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Overview of Industrial Use

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Transcript

  • 1. Industrial Uses Petroleum and Kerosene
  • 2. The Petroleum Age
    • The petroleum industry produces a diverse range of materials that are essential to our modern life.
    • Petroleum is the source of many important materials known as petrochemicals or petroleum products.
    • The most prominent application of petroleum products is in their use as fuels
    • However there are many more applications of petrochemicals
  • 3. Petro-FUELS
  • 4. Petroleum Fuels
    • There are numerous fuels that are derived from crude oil.
    • Different fuels have different properties and therefore are used for distinct purposes. (i.e. different vehicles require different fuels)
    • Some of these fuels include: petrol, LPG, diesel, kerosene (jet fuel) and fuel oils
  • 5. The Internal Combustion Engine
    • Burning a hydrocarbon gives off heat, water and carbon dioxide.
    • Modern engines take advantage of the heat released by the combustion of hydrocarbons in order to power things such as cars and machinery.
    • The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy which in turn operates the pistons that drive the mechanisms of the apparatus.
  • 6. The General Formula of Combustion
    • The equation for the combustion of hydrocarbons is given by the following:
    • The amount of heat, water and carbon dioxide is determined by the length of the carbon chain and the properties of the hydrocarbon.
  • 7. How the Engine Works
    • Most engines in cars these days are “four stroke”
    • The liquid fuel vaporises and mixes with air in the combustion chamber.
    • This mixture is compressed and then a spark triggers combustion.
    • The piston is forced downwards and then moves up again to expel the waste products of H 2 O and CO 2 .
  • 8. The Four Strokes
  • 9. Petrol as a Fuel
    • Petrol is the most common fuel.
    • Used in most modern cars.
    • Contains carbon chains between 6 and 12. But is primarily comprised of Octane, C 8 H 18.
    • Equation of combustion:
  • 10. Diesel as a Fuel
    • Diesel is used primarily in trucks.
    • This is because it is more efficient and can be taken advantage of during long cargo routes
    • Contains carbon chains of around 12 to 18. Is commonly estimated to C 14 H 30.
    • Equation of combustion:
  • 11. Non Fuel Petrochemical Use
  • 12. Non Fuel Petroleum Products
    • Petrochemicals are not limited to serving only as fuels.
    • Pesticides, plastics, fibres, solvents, paints, glue, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, bitumen, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubbers and explosives all are derived from petroleum products
    • Many byproducts from the refinery of petroleum are used to produce a diverse range of versatile materials, here are just a few.
  • 13. Petroleum Jelly
    • Known as soft paraffin (or Vasoline), a cream like mix of hydrocarbons with chain lengths above 25 Carbons.
    • Resists oxidation and is used to coat metals.
    • Used cosmetically to protect skin, can also seal wounds.
    • May be employed as a lubricant but potentially “gums” up.
  • 14. Lubricating Oils
    • Blends of Hydrocarbons with just less than 20 carbons.
    • Do not vaporise at standard temperatures and will remain liquid even at 121˚C.
    • Reduce wear and friction between moving parts in a piece of equipment.
    • Lubricate machinery and vehicles which operate at high temperatures.
  • 15. Plastics
    • Polymerised chains of hydrocarbons become plastics.
    • A single Polymer can contain over 100,000 molecules of its constituent monomer.
    • PolyEythlene (Ethlyene), PolyPropylene (Propylene) and Polystryene (Stryrene), are three of the most common plastics, (the monomers have been given in brackets).
    • Plastics can be molded into an abundance of items, including, computer housing, car parts, toys, containers, prothestics, cds, dvds, etc.
  • 16. What Plastics Look like…
    • … on a molecular scale
  • 17. Solvents
    • Solvents dissolve substances
    • Work on the principle that “like dissolves like”
    • Hydrocarbon solvents are ideal for cleaning greasy and oily residue, due to this principle.
    • Most cleaners contain some form of petrochemical for this purpose
  • 18. Kerosene
  • 19. Kerosene
    • Kerosene, most notably used in jet engines as a fuel base.
    • Predominantly used as a heating oil for lamps in the early 1900s.
    • Has several more applications and is representative of the versatility of petroleum products.
  • 20. Kerosene in the Fuel of Jets
    • Jet fuel is not solely comprised of kerosene.
    • Many additives such a benzene and toluene are added to increase the favourable properties of kerosene, which includes its resistance to gelling.
    • Its high enthalpy makes it ideal for jet speed flight.
    • Jet engines (gas turbines) use the combustion of kerosene with air to achieve motion
    • Equation of Combustion:
  • 21. Kerosene – the Other Uses
    • Solvent, particularly for tar and grease
    • Pesticide, its low density allows it float on water and suffocate mosquito larvae
    • Heating oil, combustion of kerosene is used for camp stoves, heating units and some lamps
  • 22. Environmental Consequences
    • Combustion of kerosene produces the greenhouse gases CO 2 and water vapour
    • When used as a pesticide endangers other flora and fauna
    • Volatile and can cause fires especially when used in a camp stove or lamp.
    • Products of Petroleum often not biodegradable, such as plastics, synthetic rubbers, oils, paints, glues and solvents.