- Syncopation = Off beat notes are accented. Tin Pan Alley = Music that could be played by the masses
Scoot Joplin+ One of the most famous Ragtime composers - ‘Maple Leaf Rag’ + ‘The Entertainer’
- Miles Davis throughout ‘Four’ uses Pitch Bends, Ghost notes, Fall-Offs (Short Downwards slides & double tonguing.
Known as the ‘Devil’s Interval’
I = Tonic II = Supertonic III = Mediant IV = Subdominant V = Dominant VI = Submediant VII = Leading Note
1. Pre-1950’s – Jazz: Bebop & Cool+ Early Blues
• Illustrate the major
of Early Blue and
modern Jazz styles like
Bebop and & Cool.
• Listen to different
examples of these
genres and be about
to notice key details in
• Able to record your own
notes from the lecture
and class discussions.
• Have an understanding
of Early Blues, Bebop
and Cool Jazz.
• Able to explain the
difference between a
Discord and Concord
• Complete the class
• In 1900’s the piano was the
main instrument of
composition and musical
listening, before the radio.
Music was performed by a
member of the family playing
popular tunes of the day.
• Printed music saw the
birth of Tin Pan Alley,
and a MUSIC
around money making
from writing and selling
• Music known as
as musicians moved
North to big cities;
bringing with them a
rich mixture of
cultural music tastes
• Larger bands
form as popularity
into Swing. A style
dance to at
clubs and venues.
- What is Syncopation?
4. • Swing Music was the popular time for
Jazz composition; clubs were full of large
ensembles performing the most popular
•Modern Jazz is Born!!
•Because the majority of the audience were musicians
coming to see good musicianship, it’s commercial value
•By the 1940’s these structures were challenged. A new
style differed greatly from swing, divorcing itself from
dance music, establishing itself more as an art form.
5. Listen to Swing and Bebop
‘Pharaoh’s Dance’ – Miles
- Fast, complex
improvisation, often at
- Improvised sections,
more structured, less
- Large Bands
- ‘Radio Friendly’ – Easy
to listen to + Dance
- Slower tempos for
- Less band members
- ‘Challenging’ –
- Fast tempos
Count Basie & His Orchestra
– ‘Too Close for Comfort’
6. - Consonance = An interval or chord which gives and
agreeable or satisfying effect. These are often seen as
Octave, perfect 5th, 4th, and major/minor 3rds &
Beboppers introduce new forms of dissonance into
- Augmented 4th (Diminished 5th) became very popular
in this genre: called the Tritone, because it embraces 3
whole tones (6 semitones).
“Diabolus in Musica” - “The Devil in Music”
- Dissonance = Give the effect of tension or unresolved.
Often seen as being 2nds, 7ths, 9ths and all
Augmented & Diminished.
7. • Also employed an explosive style of drumming where
the the ride-cymbal would keep the time, while the
snare and bass-drum used for accents.
• Despite the initial friction, by the 1950s bebop had
become an accepted part of the jazz vocabulary.
- Charlie Parker (Alto Sax)
-Dizzy Gillespie (Trumpet)
-Charlie Christian (Guitar)
- Clifford Brown (Trumpet)
- Max Roach (Drummer)
8. Cool Jazz
• By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and
tension of Bebop was replaced with a tendency towards
calm and smoothness, with the sounds of ‘Cool Jazz’.
• It emerged in New York City, as a result of the mixture
of styles of predominantly white Jazz musicians and
black Bebop musicians.
• Miles Davis was one of the first artists seen as
developing this sub-genre. Between 1949 & 1950 he
released ‘Birth of the Cool’
9. Birth of the BLUES
• Blues developed in the Deep South of the USA, it
originated as music of the African-American slaves.
• Key aspect of the music was ‘call and response’,
associated with work-songs and slavery. Sung
rhythmically in time with the task.
• Work-song were still used after the emancipation of
the black slaves at the end of the American civil war,
with railroad gangs doing manual labour.
• Slowly instruments were introduced, however these
were often very bad and broken. To compensate for lack
of strings on old guitars bottlenecks were used, an
important aspect still today.
10. • The twelve-bar lyric framework of blues is reflected
by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars
normally in 4/4 time signature.
• Blues was built around a 3 lines of lyrics; Where the 1st
line was repeated and a 3rd line answered the first two
1/ The first rule of the blues is to repeat the first line twice.
2/ Yeah! First rule of the blues is repeat the first line twice.
3/ Then you just make up anything, and it sounds real nice!!
• Often sings use to sing 9 or even 16 bars, was not until
band developed did the songs need to be more structured.
11. - Chord progressions normally centre around;
I – Tonic
VI – Subdominant
V – Dominant (‘Turn-around’ leading back
• A common phenomenon was the use of the ‘Blue-Note’,
distinguished by the use of the flattened 3rd, 5th and 7th of
the associated major scale.
• Improvising was usually based around a Pentatonic
12. • Robert Johnson was a very influential Blues
guitarist, known for a style called
• His songs often embraced very religious
themes throughout, as was common with
many Blue tracks.
• ‘Cross Road Blues’ –
•Notice the quality of the recording, because
Stereo was not invented, all recordings were
Mono and balance was created with how the
artist was placed in relation to the
microphone’s polar pattern.
13. • The genre of Blues has very branch
into many different sub-genres:
• Style of piano-based
Blues that became popular
during the 1930/40’s.
• The chord progressions
are typically based on
I - IV – V - I
-'Boogie Woogie Stomp’
- Peter Johnson
- Big Joe Turner
• Comprise a list of your Top Ten Greatest Albums
of all time; should have at least one album from
the 60’s, 70’s, 80’s 90’s and 00’s + 4 of your own. (50
words on each)
- Artist, Album Title + genre
- Significant tracks
- What made the album important?
- Step forward for the genre?