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History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
History of Audio Recording Technology
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History of Audio Recording Technology

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History of Audio Recording Technology …

History of Audio Recording Technology

Both the music industry and the ability to record any wonderful bit of audio has developed a great deal since the simple pen and paper! Gone are the days where a little melody is composed and your best musical buddy plays the song on the local pub’s piano.

The Music Espionage is here to help you understand the progression from simple acoustic recordings like the Phonograph, into electrical and finally the modern age of digital recordings.

Hopefully, this presentation will explain everything from professional recording across the ages and place this along side personal music mediums.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
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Transcript

  • 1. Equipment used inthe Music Studio‘Mono’- Acoustic recordingmethod Acoustic hornused to collect sound- Direct to disc(phonograph)Phonograph patented byThomas Edison (1877)Magnetic recording (1900)Carbon microphone (1878)TechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopmentsPhonograph CylinderPrinted Music/Published
  • 2. A transducer that converts acousticsound to an electrical signal.It consists of two metal plates separatedby granules of carbon. One plate is verythin and faces outward, acting as adiaphragm.When sound wavesstrike this plate, thepressure on thegranules changes,which in turnchanges theelectrical resistance.
  • 3. Equipment used inthe Music Studio‘Mono’Some use of electronicrecording method, mainlyacoustic.- Direct to disc(phonograph)- Basic amplifiers andvariable resistors- Carbon microphonesused- 1st Sound onfilm or opticalrecordingmethods- Early Electronicamplifiers –advances forguitar- 1st Condensermicrophones –Bell Labs (1926)TechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopmentsGramophone Records 78 rpmRadio Broadcast in USA
  • 4. Condenser microphones, alsoknown as a Capacitor orElectrostatic microphone.They require a powersource, Phantom Power48Volts.Open CondenserMicrophoneFront Plate(Diaphragm)Power to chargethe plateSound-waves change the spacingbetween a thin metallic membrane(Diaphragm) and the stationaryback plate.
  • 5. Gramophones read sound with asmall needle which fits into thegroove in the record. The cuttingprocess creates variations in thegroove analogous to the varyingfrequency and amplitude of thevibrations; the stylus moves upand down in "hill-and-dale”.- Edisons Diamond Discs wereavailable 1910 in7, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 21 inchformats. Recording and playingspeeds ranged from 72 to 86 rpmbefore the standard settled at78rpm.- The disc was made of an earlyplastic known as Amberol.
  • 6. Equipment used inthe Music Studio‘Mono’Electronic recording methodLathe electromagnetic cuttinghead driven by an electronicamplifier. Direct to disc- Multiple microphones Basicamplifiers and variable resistorsCapacitor and Ribbonmicrophones used Opticalrecording method - direct to thefilm- Experiments in stereorecording Germansdevelop tape recorder -used during war BASF –magnetic tape- Moving Coil ordynamic’ microphoneand Ribbon Microphone–Bell Labs (1931)TechnologyDevelopments- Walt Disneys Fantasia film isfirst commercial stereo recording- Jukeboxes First 33 rpm discs
  • 7. Made from Ferromagneticmaterial, so if you expose itto a magnetic field it ispermanently magnetized bythe field.- You can record anythingyou want instantly andthe tape will rememberwhat you recorded forplayback at any time.- You can erase the tapeand record somethingelse on it any time youlike.These two features arewhat make tapes and disksso popular
  • 8. Ribbon microphones use athin, corrugated metal ribbonsuspended in a magnetic field. Theribbon is electrically connected to themicrophones output, and itsvibration within the magnetic fieldgenerates the electrical signal.Dynamic microphone use a wire-coil and a magnet to create anaudio signal.Very much like a speaker, but inreverse.
  • 9. Equipment used inthe Music Studio‘Mono’- Tape recorders usedin some studios- Condenser(Capacitor) andRibbon and alsoDynamicmicrophones used(Shure Unidyne)- 40s - Capitol releaseLes Paul playing 8overdubbed guitarparts recorded onwax disc (1947)- 50s - Les Paulinvents sound onsound recording ontape- Tape Echo inventedTape editingTechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopments- 45 rpm singles- First commercial stereo recordingsin late 50s Microgroove LP disc
  • 10. Equipment used inthe Music StudioStereo (1960s to present day)- Analogue Multitrack Reel toReel Tape 4 – 8 – 16 track 4track machine used by theBeatles on the album SgtPeppers Lonely Hearts ClubBand- Echoplex’ Tape Delay- Plate reverb units Studio asa musical / creative device- Electret microphone(1964)- Leo Fender Springreverb- Tape recorderslocked together tocreate more tracksTechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopmentsPhillips Compact Cassette (1962)Portable tape recorders8 track tape Last 78 rpm records
  • 11. Equipment used inthe Music Studio‘Stereo’- Analogue Multitrack -16– 24 – 32 track- Analogue synthesisers(Moog)- Analogue and Digital Delayand Reverb- SoundfieldMicrophone- Fairlight CMIsamplingworkstation (1979)TechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopmentsDolby noise reduction QuadraphonicThe Sony Walkman
  • 12. Equipment used inthe Music Studio- Analogue and Digital Multitrack32 - 48 track +- Digital mixing consoles- Digital Editing and MasteringDrum Machines andSynthesisers- Digital Effects / Multi-effectsMIDI keyboards and Samplers- Atari Computer Sequencer- 16 Bit / 44.1kHz CD standard18Bit / 48kHz- Pro standard MIDI standard(1982)- Yamaha DX7 synthesiser(1983)- Akai Samplers Sound Toolsdigital editingTechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopments- Phillips Compact Disc (1982)- MTV (1981) - First Guitar Multi-fx
  • 13. Equipment used inthe Music StudioSee 1980s plus …..- Recording onto a computer /Pro tools / DAW Digital editingon computer- ADAT 8 track digital tape(affordable)- Multi-timbral Keyboards andsound modules- Affordable analogue and digitaldesks- 24 Bit / 96kHz standard- Sample Libraries Computersound cards developed formusic – Creative Labs “SoundBlasterTechnologyDevelopmentsCommercialDevelopments- CD-R – Early MP3 – DVD – Mini Disc- Home studios start the decline of thelarge studios
  • 14. Equipment used inthe Music Studio- The computer based studiocomes of age- Logic Pro taken over by AppleAudio. Logic stopped onWindows.- Plug-ins Software instrumentsHardware control over software- Vocal Channels high end valvehardware- 192kHz sample rate Physical- Modelling Synthesis- AppleLoops- - High Speed Broadband- USB / Firewire AudioInterfacesTechnology DevelopmentsCommercialDevelopments- Apple iLife – MP3 - Apple iPod –- Apple iTunes Pod fx - LEMUR- Kaoss Pad Fx
  • 15. From our CD collections to iPodsbursting with MP3s, recordings arethe most common way weexperience music."Perfecting Sound Forever" tellsthe story of recordedmusic, introducing us to theinnovators, musicians andproducers who have affected theway we hear our favorite songs.

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