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6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
6  - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s
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6 - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s

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6 - History of Popular Music - Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae - 1970s

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  • 1. Ska, Rock Steady & Ska, Rock Steady & Reggae Reggae
  • 2. RecappingRecapping • Psychedelic rock emerged during the mid 1960’s and is closely connected to mind-altering drugs and their effects. It is said to replicate, enhance and even summarize the effects these drugs had on an person. • Electric Guitars: often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzboxes. • Elaborate Studio effects: such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops and extreme Reverb. • Exotic Instrumentation: sitar and tabla. • Instrument Solos: often at great length and without structure. • Complex song structures: Key signature changes, modal melodies and drones • Strange Lyrics: Often surreal, whimsical and with themes of drugs and sex.
  • 3. Wall of sound!Wall of sound! • Wall of Sound is a music production technique for pop and rock music recordings developed by record producer Phil Spector. • This rich texture used echo, tape loops, multi layering and a powerful backbeat. Famously found in hits by the Ronettes, Crystals, Righteous Bros., Ike and Tina Turner.
  • 4. -After World War II, Jamaicans purchased radios in increasing numbers and were able to heard Rhythm & Blues music from Southern United States, cities such as New Orleans Ska MusicSka Music - Jamaican entrepreneurs saw a large gap in the popular music entertainment market and stated to develop musical venues. - Naturally artists copied and re-crated this music. As Jump-Blues and more traditional R&B began to filter into popularity in the early 1960s; Jamaican artists began their own versions of the genres. The sound system scene was any Jamaican Disc Jockey, M.C or engineer playing Ska, Rockstedy or Reggea music ,regarded as an important part of Jamaican culture, responsible for the rise of many different styles.
  • 5. Ska Stylist Origins Jamaican Mento/Calupso, American Jazz and R&B Cultural Origins Late 1950s Jamaica Typical Instruments Guitar, Bass Guitar, Trumpet, trombone, saxophone, piano, drums and organ. Mainstream Popularity 1st Wave: Highest in early 1960s wide popularity in Jamaica & United Kingdom. 2nd Wave: ‘2 Tone’ Revivals in UK 1970s/1980s 3rd Wave: Late 1990s USA Derivative Forms Rock Steady & Reggae Ska music was made for dancing. The music is upbeat, quick and exciting. -Musically, Ska can be characterized with a drumbeat on the 2nd and 4th beats (in 4/4 time) and with the guitar hitting the 2nd , 3rd and 4th beats. - Ska sound coincided with the celebratory feelings surrounding Jamaica's independence from the UK in 1962; an event commemorated by songs such as Derrick Morgan’s ‘Forward March’ and The Skatalites’ ‘Freedom Sound’.
  • 6. Rocksteady arose at a time when young people from Jamaican countryside were flooding into urban ghettos of Kingston. Though much of country was optimistic in the immediate post- independence, these poverty stricken youths did not share this sentiment. Many of them became delinquents who exuded a certain coolness and style. These unruly youths became known as ‘Rude Boys’.
  • 7. Rocksteady Stylist Origins Ska, Soul and Rhythm & Blues Cultural Origins Mid 1960’s Jamaica Typical Instruments Bass Guitar, Drums, Guitar, Organ, Brass Instruments and Melodica Mainstream Popularity Late 1960s - Varied Derivative Forms Reggae - Rocksteady is slower and more relaxed than ska. - Snare drums have an essential role in timekeeping, characterised by one heavy beat on the third beat of every bar. - The bass is heavier and more prominent than in ska, and the bass lines replace the walking style of ska in favor of more broken, syncopated figures. - Rocksteady reduced (but did not eliminate) the use of horns; instead, the electric guitar, bass, and piano became more prominent. Important Artists: -The Paragons - Toots & the Maytals - The Gaylads
  • 8. Transformation from Rocksteady into Reggae • Upgrading of Jamaican studio technology — had a marked effect on the sound and style of the recordings. • Bass patterns became more complex and increasingly dominated the arrangements. • Horns fading farther into the background. • More percussive rhythm guitar. • Many reggae songs became focused less on romance and more on black consciousness, politics and protest.
  • 9. Reggae is based on a rhythmic style characterized by accents on the ’Off- Beat. The use of this form of syncopation was often called ‘Skank’. - Skanking on the guitar is when a note is isolated by left hand damping of the two strings adjacent to the fully fretted string, producing the desired note. - Reggae is normally slower than both Ska and Rocksteady. Reggae usually accents the second and fourth beat in each bar, with the rhythm guitar also emphasising the third beat or holding the chord on the second beat until the fourth is played. Reggae Stylist Origins Ska, Rocksteady, Soul, Rhythm & Blues Cultural Origins Late 1960s Jamaica especially Kingston. Typical Instruments Bass Guitar, Drums, Guitar, Organ, Brass Instruments and Melodica Mainstream Popularity Early 1970s onward, varied Derivative Forms Dancehall, Dub and later into Hip-Hop.
  • 10. • Reggae is either played in 4/4 time because of the symmetrical rhythmic pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures, for example 3/4. • Harmonically, the music is often very simple and sometimes a whole song will have no more than one or two chords. These simple repetitive chord structures add to Reggae’s Important Artists: - Derrick Morgan - Bob Marley & the Wailers - Peter Tosh
  • 11. Drums and other percussion: ‘One drop’, the emphasis is entirely on the third beat of the bar (usually on the snare, or as a rim shot combined with bass drum). Beat one is completely empty, which is unusual in popular music.

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