OBSE - Ontology Based System Engineering
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OBSE - Ontology Based System Engineering

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Ontologies can enhance the quality of the System Engineering process. This presentation shows how to apply ontologies to this process and, more specifically, to the Requirements Engineering process.

Ontologies can enhance the quality of the System Engineering process. This presentation shows how to apply ontologies to this process and, more specifically, to the Requirements Engineering process.

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OBSE - Ontology Based System Engineering OBSE - Ontology Based System Engineering Presentation Transcript

  • Ontology Based Systems EngineeringNordic Systems Engineering Tour – April, 2013www.reusecompany.com
  • 2 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringJuan LlorensCTO in The Reuse CompanyProfessor at Carlos III UniversityTechnical Director of INCOSE’s Spanish Chapterjuan.llorens@reusecompany.com
  • 3 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringFundamentals ofOntology Based Systems Engineering (OBSE)
  • 4 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringNeed of knowledge for better Systems Engineering The “smarter” we want systems engineering to be, the more dependent on“semantic” knowledge shall it be. For Requirements Management and EngineeringWriting Management Engineering0% 25% 50% 75% 100%Semantics
  • 5 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringNeed of knowledge for better Systems Engineering The “smarter” we want systems engineering to be, the more dependent on“semantic” knowledge shall it be. Challenges for Requirements Quality Mgmt.(source: Gauthier Fanmuy - the RAMP project: - AFIS)
  • 6 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringNeed of knowledge for better Systems Engineering The “smarter” we want systems engineering to be, the more dependent on“semantic” knowledge shall it be.0% 25% 50% 75% 100%Semantics Knowledge must be represented within a knowledge structure (KOS) from internal representations to glossaries, to …., to ontologies) The selection of the knowledge structure allows different possibilities to theorganization
  • 7 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringThe concept of System Knowledge Repository (SKR) is born(source: INCOSE –UK chapter)SKR
  • 8 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSystem Knowledge Repository (SKR)Allows representing, storing, managing andretrievingRelevant knowledge around the Systemand its domain (including the SE Process)Digital content (Assets) regarding aparticular SystemThe SKR is formed bySKB – System Knowledge BaseSAS – System Assets Store
  • 9 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSKBSupports the complete system knowledge-base for the application of semantic servicesaround the system life cycle (Including SE).SASManages a formal representation of theSystem Assets: Requirements, Models, etc.Is the base for offering services around theseassetsReuseTraceabilityMDE,TDD, etc.
  • 10 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSystem of SystemsSub-System Knowledge Base (SSKB)
  • 11 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSub-System Knowledge Base (SSKB)…
  • 12 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSystem of SystemsSub-System Knowledge Base (SSKB)
  • 13 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringKnowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringSystem Assets Store (SAS)Assets (SAS)
  • 14 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems Engineering(source: James Martin)Knowledge Organization in Systems EngineeringA reusable implementation
  • 15 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringControlled vocabulary: valid terms,forbidden terms… Optionally caninclude a Glossary (description for everyterm).Thesaurus:Relationships betweenterms: hierarchies,associations, synonyms…Light Ontology:syntactic and Semanticgroupings for Terms andActions (verbs). Domainterms and verbs.Patterns andRepresentation Schemas forIdentifying (patterns) andrepresenting (Schemas) thesemantics of knowledge indigital artifacts.System Knowledge Base: OntologyWhat is an ontology for TRC?
  • 16 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringControlled VocabularyNeeded for standardizing and normalizing the terminology used in the customapplication.The input information must/should match the controlled vocabulary.Using a glossary with different categories of terms, the ontology may store:Business related Terms : those terms central to the business area to be treatedGeneral Language Terms:Syntactically relevant phrases: Adverbs, Adjectives, etc.Invalid terms: those terms that could be of no relevance.EnginebasedvehiclesVehiclesEmissionscontrolPollutionemissionsLegislationEnvironmental impactevaluationNoiseandvibrationsAirconditioningAir flowConductDieselenginesGas EnginesElectric EnginesEnginesHybrid enginesPressurelossVehiclestructureDoorstructureWindowSecuritySafety andhealthHvac systemDoors
  • 17 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringControlled Vocabulary : Example for Requirements Authoring (RA)UR044 :The Rad8 shall be able to identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondshallidentifyhitunitminimumsecond…..ThetoatRad8
  • 18 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringThesaurusA Thesaurus stores relational information regarding the terms in the glossary.Used For:Retrieval purposesRepresentation normalization purposesSuggestion purposes (Decision support)“solution specific” purposesStakeholderUserAdministratorStandard userCustomerAdministratorAdminEnginebasedvehiclesVehiclesEmissionscontrolPollutionemissionsLegislationEnvironmentalimpactevaluationNoise andvibrationsAirconditioningAir flowConductDieselenginesGas EnginesElectric EnginesEnginesHybrid enginesPressure lossVehiclestructureDoorstructureWindowSecuritySafety andhealthHvac systemDoors
  • 19 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringThesaurus : Example for RAUR044 :The Rad8 shall be able to identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondRad8identifysecond…..Rad8 PTT Radar Sonar=Distinguish =UR03442 :The Radar shall be able to distinguish hits at a minimum rate of 10 elements per ss =
  • 20 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringLight OntologySyntactic Information (Term Tag)For NLP purposesFor specific Pattern RestrictionsSemantic InformationFor Retrieval purposesFor specific Pattern RestrictionsIdiomatic InformationFor NLP purposesArtifactType InformationFor Retrieval Filtering purposes
  • 21 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringVERBSNOUNSSyntactic Information : Application to RequirementsAuthoringUR044 :The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondDoppler radaridentifyRadar SonarDetectUR563 :The Doppler Radar shall be able to Identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units persecondPREPOSITIONS OFA
  • 22 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems Engineering<DETECT>Verb Semantic<DETECTION DEVICE>Term SemanticSemantic Information : Application to RequirementsAuthoringUR044 :The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondDoppler radaridentifyRadar SonarDetect RecognizeUR563 :The Doppler Radar shall be able to Identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units persecondDOMAIN TERMSDoppler radar RadarDOMAINVERBSidentify
  • 23 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringPatternsSequential restrictions structure with place-holders for the specific termsand values that constitute a particular knowledge statement, where therestrictions can be grammatical, semantic, or even both, as well as otherpatterns.A pattern encapsulates the rules for writing and validating a knowledgestatement of a particular kind.
  • 24 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringPatterns : Sequence of Restrictions (in place holders)Restrictions:TermSyntaxSemanticSyntax + SemanticNL Text:Term1 Term2 Term3 Term4 Term5 Term6Restriction 1 Restriction 2 Restriction 3 Restriction 4 Restriction 5 Restriction 6
  • 25 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringPatterns: Application to Requirements AuthoringUR044 :The Radar shall identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondDetection Pattern 1The<OBJECTDETECTION>Shall <DETECT> <ITEMS> <MINIMUM>At Rate of<RATEVALUE>[NUMBER ]
  • 26 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRepresentation SchemasCreate a formal representation of the knowledge Statements based on thePattern information<<Semantic ofTerm2>>Term2Term1 Term3<<MySemantic>>Term3 Term6NL Text:Term1 Term2 Term3 Term4 Term5 Term6Restriction 1 Restriction 2 Restriction 3 Restriction 4 Restriction 5 Restriction 6
  • 27 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRepresentation Schemas : Application to RequirementsAuthoring<<Detect>>IdentifyRadar Hits<<MinimumValue>>Hits 10Units perSecondUR044 :The Radar shall identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondThe<OBJECTDETECTION>Shall <DETECT> <ITEMS> <MINIMUM>At Rate of<RATEVALUE>[NUMBER ]
  • 28 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRepresentation SchemasUR044 : The Radar shall identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondUR852: Targets shall be detected by the Electromagnetic sensor at a frequency not lowerthan 10 units per secondUR044UR852SynonymsElectromagnetic sensorElectromagnetic deviceSystemLidar…SynonymsTargetEcho…Semantic equivalences:IdentifiesFindDistinguishDiscover…<<Detect>>Radar Hits10Units perSecond<<MinimumValue>>SystemKnowledgeRepository
  • 29 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringApplications of OBSE to Requirements Quality Mgmt.Application 1Use of Ontologies for CCC
  • 30 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringApplication 1 - Use of Ontologies for CCC metricsCorrectnessConsistencyCompletenessSeveral possible metricsConsistency(Redundantrequirements)Consistency(Inconsistentunits)Completeness(Missingrequirements)Correctness(Individualrequirementmetrics)Completeness(Missing links)
  • 31 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringCorrectness : Individual requirements metrics Size Readability Conditional vs. imperative sentences Active vs. passive voice Optional sentences Ambiguous sentences Subjective sentences Implicit sentences Abuse of connectors Negations Speculative sentences Use of false friends Design terms Flow terms Number of domain nouns and verbs Acronyms Hierarchical levels Volatility Number of dependences Is a Standard Requirement
  • 32 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringIndividual requirements metrics for correctness 1/3 Size: expressed in paragraphs, chars, nouns or verbs. Long requirements will be difficult tounderstand Readability: number of letters between punctuation marks and some other formulasthan indicate whether the requirement will be easy to read. Ease to read requirementsgenerates less problems all over the project Conditional sentences vs. imperative sentences: avoid “would” and use “Shall”,“should” and “will” in the right way Active vs. passive voice: avoid using passive voice to increase the readability of therequirement Optional sentences: ”maybe”… Optional requirements must be stated by an attribute,never in the body of the requirement Ambiguous sentences: ”fast”,“user-friendly”… What do the analyst, the coder and thecustomer understand by the same ambiguous sentence
  • 33 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringIndividual requirements metrics for correctness 2/3 Subjective sentences: ”in my opinion”,“I think that”… Don’t show your ideas, but what thesystem should do Implicit sentences: ”It must be provided by them”…Too many pronouns make yourrequirements difficult to understand Abuse of connectors: “and”,“or”… Many times connectors reveal different needs enclosedwithin the same requirement, loosing the atomic characteristic False friends: customized according to “native language” of your project Negations: “no”,“never”…Two or more negations in the same sentence make it difficult tounderstand Speculative sentences: ”usually”,“almost”,“always”… Make the requirement imprecise Design terms: ”loop”,“hash”… Remember: avoid How, concentrate inWhat Flow terms: ”while”,“if”,“else”… Remember: avoid How, concentrate inWhat
  • 34 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringIndividual requirements metrics for correctness 3/3 Number of domain nouns and verbs: domain terms and verbs should be involved intothe requirement specification, nevertheless, too many different terms in the samerequirement many times means multiple needs Acronyms: avoid those that don’t belong to the domain representation Hierarchical levels: don’t complicate your specification with too many indentationlevels Volatility: if a requirement suffers many changes, you must be very careful with it Number of dependences: the same if your requirement is the source of too manydependences Standard Requirement: The requirement can be matched with one or many of therequirement templates defined by the organization.
  • 35 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringCorrectnessNegationsConditional SentencesDesignTermsConnectorsetc.ControlledVocabularyThesaurusLightOntologyPatterns andRepresentationSchemasAcronymsStandard Requirement
  • 36 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringMetrics for consistency Redundant requirements: Several requirements expressing the same need atthe same level of abstraction. Inconsistent units: Different requirements in the same module/block/projectuses different metric units. Value restrictions: Different requirements present value restrictions that arenot compatible.
  • 37 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringConsistencyRedundant requirementsControlledVocabularyThesaurusLightOntologyPatterns andRepresentationSchemasInconsistent UnitsValue restrictions
  • 38 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringMetrics for completeness Missing requirements: Lacks the existence of requirements expressing thesame need at the different level of abstraction in different modules/blocks of thesame project. Missing Links Lacks the existence of links between requirements expressingthe same need at the different level of abstraction in different modules/blocks ofthe same project.
  • 39 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringCompletenessMissing RequirementsControlledVocabularyThesaurusLightOntologyPatterns andRepresentationSchemasMissing Links
  • 40 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringCompleteness
  • 41 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringApplications of OBSE to Requirements QualityApplication 2Smart Requirements Authoring
  • 42 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringApplication 2 – Smart Requirements AuthoringRequirements Authoring :V&V&V on the flyA well written set of requirements would reduce the reviewing cost.If requirements arrive to the Quality Management group with low quality,the quality assessments becomes an expensive taskActivities assessing requirements quality during authoring timewill reduce quality management groups workloadwill reduce even more the effort for reviewing.
  • 43 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringV&V&V on the fly
  • 44 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringV&V&V on the flyRequirementValidatedVerifiedVerifiedOrganization SystemStakeholderMatch the Requirements against the Organization’s quality standards(boilerplates, terminology, semantics, etc.)
  • 45 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRequirements Authoring toolsProperties of a Requirements Authoring toolIt must calculate the same metrics that the Requirements Quality Analyzer buton the flyThe author must get information about the quality of the writtenrequirements before they are saved on the Requirements ManagementToolIt must be integrated with the Requirements ManagementToolIt must be simple and with a non aggressive GUI.It must advice, as much as possible about the CCC metricsCorrectnessCompletenessConsistency
  • 47 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringDemo Video
  • 49 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRequirements Authoring Tool – RAT V4.0 Simple
  • 50 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringRequirements Authoring Tool – RAT V4 Complete
  • 52 April 15th,16th, 17th 2013Nordic Systems Engineering TourOntology Based Systems EngineeringConclusionsThe challenges in SE are growingKnowledge Management is a present/future key factor in SE for helping tohandle with growing complexityOntologies are promising enablersThe application of Ontologies in Requirements Quality Management is asuccessful application at present timePilot projects show viability of the approach.
  • http://www.reusecompany.comcontact@reusecompany.comMargarita Salas, 16 2nd FloorInnovation CenterLEGATECTechnology Park28919 Leganés – MadridSPAIN – EUTel: (+34) 91 146 00 30Fax: (+34) 91 680 98 26