Rollover BeethovenRollover Beethoven
Rock ‘n’ Roll, Country, GospelRock ‘n’ Roll, Country, Gospel
and Rockabillyand Rockab...
- Chord progressions normally centre around;
I – Tonic
VI – Subdominant
V – Dominant (‘Turn-around’ leading back to
I)
Rec...
Swing Bebop
- Improvised sections,
more structured, less
time
- Large Bands
- ‘Radio Friendly’ – Easy
to listen to + Dance...
• Rock ‘n’ Roll is often identified with the
emergence of ‘Teen Culture’. Postwar
(WWII) teenagers who had a disposable
in...
• American Popular Culture had a great divide. Blues was a
largely Black community genre, whereas Country was mainly
produ...
• New technology such
as Electro-Magnets
could record the change
in vibrations that a
guitar sting makes and
transmit as a...
• An early fusion of White
Country music of the rural South
and Black Blues was ‘Rockabilly’
• Using the new electric guit...
• The ‘Bo Diddley Beat’ came from
the artist himself, blues legend Bo
Diddley (Ellas McDaniel).
• Good example of a syncop...
• Taking early Jazz
styles and focusing
these around a strong
beat.• 12 Bar Blues
• I – Tonic
VI – Subdominant
V – Dominan...
• In 1954 Bill Haley and the Comets released the song
‘Rock Around the Clock’. Rock ‘n’ Roll had been
developing for a few...
• Technology developed throughout
World War II dramatically increased
the quality and frequency range that
could be record...
• Rock ‘n’ Roll recordings make extensive use of ‘slap-back’ echo,
particularly on the vocals and guitar parts.
• Slap-bac...
• The human brain is excellent at estimating
exactly what environment it is located in purely
from the sound of the reverb...
Time
Parameters
Sound Parameters Mix
Complete on-line hearing test & print results (right-click graph):
1/ Comment on level of hearing over different frequenci...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

3 - History of Popular Music - Rock'n'roll, Country, Gospel & Rockabilly - 1950's

2,228 views
2,061 views

Published on

Visit us at - http://www.themusicespionage.co.uk/
3 - History of Popular Music - Rock'n'roll, Country, Gospel & Rockabilly - 1950's

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,228
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The twelve-bar lyric framework of blues is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars normally in 4/4 time signature.
    Blues was built around a 3 lines of lyrics; Where the 1st line was repeated and a 3rd line answered the first two lines:
    Robert Johnson was a very influential Blues guitarist, known for a style called Delta Blues.
  • Consonance = An interval or chord which gives and agreeable or satisfying effect. These are often seen as Octave, perfect 5th, 4th, and major/minor 3rds & 6ths.
    Dissonance = Give the effect of tension or unresolved. Often seen as being 2nds, 7ths, 9ths and all Augmented & Diminished.
    Augmented 4th (Diminished 5th) popular in this genre: called the Tritone, embraces 3 whole tones (6 semitones).
    - Miles Davis was one of the first artists seen as developing this sub-genre. Between 1949 & 1950 he released ‘Birth of the Cool’
  • The new amplifier technology meant the guitar could now take a more lead role.
    Notice how the music of artists such as B.B King strongly placed the guitar as the lead instrument.
  • Elvis when into a local record studio, ‘Sun Records’ to record a song for his Mother. He was soon snapped up by RCA (1956) and became involved in the Rock ‘n’ Roll revolution.
    The basic elements of the first bands are still seen today in nearly every group and artist.
  • - "Shave and a haircut, two bits"
  • - A new kind of blues, featured electrically amplified guitars, harmonicas, and drummers that emphasized the strong beat. At the same time, black gospel music grew in popularity.
    These forms of black popular music were given the label rhythm and blues (R and B) and were played on big-city radio stations.
    Radio spread this music's appeal from black communities to towns throughout all of the United States.
    By the mid-1950's such performers as Little Richard, Joe Turner, and Chuck Berry were becoming popular with white audiences.  
  • Rock Around the Clock sold over 15 million copies.
    It was the chance to throw off the austerity of the post-war years and for the younger generation to find its own identity.
  • All recordings were ‘Reel to Reel’ – Often only 4 to 8 tracks
    - RCA release 7 inch diameter, 45 rpm microgroove disc, normally for
    10/12 inch vinyl – Holds more info. And start the idea of recording albums – longer sessions of artists.
    - Stereo LPs became available and new releases were issued in both mono (monaural) and stereo (stereophonic) versions.
  • Predelay Determines the time between the original signal and the reverb signal.
- Reflectivity: Defines how reflective the imaginary walls, ceiling, and floor are. 
- Room Size: Defines the dimensions of a simulated room. 
- Density/Time: Determines both the density and the duration of the reverb.
    Low Cut: Frequencies below the set value are filtered out of the reverb signal. 
- High Cut: Frequencies above the set value are filtered out of the reverb signal. 
- Modulation Rate knob: Sets the frequency (the speed) of the LFO.
- Modulation Phase knob: Defines the phase of the modulation between the left and right channels of the reverb signal. At 0°, the extreme values (minimum or maximum) of the modulation are achieved simultaneously on both the left and right channels. At a value of 180°, the extreme values opposite each other (left channel minimum, right channel maximum, or vice-versa) are reached simultaneously.
- Modulation Intensity: Sets the modulation amount. A value of 0 turns the delay modulation off. 
- Mix: Sets the balance between the effect (wet) and original (dry) signals.
  • - Time parameters: determine the delay time of the original signal and reverb tail, and change the reverb tail over time. The graphic display visually represents the levels over time (the envelope) of the reverb.
    - Sound parameters: Allows to shape the sound of the reverb signal. You can also split the incoming signal into two bands—with the Crossover parameter—and set the level of the low frequency band separately.
    Mix: Determines the balance between the effect (wet) and direct (dry) signals.

- Predelay: Sets the time between the original signal and the starting point of the reverb attack phase—the very beginning of the first reflection.
- Attack: The time it takes for the reverb to climb to its peak level.
- Decay: The time it takes for the level of the reverb to drop from its peak to the sustain level.
- Sustain: Level of the reverb that remains constant throughout the sustain phase. It is expressed as a percentage of the full-scale volume of the reverb signal. 
- Hold: Sets the duration—the time—of the sustain phase.
- Release: The time that the reverb takes to fade out completely, after it has completed the sustain phase.
    Density: Sets the reverb density. 
- Spread: The stereo image of the reverb. At 0% the effect generates a monaural reverb. At 200% the stereo base is artificially expanded.
- High: Frequencies above the set value are filtered out of the reverb tail.
- Crossover: The frequency that is used to split the input signal into two frequency bands, for independent processing. 
- Low Freq Level: The relative level of (reverb signal) frequencies below the crossover frequency. In most cases you get better-sounding results when you set negative values for this parameter.
  • 3 - History of Popular Music - Rock'n'roll, Country, Gospel & Rockabilly - 1950's

    1. 1. Rollover BeethovenRollover Beethoven Rock ‘n’ Roll, Country, GospelRock ‘n’ Roll, Country, Gospel and Rockabillyand Rockabilly
    2. 2. - Chord progressions normally centre around; I – Tonic VI – Subdominant V – Dominant (‘Turn-around’ leading back to I) Recapping • Key aspect of the music was ‘call and response’, associated with work-songs and slavery. Sung rhythmically in time with the task. Turn-around section
    3. 3. Swing Bebop - Improvised sections, more structured, less time - Large Bands - ‘Radio Friendly’ – Easy to listen to + Dance - Slower tempos for dancing - Less band members - ‘Challenging’ – demonstration of musicianship, NOT commercial - Fast tempos - Fast, complex improvisation, often at length • By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension of Bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm and smoothness, with the sounds of ‘Cool Jazz’.
    4. 4. • Rock ‘n’ Roll is often identified with the emergence of ‘Teen Culture’. Postwar (WWII) teenagers who had a disposable income and wanted to fight old trends of their parents. • New mediums such as the now affordable Radio and soon the Television meant artists were becoming popular over night. • The contrast between parental and youth culture was exemplified by Rock ‘n’ Roll. Old genres like Tin Pan Ally or Swing, that were very sentimental of Post-War years. It served as escapism, but for the young people of post-war generation, it left a gap………
    5. 5. • American Popular Culture had a great divide. Blues was a largely Black community genre, whereas Country was mainly produced by the White population . • Blues was developing into R’n’B = Rhythm & Blues. This mainly based around the introduction of electric instruments Guitar & Bass. Guitar is Crowned King • It also became more dependant upon the beat than older Blues, making it more popular for dancing. • Guitarists like B.B King and Buddy Guy introduced the guitar as a lead instrument
    6. 6. • New technology such as Electro-Magnets could record the change in vibrations that a guitar sting makes and transmit as an electric signal to a loud speaker. • Before this the guitar had always been an companying instrument, but with its new volume and the ability to sustain notes for longer meant it could now perform the lead melody and be heard. • Transportable • Mass produced, so cheaper and easier to obtain • Could perform both lead & rhythm • The very basics can be easily learnt, so beginner musicians were soon playing their favorite songs. • New amplifiers allowed sound to be greatly manipulated
    7. 7. • An early fusion of White Country music of the rural South and Black Blues was ‘Rockabilly’ • Using the new electric guitar along side the upright Bass (Double Bass) & with drums. First bands were formed: - Buddy Holly - Bill Haley (and the Comets) - Elvis Presley - Jerry Lee Lewis • Was making the two genres of music for also taking influences from Gospel and R’n’B.
    8. 8. • The ‘Bo Diddley Beat’ came from the artist himself, blues legend Bo Diddley (Ellas McDaniel). • Good example of a syncopated rhythm, that has had great influence on the development of Rock ‘n’ Roll ‘n’ Roll. Popular Songs that were created with this rhythm -Fade Away (Buddy Holly & Rolling Stones…Cover vision!) - Willie & the Hand Jive – (Johnny Otis Show, Eric Clapton) - Grease Soundtrack - Faith (George Michael)- Desire – (U2) “Shave & a hair- cut, two bits”
    9. 9. • Taking early Jazz styles and focusing these around a strong beat.• 12 Bar Blues • I – Tonic VI – Subdominant V – Dominant (‘Turn-around’ leading back to I). • Common use of instruments like the guitar • Mix of genres, artists experimenting with music tastes. • Developing the Blues genre by introducing electric instruments. • Urban Contemporary Gospel – ‘Black Gospel’ • Change in attitude from somber hymn-singing, experimental. • Mixing harmonies, melodious singing, use of syncopation and allowing the vocals to lead, common to all pop, even • White artists making genre more popular. • White American folk, using genres such as Bluegrass to influence
    10. 10. • In 1954 Bill Haley and the Comets released the song ‘Rock Around the Clock’. Rock ‘n’ Roll had been developing for a few years before this (to a certain extent evolving from Rockabilly). When Rhythm & Blues started to be played on White Radio stations. But Haley track is credited for starting the Rock ’n’ Roll craze in the youth of America. • It offered lyrics that made reference to sexual themes, used loud electric instruments, performers had charisma and above all met with disapproval from the older generation. - Bill Haley - Jerry Lee Lewis - Buddy Holly - Little Richard - Chuck Berry - Elvis Presley
    11. 11. • Technology developed throughout World War II dramatically increased the quality and frequency range that could be recorded. • Due to the lack to tracks many artists were recorded in a ‘live’ situation. Placement around limited amounts of microphones was greatly important. • Effects such as Reverb were achieved with a smart selections of the recording location, not through later post-production. • The Famous Decca Records, where Bill Haley, Buddy Holly were recorded was build from a converted church that had a high, domed ceiling in the centre of a hall.
    12. 12. • Rock ‘n’ Roll recordings make extensive use of ‘slap-back’ echo, particularly on the vocals and guitar parts. • Slap-back has a very short delay (approx 80ms), just one short repeat of the sound. Just large enough to be heard as a discrete echo on careful listening. • One distinct repeat-echo is added to an instrument sound resulting in a very live sound similar to what you would hear in an auditorium. • Slapback, Slapback echo, flutter echo, and short-reverb are some of the terms used to describe one particular aspect of rockabilly recordings. - Elvis Presley recorded ‘Heartbreak Hotel’ for RCA record company. The producers placed microphones at the end of a hallway to achieve a similar effect. - Also ‘Rock Around the Clock’ from Decca Records use their large hall to achieve the effect.
    13. 13. • The human brain is excellent at estimating exactly what environment it is located in purely from the sound of the reverb in that environment. • Sound travels at 760mph (340 meters per- second), roughly a foot each millisecond. Predelay = defines the distance of the first reflective surface. • Defines the material within the room. • Amount of FX within the Mix (Wet/Dry) • EQ Setting parameters
    14. 14. Time Parameters Sound Parameters Mix
    15. 15. Complete on-line hearing test & print results (right-click graph): 1/ Comment on level of hearing over different frequencies. 2/ How is this important when mixing (Post-production). Equal loudness contours - Fletcher Munson Chart www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/hearing.html

    ×