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Smarter Transit Network Design - pt 3 of "A Market Focused Paradigm for Public Transit"

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This is the THIRD in a series of presentations that deals with the question: how can we make public transit systems more effective at attracting new riders and shaping urban regions? Alan Hoffman, an …

This is the THIRD in a series of presentations that deals with the question: how can we make public transit systems more effective at attracting new riders and shaping urban regions? Alan Hoffman, an internationally recognized expert in transit markets, discusses the findings of market research he has conducted or supervised, as well as his work advising cities and regions across the planet on how to improve their transit systems.

This third presentation explores the first of the three key strategic variables introduced in Part Two: Network Structure. It features a case study of Curitiba, Brazil, whose innovations in network planning led to the birth of modern BRT.

The Mission Group is a strategy firm that has helped many cities devise strategies to boost the long-term effectiveness of their transit planning so that they can set and achieve ambitious goals for transforming the role that transit plays in their regions.

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  • 1. 1A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit THE MISSION GROUP Part 3—Smarter Transit Network Design Alan Hoffman ▪ San Diego, California ▪ (619) 232-1776 ▪ info@missionconsult.com © 2013 by The Mission Group. All Rights Reserved. PART 3 1A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 1: A Smarter Transit Network© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit THE MISSION GROUP Part 3—Smarter Transit Network Design Alan Hoffman ▪ San Diego, California ▪ (619) 232-1776 ▪ info@missiongrouponline.com © 2013 by The Mission Group. All Rights Reserved. PART 3www.missionconsult.com
  • 2. 2A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. In part 2 of this presentation, we identified the three key strategic variables that drive modal choice: Here in part 3, we’ll focus on issues of network structure—how to configure more effective transit networks. Network Structure (Connectivity) System Performance (Time) Customer Experience
  • 3. 3A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Connectivity: The Double Challenge Connect as many places that matter in as few years as possible Shape regional growth and solve regional problems GOAL:
  • 4. 4A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Connectivity: The Double Challenge Connect as many places that matter in as few years as possible Place access where it needs to be, not “near” where it needs to be Shape regional growth and solve regional problems The system really becomes useful and convenient GOAL: GOAL:
  • 5. Some cities pour their resources into creating a major investment in a single transit corridor, be it light rail or busway.
  • 6. 6A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy The city above has numerous activity nodes scattered about; it can’t be served effectively by single lines, however they squiggle about. For most trips, transit is not relevant or convenient.
  • 7. 7A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy Even with the addition of a new line, the transit network does not provide excellent connectivity between and among various key nodes in this region.
  • 8. 8A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy Most regions build at least one “political line,” connecting little with little.
  • 9. 9A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy If transit systems are unable to provide superior connectivity among a core set of points, they are unlikely to shape the future growth of that region.
  • 10. 10A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy This region is growing, but around the automobile, even though developers claim they are doing “smart growth” infill and the transit agency takes credit for anything built near a line.
  • 11. 11A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Weak Strategy More people can use transit now that the region has grown, but it should be obvious that transit is not the core movement system, not is it convenient or useful for most people most of the time.
  • 12. Other cities figure out how to connect their principal nodes together as directly and conveniently as possible, even if they use rickshaws.
  • 13. 13A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy This city is focused on linking its principal nodes together directly.
  • 14. 14A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy As this city continues to develop its transit connections, more and more of its key nodes are now linked together.
  • 15. 15A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy As this city continues to develop its transit connections, more and more of its key nodes are now linked together.
  • 16. 16A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy This is a useful transit network. People will want to be located near a node of this network. Developers smell blood.
  • 17. 17A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy Cities that develop strategies to connect their component parts as quickly as possible create truly useful transit systems— and markets tend to respond to such usefulness.
  • 18. 18A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy Cities that develop strategies to connect their component parts as quickly as possible create truly useful transit systems— and markets tend to respond to such usefulness.
  • 19. 19A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit & Land Use: Strong Strategy Useful transit networks are more likely to generate market demand for businesses and residents around transit stations. This is a far cry from the high levels of subsidy of many so-called “Transit-Oriented Development” (TOD) projects.
  • 20. Some cities have been very innovative in their approach to creating a pervasive transit network. Curitiba, Brazil, practically invented modern Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as a result of their desire to implement their ideal transit network in as few years as possible.
  • 21. 21A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba, Brazil
  • 22. 22A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba: Desire vs. Reality Cover the entire city with a subway system Goal: Could only afford single LRT line Design “surface subway” system using buses to get network up and running Goal: Problem: Solution:
  • 23. 23A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba: Transit/Land Use One-way road heading into center One-way road heading away . from center . Transit in center boulevard with high density built alongside.
  • 24. 24A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba: Transit/Land Use High-Density Transit Spine Low-Density Family Neighborhoods Curitiba’s “Structural Axis” corridors were made up of targeted transit and road investments; the combination of the two is what made “transit-oriented development” feasible.
  • 25. 25A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba: Buses and Roads Make buses run faster. Buses always get stuck in traffic. Create bus-only “roads within roads,” with traffic signal priority, both reducing running time and making the system more reliable. Goal: Problem: Solution:
  • 26. 26A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba: Make Buses Like Metro Goal: Problem: Solution: Make buses run like subways. Buses take so long to load. Use mass-produced “tube stations” with platform-level loading, multiple doors along vehicles, and payment at station entrance, reducing “dwell time” to 10-20 seconds per stop.
  • 27. 27A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 28. 28A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 29. 29A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—Speedy Network Reduce transit trip times. Longer trips involve many stops. Create an overlay network of “speedy” buses directly linking major transfer centers and demand generators, thereby cutting 30 minutes off average trip. Goal: Problem: Solution:
  • 30. 30A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—Speedy Network Reduce transit trip times. Longer trips involve many stops. Create an overlay network of “speedy” buses directly linking major transfer centers and demand generators, thereby cutting 30 minutes off average trip. Goal: Problem: Solution:
  • 31. 31A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 32. 32A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—”Integration Terminals” Facilitate transfer among transit services. Transfers are rarely desirable. Create a series of “integration terminals” that bring all services together, as well as the kind of retail shops that appeal to commuters. Goal: Problem: Solution:
  • 33. 33A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—”Citizenship Streets” Athletic Facilities Transit Center City Services
  • 34. 34A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—Implementation Problem: Solution: 89 94 97 74 79 84 Extend “rapid” transit services as quick as possible Goal: Need to keep capital costs low Bus-based system “colonizing” existing rights-of-way has led to extraordinarily rapid system expansion Problem: Solution: Goal:
  • 35. 35A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—Ridership 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1970s % of Commute (Work) Trips Made By Transit
  • 36. 36A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Curitiba—Ridership 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1970s Today % of Commute (Work) Trips Made By Transit
  • 37. It’s not enough to connect places at the scale of a regional or city map. The station’s immediate pedestrian environment can make a huge difference in market response.
  • 38. 38A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Location You Are HereYou Are Here You Want to Go Here You Want to Go Here When land uses aren’t matched to transit, the result is often inconvenient for pedestrians—and transit is about pedestrians.
  • 39. 39A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. This streetcar stop in Portland is located just a few steps from offices, classes… and coffee!
  • 40. Let’s look at Los Angeles, which can be considered a theme park of transit modes.
  • 41. 41A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 42. 42A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 43. 43A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 44. 44A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved.
  • 45. 45A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 1
  • 46. 46A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 1 2
  • 47. 47A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 3. Metro Red Line (stopping at every stop) 1 2 3
  • 48. 48A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 3. Metro Red Line (stopping at every stop) 4. Metro Blue Line (stopping at every stop) 1 2 4 3
  • 49. 49A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 3. Metro Red Line (stopping at every stop) 4. Metro Blue Line (stopping at every stop) 5. Metro Green Line (stopping at every stop) 1 2 4 3 5
  • 50. 50A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 3. Metro Red Line (stopping at every stop) 4. Metro Blue Line (stopping at every stop) 5. Metro Green Line (stopping at every stop) 6. Shuttle bus to terminals 1 2 4 3 5 6
  • 51. 51A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. From Panorama City to LAX: 1. Local bus (stopping at every stop) 2. Metro Orange Line (stopping at every stop) 3. Metro Red Line (stopping at every stop) 4. Metro Blue Line (stopping at every stop) 5. Metro Green Line (stopping at every stop) 6. Shuttle bus to terminals TOO LONG & TOO MANY TRANSFERS! 1 2 4 3 5 6
  • 52. Dispersed metropolitan areas can’t be effectively served just by traditional transit networks, regardless of mode. People need to leapfrog about their region.
  • 53. LA has created a lot of TOD (“Transit-Oriented Development”) around its transit stations. How well has the transit system served all these new residences? Has this strategy worked?
  • 54. 54A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Los Angeles: A Cautionary Tale A dozen of the county's most powerful civic leaders— including the mayor of Los Angeles, L.A. City Council members and county supervisors—touted the latest and glitziest new development in Hollywood: the planned W Hotel and apartments at the storied corner of Hollywood and Vine. This project, they pledged at the groundbreaking earlier this year, would restore a sagging neighborhood while also minimizing traffic—an important promise in increasingly gridlocked Hollywood. “People could live here and never use their cars,” declared MTA Chief Executive Roger Snoble at the February event. It’s a vision expressed frequently by local government officials, who see building large mixed-use developments next to mass transit lines as a key solution for not just the region's traffic congestion but also its spread-out geography and reputation for being unfriendly to pedestrians. In Los Angeles alone, billions of public and private dollars have been lavished on transit-oriented projects such as Hollywood & Vine, with more than 20,000 residential units approved within a Near the rails but still on the road Research casts doubt on the region's strategy of pushing transit-oriented residential projects to get people out of cars. quarter mile of transit stations between 2001 and 2005. But there is little research to back up the rosy predictions. Among the few academic studies of the subject, one that looked at buildings in the Los Angeles area showed that transit-based development successfully weaned relatively few residents from their cars. It also found that, over time, no more people in the buildings studied were taking transit 10 years after a project opened than when it was first built. June 30, 2007
  • 55. There’s more to network structure than the location of routes. The location of stops and stations matters, too. How far will people walk?
  • 56. 56A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. Transit and Walking Effective Destination Zone 3 min. walk ≈ 1/6 mi./250m radius ≈ 56 acres/ 23 hectares Intensive Residential Zone 5 min. walk ≈ ¼ mi./400m radius ≈ 125 acres/ 50 hectares Limit of Attraction 10 min. walk ≈ ½ mi./800m radius ≈ 500 acres/ 200 hectares
  • 57. Walking environment matters, too. It can make a short walk seem long, and a long walk seem desirable. The following are what The Mission Group has identified as the five levels of pedestrian orientation.
  • 58. 58A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. 1. Kill the Pedestrian Levels of Pedestrian Orientation…
  • 59. 59A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. 2. Punish the Pedestrian Levels of Pedestrian Orientation…
  • 60. 60A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. 3. Pedestrian Accessible Levels of Pedestrian Orientation… (but hardly desirable)
  • 61. 61A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. 4. Pedestrian Friendly Levels of Pedestrian Orientation…
  • 62. 62A Market-Focused Paradigm for Public Transit, pt. 3: Smarter Transit Network Design© 1998-2013 by The Mission Group. All rights reserved. 5. Pedestrian Seductive Distance Scale Activity Variation Levels of Pedestrian Orientation…
  • 63. In part 4 of this presentation, we’ll look at System Performance— how smart transit network design can save people time. We’ll also see some innovations in network structure that go beyond traditional network forms.
  • 64. THE MISSION GROUP 3725 Talbot Street, Suite E • San Diego, California 92106 USA +1 (619) 232-1776 • info@missionconsult.com Transit Network Reviews Transit Planning Support Transit Market & Ridership Studies Customer Experience Audits Innovative Alternatives Generation Long-Term Vision Plans & Strategies “Quickway” Network Proposals Presentations and White Papers Workshops and Seminars We’re the transit market experts.