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Where and whence(!) the (R)evolution?         Three key principles at the heart of social                                 ...
Social media impact                                                       Canterbury earthquake  Japanese tsunami         ...
The changing mediascape 2.27 billion internet users 1.5 billion+ social network users 955 million active Facebook users...
The changing mediascapeProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
Web 2.0 and social media ‘Web 2.0’ coined by Tim O’Reilly in 2005 “... a set of principles and practices” (Tim O’Reilly,...
First and Second Media AgesFirst Media Age                                        Second Media AgeCentralised content prod...
Understanding media Traditional definitions:   • “... the institutionalised production and generalised diffusion of      ...
Understanding social media Social media are a significant shift in media and communication It’s about the PRACTICES more...
Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
Gov 2.0 consultation trials 2009 Lack of planning – usually no clear objectives Cultural barriers – don’t want to, or re...
2010 Australian election Content analysis of social media use by  206 sitting federal candidates + two  major political p...
2007 – 2010 Australian elections Social media                                          2007   2010   % change Personal Web...
Politicians on Twitter                                           Fake Twitter accounts                                    ...
Politicians on Twitter500450   439400350300250200            158150                142                          134       ...
Talking v listening 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000                                                                         ...
Talking v listening Politician                                            Tweets   Followers   Following 1.      Malcolm T...
Dialogue v broadcastingPolitician                                  Direct           Broadcasts   Where am I?    Attack on ...
UK and US election experiences “UK political leaders and organisations engaged primarily in  broadcasting their messages ...
August – September 20111. Survey of 200 + organisations (private and public) in Australia, New   Zealand, Singapore and Ho...
ParticipantsProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
Social media most usedSocial media/network                                   % of Organisations UsingFacebook             ...
Risks in social media                                                                                57.9%                ...
Social media use by organisations Few organisations allocate additional resources for responding  to social media comment...
Key requirements in social media Listening – not just talking   • Listening is essential to be social, interactive and fo...
Key requirements in social media Listening (particularly large-scale organisational listening)  requires an ARCHITECTURE ...
Where and whence the revolution? It’s about the practices and a cultural shift –  not the technologies   • We need to cha...
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Where and whence the [R]evolution

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Presented at The Project Revolution in Auckland by Professor Jim McNamara, University of Technology, Sydney.

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Transcript of "Where and whence the [R]evolution"

  1. 1. Where and whence(!) the (R)evolution? Three key principles at the heart of social Jim Macnamara PhD, FPRIA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC Professor of Public Communication University of Technology SydneyProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  2. 2. Social media impact Canterbury earthquake Japanese tsunami Queensland floodsProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  3. 3. The changing mediascape 2.27 billion internet users 1.5 billion+ social network users 955 million active Facebook users (May 2012) 4 billion videos a day on YouTube 400 million blogs 340 million tweets every day via Twitter 19 million articles posted on Wikipedia in 2011Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  4. 4. The changing mediascapeProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  5. 5. Web 2.0 and social media ‘Web 2.0’ coined by Tim O’Reilly in 2005 “... a set of principles and practices” (Tim O’Reilly, 2005) “It’s an attitude, not a technology ... an underlying philosophy of relinquishing control” (Richard MacManus, 2005) “... it’s not about the technology ... It’s about relinquishing control ... openness, trust and authenticity” (Peter Merholz, 2005) “participatory culture” (Henry Jenkins, 2006) “... open-source, interactive and user-controlled online applications expanding the experiences, knowledge and market power of the users as participants” (Constantinides & Fountain, 2008)Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  6. 6. First and Second Media AgesFirst Media Age Second Media AgeCentralised content production Decentralised content production (e.g. user-generated content)State or capitalist control Beyond state and capitalist control; democratising; open access; bottom-upOne-way distribution of information - Two-way interactive communication –monologue dialogue and conversationsAudiences conceived and treated as mass, Audience fragmentation; networks;passive prosumers / produsers creating user- generated content as well as consumingElites dominate media content influencing Individuals use media to constructsocial consciousness and reproducing themselves as ‘subjects’, enabling socialexisting social structures changeProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  7. 7. Understanding media Traditional definitions: • “... the institutionalised production and generalised diffusion of symbolic goods via … transmission of information or symbolic content” (John Thompson, 1995) • “... technological channels of distribution of messages by organisations (W. James Potter, 2009) “ … structures of communication, where structures include both technological forms and their associated protocols, and where communication is a cultural practice (Lisa Gitelman, 2008)Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  8. 8. Understanding social media Social media are a significant shift in media and communication It’s about the PRACTICES more than technologies • Openness – to prosumers / produsers Not dominated by elites • Two-way interaction and dialogue Not monologue • Bottom-up and side-to-side Not top-down • No, or few, gatekeepers Not controlled • Authentic Not packaged • Listening Not just talkingProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  9. 9. Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  10. 10. Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  11. 11. Gov 2.0 consultation trials 2009 Lack of planning – usually no clear objectives Cultural barriers – don’t want to, or reluctant, to engage Heavy moderation Inability to meet response time expectations Lack of resources to monitor and respond • No extra human resources • Little or no social media monitoring Lack of sense-making tools • E.g. text analysis software to review and understand large quantities of Study of 11 federal government public comment departments and agencies using social media for citizen engagementProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  12. 12. 2010 Australian election Content analysis of social media use by 206 sitting federal candidates + two major political parties • Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, YouTube, blogsProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  13. 13. 2007 – 2010 Australian elections Social media 2007 2010 % change Personal Web site 137 157 15% Twitter 0 92 9200% Facebook 8 146 1725% YouTube 13 34 162% MySpace 26 9 -65% Blogs 15 29 93% Flickr 0 9 900% E-surveys 24 7 -71% E-petitions 10 3 -70% E-newsletter 42 78 86% Total online sites/activities 275 564 105%Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  14. 14. Politicians on Twitter Fake Twitter accounts 4% On Twitter 45% Not on Twitter 51%Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  15. 15. Politicians on Twitter500450 439400350300250200 158150 142 134 104100 91 90 90 75 72 63 62 59 55 45 34 34 32 31 31 31 50 0 LL S Y KE BB NE KE D S P RY UR IN N N ER N T LL M NG ND LI G O ET R AN SO O HA HA W U W RO R IL IG EL BU SH LA CH NO IS U NB LD R BU LU M RM HA HN G BR YO RR IL AR AD BI ET R IN BA R G JO TU CO N- OTU G M BR FLM R SO BI N HAProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  16. 16. Talking v listening 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 Following Followers 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 LL S BB NE KE Y P S E RD TT N IN N RY UR ER LL N M RM NG LI ND O G RK SO AN O HA HA W BU RO RE W IL EL SH IG LA BU CH O IS U LD BU LU M RM HN HA RN G BR YO RR RN AR IL BI AD ET IN BA G JO CO TU O N- TU G FL BR M O BI NS HAProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  17. 17. Talking v listening Politician Tweets Followers Following 1. Malcolm Turnbull 439 26,943 20,498 2. Scott Morrison 158 1,978 166 3. Andrew Robb 142 1,684 1,254 4. Tony Burke 134 3,107 550 5. Kate Lundy 104 4,352 720 9. Julia Gillard 75 43,538 27,467 92. Tony Abbott 2 19,083 20Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  18. 18. Dialogue v broadcastingPolitician Direct Broadcasts Where am I? Attack on messages & opponents responsesMalcolm Turnbull 248 191 81 9Scott Morrison 33 125 48 19Andrew Robb 1 141 17 79Tony Burke 65 68 9 14Kate Lundy 28 56 22 11Mathias Corman 22 44 5 49Julia Gillard 12 51 20 4Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  19. 19. UK and US election experiences “UK political leaders and organisations engaged primarily in broadcasting their messages and not listening or engaging in dialogue” (Gibson, Williamson & Ward, 2010) “In the 2010 US mid-terms, 76% of tweets were one-way dissemination of information about candidates or their campaign events – “a wasted opportunity” for engagement (Unpublished PhD thesis, 2012)Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  20. 20. August – September 20111. Survey of 200 + organisations (private and public) in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Hong Kong2. Depth interviews with social media specialists (n = 14)Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  21. 21. ParticipantsProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  22. 22. Social media most usedSocial media/network % of Organisations UsingFacebook 73.7%Twitter 54.1%YouTube 52.7%Corporate/organisation blog 46.8%Podcasting (e.g. of speeches) 19%Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  23. 23. Risks in social media 57.9% 43.4% Loss of 34.4% control 30.4% 30.3% 8.4%Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  24. 24. Social media use by organisations Few organisations allocate additional resources for responding to social media comment, questions, etc 65.2% have no specific policy or guidelines for employees on use of social media 46.7% either do not monitor social media at all, or monitor only in an ad hoc way Less than one-third (32%) analyse social media content qualitatively Most focus is on content creation and distribution (talking)Professor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  25. 25. Key requirements in social media Listening – not just talking • Listening is essential to be social, interactive and for engagement • Listening = free real-time 24/7 market, opinion and reputation research The WORK OF LISTENING • People • Effort • TimeProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  26. 26. Key requirements in social media Listening (particularly large-scale organisational listening) requires an ARCHITECTURE OF LISTENING • Policies • Systems (two-way interactive sites) • Tools or services to monitor • Technology such as auto-acknowledgement and text analysis software • Human resources (moderators, editors, etc) • Articulation to management and policyProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
  27. 27. Where and whence the revolution? It’s about the practices and a cultural shift – not the technologies • We need to change organisational culture and architecture The shift to the social organisation is revolutionary – if operationalised in practice • Openness, interactivity, participation, collaboration • But the control paradigm is resilient Being social requires listening as well as talking • Do the work of listening • Have an architecture of listeningProfessor Jim Macnamara PhD, FAMI, CPM, FPRIA, FAMECUniversity of Technology Sydney
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