Qué vs. Cuál Reflexive Verbs Ser – DOCTOR PED Tu Commands Estar – HELPING Affirmative Gustar Negative Transitional Words Irregular Imperfect Verbs DOP Trigger Words Preterit Tense Acabar + de + Infinitive Hace + Time + Que + Conjugated Verb Formulas Verbs Like Gustar
Qué is more Cuál is more commonly used commonly used when asking for a before “es” or other definition. It is often forms of “ser” and used before a noun. when asking quantity. ¿Qué es un perro? ¿Cuál es tu número What is a dog? de teléfono? What is your telephone number?
Ser = to be Ser is specifically used Congugations when talking about: Yo – Soy ▪ D – Descriptions Tú – Eres ▪ O – Origin Él/Ella/Usted – Es ▪ C – Characteristics Nosotros – Somos ▪ T – Time Vosotros(as) – Sois ▪ O – Occupation Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes - Son ▪ R – Relationships Ser is commonly used when ▪ P – Possession talking about permanent ▪ E – Events things. ▪ D – Dates
Estar- To be Estar is specifically used Congugations: when talking about: ▪ Health Yo – Estoy ▪ Emotions Tú – Estás ▪ Location Él/Ella/Usted – Está ▪ Present Being Nostotros(as) – Estamos ▪ I Vosotros(as) – Estáis ▪ N Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes-Están ▪ G
Gustar is a tricky verb. Some might say it’s better to go backwards when using gustar. You conjugate gustar for whatever is being gustar-ed. EXAMPLE: Me gusta el libro. (I like the book OR The book is pleasing to me) In this sentence, el libro is being gustar-ed. Since it is singular object, gustar must be in the el/ella/usted form. EXAMPLE 2: Me gustas tú. (I like you OR you are pleasing to me) NOTE: You must use a personal pronouns before gustar to signify who something is pleasing to.
Words like: Y - And Are what’s known as “transition words”. Their O - Or purpose is to joint Ni – Or/Nor sentences or to join a También – Also list of nouns together. Pero - But Soy cansado y EXAMPLE: emocionado. No tengo un perro ni un gato
You would use an EXAMPLES: imperfect verb De vez en cuando, yo conjugation when hablaba con Ivana. talking about Todos los días, comías something that has hamburgesas. happened with no definite beginning or end. It’s almost like a movie. The action just keeps on happening.
Words to look for the A menudo will “trigger” that an A veces imperfect verb is Todos los días being used include, Todos los años but are not limited A veces en cuando to: Generalmente Mucho Nunca Siempre
Acabar de… is translated to, “I have just finished…” NOTE: You conjugating acabar for whoever you’re speaking of. This verb follows regular -AR patterns. EXAMPLE: Acabo de correr. (I have just finished running). Acabamos de limpiar. (We have just finished cleaning).
EXAMPLE: Hace tres años que limpio. (It’s been three years since I’ve cleaned). Hace un mes que buscamos mi pez. (It’s been a month since we’ve looked for my fish).
Tener que + infinitive… (Tengo que cantar. I have to sing) Hay que + infinitive… (Hay que cantar. I need to sing) Acabar de + infinitive… (See slide) Ir a + infinitive (Voy a la tienda. I’m going to the store)
Reflexive verbs are when you do something to yourself. For instance, “I bathed myself,” or “My sister put make-up on herself.” In Spanish, a reflexive verb is signified when --se is at the end of a verb. Examples: Maquillarse Lavarse To conjugate, you take the –se off the end, and put the correct DOP in front of the verb, and conjugate the verb for the correct person. EXAMPLES: Me maquillo. (I put make-up on myself) Nos llavamos. (We wash ourselves)
Tu commands are used when telling someone younger than you that you are familiar with to do something. For instance, “Sing!” or “Dance!”. You conjugate the verb (cantar or bailar) in the tu form and drop the “s”. EXAMPLES: ▪ SING! = Canta! ▪ Dance = Baila!
When telling someone to do the action to “it”, there’s another system. If you say, “Wash it,” you still conjugate for the tu form, drop the “s”, AND you add on lo/la to the end. Lo/La stands for he/she/or it. EXAMPLE: ▪ Wash it! = Lavalo! If you were to tell someone to wash themselves, you would add on the appropriate DOP. EXAMPLE: (Wash yourself! = Lavate!)
When telling someone not to do something, there’s a completely different system. You want to tell someone to not dance. Take bailar, conjugate for the yo form, switch the ending (ar=e and er/ir=a), and add an “s”. The phrase would become… No bailes. To tell someone not to wash themselves, you would approach it the same way, but add a DOP in between “no” and the verb. It would become……… No te laves.
Di No Digas Haz No Halgas Ve No Veas Pon No Pongas Sal No Salgas Se No Seas Ten No Tengas Ven No Vengas
The preterit tense is used when talking about a specific event in the past. All you have to do is change the endings of the verbs for the appropriate conjugation. AR ER/IR -e -i -aste -iste -o -io -amos -imos -aron -ieron