The twelve-bar lyric framework of blues is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars normally in 4/4 time signature. Blues was built around a 3 lines of lyrics; Where the 1st line was repeated and a 3rd line answered the first two lines: Robert Johnson was a very influential Blues guitarist, known for a style called Delta Blues.
Consonance = An interval or chord which gives and agreeable or satisfying effect. These are often seen as Octave, perfect 5th, 4th, and major/minor 3rds & 6ths. Dissonance = Give the effect of tension or unresolved. Often seen as being 2nds, 7ths, 9ths and all Augmented & Diminished. Augmented 4th (Diminished 5th) popular in this genre: called the Tritone, embraces 3 whole tones (6 semitones). - Miles Davis was one of the first artists seen as developing this sub-genre. Between 1949 & 1950 he released ‘Birth of the Cool’
The new amplifier technology meant the guitar could now take a more lead role. Notice how the music of artists such as B.B King strongly placed the guitar as the lead instrument.
Elvis when into a local record studio, ‘Sun Records’ to record a song for his Mother. He was soon snapped up by RCA (1956) and became involved in the Rock ‘n’ Roll revolution. The basic elements of the first bands are still seen today in nearly every group and artist.
- &quot;Shave and a haircut, two bits&quot;
- A new kind of blues, featured electrically amplified guitars, harmonicas, and drummers that emphasized the strong beat. At the same time, black gospel music grew in popularity. These forms of black popular music were given the label rhythm and blues (R and B) and were played on big-city radio stations. Radio spread this music&apos;s appeal from black communities to towns throughout all of the United States. By the mid-1950&apos;s such performers as Little Richard, Joe Turner, and Chuck Berry were becoming popular with white audiences.
Rock Around the Clock sold over 15 million copies. It was the chance to throw off the austerity of the post-war years and for the younger generation to find its own identity.
All recordings were ‘Reel to Reel’ – Often only 4 to 8 tracks - RCA release 7 inch diameter, 45 rpm microgroove disc, normally for 10/12 inch vinyl – Holds more info. And start the idea of recording albums – longer sessions of artists. - Stereo LPs became available and new releases were issued in both mono (monaural) and stereo (stereophonic) versions.
Predelay Determines the time between the original signal and the reverb signal. - Reflectivity: Defines how reflective the imaginary walls, ceiling, and floor are. - Room Size: Defines the dimensions of a simulated room. - Density/Time: Determines both the density and the duration of the reverb. Low Cut: Frequencies below the set value are filtered out of the reverb signal. - High Cut: Frequencies above the set value are filtered out of the reverb signal. - Modulation Rate knob: Sets the frequency (the speed) of the LFO. - Modulation Phase knob: Defines the phase of the modulation between the left and right channels of the reverb signal. At 0°, the extreme values (minimum or maximum) of the modulation are achieved simultaneously on both the left and right channels. At a value of 180°, the extreme values opposite each other (left channel minimum, right channel maximum, or vice-versa) are reached simultaneously. - Modulation Intensity: Sets the modulation amount. A value of 0 turns the delay modulation off. - Mix: Sets the balance between the effect (wet) and original (dry) signals.
- Time parameters: determine the delay time of the original signal and reverb tail, and change the reverb tail over time. The graphic display visually represents the levels over time (the envelope) of the reverb. - Sound parameters: Allows to shape the sound of the reverb signal. You can also split the incoming signal into two bands—with the Crossover parameter—and set the level of the low frequency band separately. Mix: Determines the balance between the effect (wet) and direct (dry) signals. - Predelay: Sets the time between the original signal and the starting point of the reverb attack phase—the very beginning of the first reflection. - Attack: The time it takes for the reverb to climb to its peak level. - Decay: The time it takes for the level of the reverb to drop from its peak to the sustain level. - Sustain: Level of the reverb that remains constant throughout the sustain phase. It is expressed as a percentage of the full-scale volume of the reverb signal. - Hold: Sets the duration—the time—of the sustain phase. - Release: The time that the reverb takes to fade out completely, after it has completed the sustain phase. Density: Sets the reverb density. - Spread: The stereo image of the reverb. At 0% the effect generates a monaural reverb. At 200% the stereo base is artificially expanded. - High: Frequencies above the set value are filtered out of the reverb tail. - Crossover: The frequency that is used to split the input signal into two frequency bands, for independent processing. - Low Freq Level: The relative level of (reverb signal) frequencies below the crossover frequency. In most cases you get better-sounding results when you set negative values for this parameter.
3 - History of Popular Music - Rock'n'roll, Country, Gospel & Rockabilly - 1950's
Rollover BeethovenRollover Beethoven
Rock ‘n’ Roll, Country, GospelRock ‘n’ Roll, Country, Gospel
and Rockabillyand Rockabilly
- Chord progressions normally centre around;
I – Tonic
VI – Subdominant
V – Dominant (‘Turn-around’ leading back to
• Key aspect of the music was ‘call and response’,
associated with work-songs and slavery. Sung
rhythmically in time with the task.
- Improvised sections,
more structured, less
- Large Bands
- ‘Radio Friendly’ – Easy
to listen to + Dance
- Slower tempos for
- Less band members
- ‘Challenging’ –
- Fast tempos
- Fast, complex
improvisation, often at
• By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension
of Bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm
and smoothness, with the sounds of ‘Cool Jazz’.
• Rock ‘n’ Roll is often identified with the
emergence of ‘Teen Culture’. Postwar
(WWII) teenagers who had a disposable
income and wanted to fight old trends of
• New mediums such as the now
affordable Radio and soon the Television
meant artists were becoming popular over
• The contrast between parental and youth culture was exemplified
by Rock ‘n’ Roll.
Old genres like Tin Pan Ally or Swing, that were very sentimental
of Post-War years. It served as escapism, but for the young people
of post-war generation, it left a gap………
• American Popular Culture had a great divide. Blues was a
largely Black community genre, whereas Country was mainly
produced by the White population .
• Blues was developing into
R’n’B = Rhythm & Blues.
This mainly based around the
introduction of electric
instruments Guitar & Bass.
Guitar is Crowned King
• It also became more
dependant upon the beat than
older Blues, making it more
popular for dancing.
• Guitarists like B.B King and
Buddy Guy introduced the
guitar as a lead instrument
• New technology such
could record the change
in vibrations that a
guitar sting makes and
transmit as an electric
signal to a loud speaker.
• Before this the guitar had always been an
companying instrument, but with its new volume
and the ability to sustain notes for longer meant
it could now perform the lead melody and be
heard. • Transportable
• Mass produced, so cheaper and easier to obtain
• Could perform both lead & rhythm
• The very basics can be easily learnt, so beginner
musicians were soon playing their favorite songs.
• New amplifiers allowed sound to be greatly manipulated
• An early fusion of White
Country music of the rural South
and Black Blues was ‘Rockabilly’
• Using the new electric guitar
along side the upright Bass
(Double Bass) & with drums.
First bands were formed:
- Buddy Holly
- Bill Haley (and the Comets)
- Elvis Presley
- Jerry Lee Lewis
• Was making the two genres of
music for also taking influences
from Gospel and R’n’B.
• The ‘Bo Diddley Beat’ came from
the artist himself, blues legend Bo
Diddley (Ellas McDaniel).
• Good example of a syncopated
rhythm, that has had great influence on
the development of Rock ‘n’
Roll ‘n’ Roll.
Popular Songs that were
created with this rhythm
-Fade Away (Buddy Holly &
- Willie & the Hand Jive –
(Johnny Otis Show, Eric
Clapton) - Grease Soundtrack
- Faith (George Michael)-
Desire – (U2) “Shave & a hair- cut, two bits”
• Taking early Jazz
styles and focusing
these around a strong
beat.• 12 Bar Blues
• I – Tonic
VI – Subdominant
V – Dominant
back to I).
• Common use of
• Mix of genres, artists
experimenting with music
• Developing the Blues
genre by introducing
• Urban Contemporary
Gospel – ‘Black Gospel’
• Change in attitude from somber
• Mixing harmonies, melodious
singing, use of syncopation and
allowing the vocals to lead,
common to all pop, even
• White artists making
genre more popular.
• White American
folk, using genres
such as Bluegrass
• In 1954 Bill Haley and the Comets released the song
‘Rock Around the Clock’. Rock ‘n’ Roll had been
developing for a few years before this (to a certain
extent evolving from Rockabilly). When Rhythm &
Blues started to be played on White Radio stations.
But Haley track is credited for starting the Rock ’n’
Roll craze in the youth of America.
• It offered lyrics that made reference to
sexual themes, used loud electric
instruments, performers had charisma
and above all met with disapproval
from the older generation.
- Bill Haley - Jerry Lee Lewis
- Buddy Holly - Little Richard
- Chuck Berry
- Elvis Presley
• Technology developed throughout
World War II dramatically increased
the quality and frequency range that
could be recorded.
• Due to the lack to tracks many
artists were recorded in a ‘live’
situation. Placement around limited
amounts of microphones was
• Effects such as Reverb were
achieved with a smart selections of
the recording location, not through
• The Famous Decca Records, where Bill Haley, Buddy Holly were
recorded was build from a converted church that had a high, domed
ceiling in the centre of a hall.
• Rock ‘n’ Roll recordings make extensive use of ‘slap-back’ echo,
particularly on the vocals and guitar parts.
• Slap-back has a very short delay (approx 80ms), just one short
repeat of the sound. Just large enough to be heard as a discrete echo
on careful listening.
• One distinct repeat-echo is added to an instrument sound resulting
in a very live sound similar to what you would hear in an
• Slapback, Slapback echo, flutter echo, and short-reverb are
some of the terms used to describe one particular aspect of
- Elvis Presley recorded ‘Heartbreak Hotel’ for RCA record
company. The producers placed microphones at the end of a
hallway to achieve a similar effect.
- Also ‘Rock Around the Clock’ from Decca Records use their large
hall to achieve the effect.
• The human brain is excellent at estimating
exactly what environment it is located in purely
from the sound of the reverb in that environment.
• Sound travels at 760mph (340 meters per-
second), roughly a foot each millisecond.
Predelay = defines
the distance of the
• Defines the material
within the room.
• Amount of FX
within the Mix
• EQ Setting
Complete on-line hearing test & print results (right-click graph):
1/ Comment on level of hearing over different frequencies.
2/ How is this important when mixing (Post-production).
Equal loudness contours - Fletcher Munson Chart