In the poorest areas of New York (the Ghettos) such as Brooklyn, Bronx and In the poorest areas of New York (the Ghettos) such as Brooklyn, Bronx and Harlem and Queens people had ‘block parties’, setting up massive Sound Harlem and Queens people had ‘block parties’, setting up massive SoundSystems and Turntables outside their building blocks for parties. DJs played the Systems and Turntables outside their building blocks for parties. DJs played the records whilst MCs rapped over them. records whilst MCs rapped over them. DJs played disco and funk records of the 70s. DJ Kool Herc was born in DJs played disco and funk records of the 70s. DJ Kool Herc was born in Jamaica and combined the toasting/rapping with the ‘Breaks’ Jamaica and combined the toasting/rapping with the ‘Breaks’ (instrumental sections of disco/funk records). (instrumental sections of disco/funk records).
ORIGINS of RAP ORIGINS of RAPRapping is ‘speaking in rhythm ’ ’ usually over a Rapping is ‘speaking in rhythm usually over a beat or music. beat or music.The tradition began in the Jamaican Dancehall scene, The tradition began in the Jamaican Dancehall scene,where big spontaneous parties would happen, the MC where big spontaneous parties would happen, the MCwould speak over the records (called ‘toasting’), callingwould speak over the records (called ‘toasting’), calling people to come and join in their party. people to come and join in their party. WHAT is an MC? WHAT is an MC? A Master of Ceremonies (MC) is the host of A Master of Ceremonies (MC) is the host of aastaged event or similar performance. An MC staged event or similar performance. An MC usually presents performers, speaks to the usually presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the event audience, and generally keeps the event moving. moving.
Overview of RapBegan mid-late 1970’s Started at clubs and illegalNew York Bronx (inner-city) street partiesBlack music style Influenced by “toasting” of Jamaican ska DJ’sInvented as a strictly “live”music style Also influenced by electro- funk & disco sounds of the time
The tricks of RapDJ Innovations• Cutting - moving between two records quickly using a cross- fader• Back spinning• Scratching – moving record backwards and forwards rhythmically Early artists• These techniques were • Grandmaster Flash & established primarily by Furious Five (pictured) Grandmaster Flash • Sugarhill Gang • Afrika Bambataa
TechnologicalinfluenceCommercialisation of the style wasdifficult as the style depended onthe use of recorded material……royalties were due for all recordsplayedSo electronic sounds took over E.g. Run DMCRoland’s TR-808 analogue drum Samplers allowed artists tomachine featured heavily (and still drop in any sound effects theydoes) wanted The live performance element was maintained… …until MIDI sequencers started getting used in commercial tracks
- A Sampler is an electronic musical instrument similar to a synthesizer but, instead of generating sounds, it uses recordings (or "samples") of sounds that are loaded or recorded into it and then played, a keyboard, sequencer or other triggering device is used to perform. - A Drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums or other percussion instruments. the TR-808, along with its successor, the TR- 909 (released 1983), it became a fixture of the underground dance, electro, house, techno, R&B and hip-hop genres, mainly because of its low cost and the unique character of its analogue-generated sounds.
Synthesizers (both analogue and digital)Drum esM achin Samplers Turntab le s (‘decks’) MIDI bEffects su ch as EQ, Rever Sequencers tc.Delay, Cho rus, Distortion e (both hardware and software)
• Tales of urban crime and ghetto lifestyles were always a part of rapGangsta Rap • E.g. Grandmaster Flash’s "The Message” • The first two Boogie Down Productions albums • However, the genre really kicked off with NWA’s "Straight Out of Compton,“ • …”a shocking and compelling ghetto narrative” • Violent themes – the style is often criticised for promoting crime, though the artists would dispute this• The commercialisation of the style inevitably involved dilution of the essential elements of the style• Lyrics were adapted to suit the mass market• Rough, live performances of the old school were replaced by polished sequences• Artist’s images became clean-cut• MC Hammer• Vanilla Ice• Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince Pop Rap
1. Rhythm and Metre - 4/4 - Straight (not swung) - Syncopation - Backbeat Musical Features2. Harmony and Tonality 3. Texture and Melody- Major/Minor - Samples- Riff based - Loops (backing is very repetitive)- Consonant harmony (no clashes) - Disco samples usually have a thick - texture - Drumbeat samples can be thin texture4. Timbre and Dynamics 5. Structure and Form- DJs and Turntablism, scratching - Intro, verse, chorus.- MCs/Rappers- 70s Disco instrumentation (elec gtr, - Breakbeat (instrumental backing)bass, strings, synths)- Prominent Bass line and Drum beat - Call and Response phrases- Effects processors: reverb, delay, autotune, Vocoder, EQ filtering.