How Media Audiences Respond

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How Media Audiences Respond

  1. 1. How Do Media Audiences Respond to Media Products? Task 3 – Abygail Jones
  2. 2. Hypodermic Needle Model • This is the idea that, subtle/not so subtle messages are put in to media products to get a desired reaction from the audience. • This message is received, understood and accepted by the audience. • This theory suggests a passive audience. • As televisions and radio‟s became increasingly popular throughout the 1940‟s and 1950‟s – it influenced behaviour changes in the viewers. • The theory is largely disproved – such things have been published to prove this theory wrong: “The People‟s Choice” written by Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet. • http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clust ers/Mass%20Media/Hypodermic_Needle_Theory/
  3. 3. Uses and Gratifications Theory • This focuses on why the audience uses specific media sources by looking at things such as: • The idea that people consume different types of media – what do they get from it? • How audiences spend their time/energy finding the required media source? • This theory suggests an active audience.
  4. 4. Uses and Gratification Theory • The theory began in 1944 with Herta Herzog – she interviewed soap opera fans and identified three types of gratifications: Emotional, wishful thinking and learning. • 1970 Abraham Maslow – Argued people looked to satisfy their needs based on hierarchy, hence the pyramid hierarchy theory. From bottom to top, Biological/physical, security/Safety, social/Belon ging, Ego/Self-respect and Self-actualisation. • 1969 – Jay Blumler and Denis McQuail – Studied why people watched political programmes, 1972 4 groups were created: Diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance.
  5. 5. Uses and Gratification Theory The theorists each came up with their own categories gratifications: Harold Lasswell • Surveillance • Correlation • Entertainment • Cultural Transmission Bulmer and Katz • Diversion • Personal Relationships • Personal Identity • Surveillance Denis McQuail • Information • Personal Identity • Integration and Social Interaction
  6. 6. Denis McQuail (1987) Why People use Media? • His gratifications explained: • Information: • Relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world – e.g. the news. • Seeking advice on practical matters, opinions and decision choices – e.g. Looking up the symptoms of an illness. • Satisfying curiosity and general interest – e.g. Googling something • Learning: Self-educating – e.g. learning a foreign language • Personal Identity • Finding reinforcement for personal values – e.g. personally specific media need – a gossip magazine (OK!). • Finding models of behaviour – e.g. changing your personality – being more aggressive/confident online etc. • Identifying with valued other - e.g. having the same interest as someone else, adopting their interest etc.
  7. 7. Denis McQuail Why People Use Media? • Integration and Social Interaction: • Gaining insight into circumstances of others: social empathy e.g. putting yourself in other people‟s shoes and seeing the benefit/disadvantages of your life. • Identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging – e.g. having the same interests as a large group of people, feel safe, like you belong etc. • Finding a basis for conversation and social interaction – e.g. Finding something in common with someone else i.e. liking Doctor Who. • Having a substitute for real-life companionship – e.g. having a friend online/games/social networks etc. • Entertainment • Escaping, or being diverted from problems – e.g. Using media to distract yourself – reading a magazine during a panic attack/ watching TV when you‟re ill etc. • Relaxing – e.g. Playing games, reading, scrolling through Facebook, tumblr etc. • Getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment – e.g. from a particular country/culture e.g. Navaho, finding something to relate to.
  8. 8. Why I Personally Interact with Media • I use a range of media, from television to magazines: • Information • I use tumblr religiously. I go on it to find out the latest news, information and spoilers for upcoming TV series/films that I enjoy. • I also give advice and receive advice from other users who are having the same issues as me. • I can‟t usually control what I see, but if I‟m curious about something, it‟s easy to find relevant information/pictures. • I learn a lot from tumblr. Whether it‟s about something I‟m interested in – or something I‟ve never even heard of before e.g. The Devil‟s Tramping Ground. • Personal Identity • I am a regular consumer of Kerrang! Magazine. I buy it because it‟s a magazine that applies to my personal needs – I want to find out what‟s happening in the rock music world and this magazine enables me to do that. • Online, media such as Facebook, I am a lot more confident than usual, I‟ll talk to people I don‟t really know and I‟ll express my opinions freely.
  9. 9. Why I Personally Interact with Media • Integration and Social Interaction • Facebook and Tumblr are key media sources I use that make me use social empathy, whether that‟s putting myself in the shoes of less/more fortunate people – people who can‟t afford expensive, items such as iPhone‟s etc. and people who can. • On Tumblr there are a range of groups that have similar interests to me, this enables me to carry out conversations with them and feel like I belong to a certain group. • I substitute real-life companions a lot, the majority of my „friends‟ are online and spread out across the country and in other countries as my social life is practically lifeless. • Entertainment • I use YouTube, tumblr, Facebook, Kerrang! And other books to distract myself from a lot of problems such as: interacting socially, family arguments etc.
  10. 10. Reception Theory • This is looking at how audiences receive and interpret media. • The theory was developed by Stuart Hall, there are two parts: Encoding and Decoding: Encoding: A media products producer fills it with a particular message. Celebrity gossip magazines are very good at this, they produce false accusations aiming it at celebrities wanting a desired reaction from their audience, usually shock or anger. Decoding: This is where the audience receive the producers message and interprets the message: for example in the celebrity gossip magazine, if the anchoring captions are bad, the audience will unravel a truth and will learn that the problem is being emphasized by the publisher.
  11. 11. Hall’s Idea • The second part of the theory concentrates on how the audience understands a media product: • Hall‟s idea is that the audience can interpret media text in different ways: • Preferred: The reader receives, understands and agrees with the message in the product. • Negotiated: The reader understands, somewhat accepts and then applies the products message to their own life. • Oppositional: The reader understands the products message but rejects it, finding an alternative view. • How they read and apply their ideas depends on their values, experiences and backgrounds – everyone is different and everyone has different ideas about the messages they receive.
  12. 12. Passive or Active Consumption • There are two different ways of interpreting a type of audience/consumer and they are Passive or Active. • Passive – They don‟t apply their own ideas, they follow whatever the message tells them – the Hypodermic theory suggests passive audience. • For example, when the original War of the World‟s came out on the radio on October 30th 1938 – the audience heard that Martian‟s had begun an invasion on Earth in a place called Grover‟s Mill, New Jersey. • The audience took this literally as an alien attack and fled from New Jersey, finding „safety‟ in more rural areas, riots broke free and people raided stores. • Active – They apply their own ideas, they hear what the message tells them and then they apply their own ideas to it. The Gratification and Reception theory suggests an active audience. • For example: Kerrang magazine captions suggest something else is going on in the picture, they usually use humour to do this – making it out that what‟s happening in the picture is funny, almost mocking the rock stars. • Fans take this in to their own hands to interpret just what‟s happening in the picture, if it‟s a gig picture it‟s pretty self explanatory etc.

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