ethically sound  Not always a ◦ Informed consent varied sample received ◦ Participants may have time ◦ Participants may be more motivated Volunteers