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Dahm chicago keynote
 

Dahm chicago keynote

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Werner Dahm, director of the Air Force Research Laboratory, presented this briefing at an AIAA meeting in Chicago in 28 June 2010.

Werner Dahm, director of the Air Force Research Laboratory, presented this briefing at an AIAA meeting in Chicago in 28 June 2010.

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    Dahm chicago keynote Dahm chicago keynote Presentation Transcript

    • Headquarters U.S. Air Force Key Air Force Research Priorities Dr. Werner J.A. Dahm Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force Air Force Pentagon (4E130) Washington, D.C. 28 June 2010 AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation UNCLASSIFIED 28 June 2010 1
    • The Air Force is Critically Dependent on Science & Technology Advances The Air Force is in the capabilities business; achieving superior capabilities requires a continual source of science and technology advances, with occasional breakthroughs 2
    • Science & Technology Has Top-Level Representation in the Air Force Headquarters U.S. Air Force Since shortly after its formation from the Army Air Corps, the Air Force has maintained an independent Secretary Chief of Staff full-time Chief Scientist in the Pentagon as a direct of the Air Force Air Force (SecAF) (AF/CC) scientific and technical advisor to the Chief of Staff Commander, Air Force Materiel Command Air Force (AFMC/CC) Chief Scientist (AF/ST) Commander, Air Force Research Laboratory Office of the USAF Chief Scientist (AFRL/CC)   The Chief Scientist is the full-time scientific and technical Air Space Propulsion Munitions advisor to the AF Chief of Staff and Secretary of the AF Vehicles Vehicles   Holds 3-star equivalent rank; is a full member of the Directed Materials Air Staff, the AF Council, and Headquarters Air Force Sensors Energy & Manuf. Information   Provides independent technical advice on all existing and planned programs, and on technical opportunities Human Basic Res. Perform. (AFOSR)   Has unrestricted access to all information and programs; AFOSR can address any topics of interest or opportunity NA NE NL AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 3
    • The Path from Science and Technology to New Air Force Capabilities Research & Development Acquisition Materiel Development Decision (MDD) Milestone A Milestone B Milestone C Universities Air Force Research Laboratory Advanced System Production, Basic Applied Concept Advanced Technology Development & Fielding, Research Research Refinement Development Development Demonstration Sustainment Budget Activity 1 Budget Activity 2 Budget Activity 3 BA 5 BA 6,7 Budget Activity 4 (6.1) (6.2) (6.3) Technology Readiness Level (TRL): Definitions •  Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) •  Initial Operational Test & Eval. (IOT&E) TRL 1: Basic principles observed and reported •  Full Rate Production (FRP) TRL 2: Technology concept and/or application formulated •  Initial Operational Capability (IOC) •  Field TRL 3: Analytical or experimental proof of concept •  Sustain TRL 4: Component validation in laboratory environment TRL 5: Component validation in relevant environment TRL 6: System/subsystem demonstration in relevant environment TRL 7: System prototype demonstration in an operational environment TRL 8: Actual system completed and qualified through test and demo TRL 9: Actual system proven through successful mission operations 4
    • Overall Air Force RDT&E Investments Basic Research (6.1) Applied Research (6.2) Advanced Technology 2% 4% Development (6.3) 2% Concept Refinement and Advanced Dev. 9% System Development and Demonstration 18% RDT&E Management 4% Operational Systems Development 61% $28.06B FY09 Air Force RDT&E AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 5
    • USAF S&T Core Investment in 6.1-6.3 6.1: Basic 6.3: Advanced Technology Research $310M Development $541M 16% 29% $1.9B Direct AFRL funds + $2.2B Customer funds + 324M Congress adds $4.5B total AFRL 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 Amounts shown are $2B/yr Air Force core funds; does not include $2B/yr customer funds 6.2: Applied Research $1029M Total FY09 Core/External $4.5B 55% AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 6
    • USAF S&T Core Investment Distribution Across Air, Space, and Cyber Domains Cyber Domain 24% $541M $862M Air Domain 46% $566M Space Domain 30% Nearly one-quarter of all Air Force S&T investment now goes into the cyber domain 7
    • Ten Technical Directorates Comprise the Air Force Research Laboratory Directed Energy Materials & Manufacturing AFOSR Space Munitions Vehicles Sensors Human Air Vehicles Effectiveness Information Propulsion AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 8
    • Total Annual Air Force S&T Enterprise Amounts to $4.5B/yr (6.1-6.3) $1.9B Direct AFRL funds + $2.2B Customer funds + 324M Congress adds $4.5B total AFRL 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 Amounts shown are $2B/yr Air Force core funds; does not include $2B/yr customer funds AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 9
    • What New S&T Advances Will Create the Next Generation of USAF Capabilities? Maintaining superior capabilities over its adversaries requires the Air Force to continually seek new science and technology advances and integrate these into fieldable systems 10
    • U.S. Air Force “Technology Horizons” 1 3 6 7 Toward New Project New World Technology Horizons Forecast Vistas Horizons 1945 1964 1995 2010 High-impact studies 2 4 5 Woods Hole New Project Summer Study Horizons II Forecast II 1958 1975 1986 Low-impact studies 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010+   “Technology Horizons” is the next in a succession of major S&T vision studies conducted at the Headquarters Air Force level to define the key Air Force S&T investments over the next decade AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 11
    • Air Force S&T Vision for 2010-2030 from “Technology Horizons” AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 12
    • New Types of Remotely-Piloted and/or Autonomous Air Vehicle Systems   Unmanned airborne platforms with large sensor suite capable of long-endurance loiter on station   Requires substantial advances in numerous technologies (e.g., multifunctional structures, propulsion integration, affordable LO, etc.) Air Force Sensorcraft concept   Passive laminar flow control technologies may be essential to provide needed loiter times   Thermal management will be challenging; large sensor heat loads with few ram air openings   Special fuels may be needed to manage extreme heat and cold at various operating conditions Air Force Sensorcraft concept General Atomics “Predator C” Unmanned combat air vehicle concept Air Force Sensorcraft concept AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 13
    • High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Air Vehicle Systems   New unmanned aircraft systems (VULTURE) and airships (ISIS) can remain aloft for years   Delicate lightweight structures can survive low-altitude winds if launch can be chosen   Enabled by solar cells powering lightweight batteries or regenerative fuel cell systems   Large airships containing football field size radars give extreme resolution/persistence DARPA VULTURE HALE Aircraft Concept DARPA VULTURE HALE Aircraft Concept AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 14
    • Airship-Based HALE ISR Systems   HALE airship platforms are being examined for Examples of Current DoD numerous ISR and comm relay applications HALE Airship Programs   Current DoD HALE Airship programs include: HALE-D   Long-Endurance Multi-INT Vehicle (LEMV)   HALE Demonstrator (HALE-D)   Blue Devil (Polar 400 airship + King Air A-90)   Integrated Sensor is Structure (ISIS)   Potential fuel cost savings over traditional ISR aircraft; speed and vulnerability are concerns Blue Devil “Polar 400” DARPA “ISIS” AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 15
    • Medium-Altitude Global ISR & Communications (MAGIC) Platform   Medium altitude allows platform One example of a possible MAGIC long-endurance platform more similar to traditional aircraft   More rapid repositioning than is achievable with airship platforms   Can serve as ISR platform and as airborne communications relay   Designs could potentially allow far greater endurance than MQ-1/9   MAGIC-like JCTD may be used to assess technology readiness Comparison with MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 16
    • Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Aircraft   Hybrid wing-body with blended juncture has greater fuel efficiency than tube-and-wing   Body provides significant fraction of total lift; resulting volumetric efficiency is improved   Potential Air Force uses as airborne tanker or as cargo transport aircraft   Fabrication of pressurized body sections is enabled by PRSEUS technology   X-48B flight tests (NASA / AFRL / Boeing) have examined aerodynamic performance AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 17
    • Partially-Buoyant Cargo Airlifters   Hybrid airships achieve part of their lift from buoyancy and part aerodynamically from forward flight   Could provide fuel-efficiency benefits for large cargo airlifter in certain applications (e.g., relatively unprepared sites)   Lockheed Martin “Project 791” using tri-hull design flew in 2006; short manned flight   System-level studies must determine potential DoD utility   Flight experiments needed to assess handling performance AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 18
    • Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines (VAATE) Program VAATE is the nation’s current major collaborative effort to develop a new generation of advanced turbine engine technologies Adaptive Versatile Engine Technology (ADVENT) Highly Efficient Embedded Turbine Engine (HEETE) Efficient Small Scale Propulsion (ESSP) AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 19
    • Key Efforts Within VAATE Program MODEL-BASED, ROBUST, DAMAGE – NON-LINEAR, INTEGRATED TOLERANT DESIGN ADAPTIVE CONTROL COMPACT, THERMAL EFFICIENT, SYSTEM MANAGEMENT CONTROLLED SYSTEM EMISSIONS INTEGRATED VERSATILE HEALTH COMBUSTOR WIDE-FLOW MANAGEMENT LINE-OF-SIGHT RANGE SYSTEM BLOCKAGE/ FLOW COMPRESSOR CONTROLLED INLET ADVANCED FUEL ADDITIVES/ THERMALLY STABLE HIGH HEAT SINK FUELS INTEGRATED POWER INTEGRATED GENERATION LIGHTWEIGHT, REAR FRAME & DISTORTION AUGMENTOR DURABLE, TOLERANT FAN EFFICIENT, VECTORING FULL-LIFE, EXHAUST EXTENDED HOT- SYSTEM TIME TURBINES AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 20
    • Adaptive Versatile Engine Technologies (ADVENT) Program   Constant mass flow of ADVENT engine provide large new heat sink capacity   Additional heat exchanger located in relatively low-temperature third stream   Provides heat sink for fuel-cooled cooling air (FCCA) or air-cooled cooling air (ACCA)   May be especially important for large heat loads in airborne directed energy systems AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 21
    • Highly Efficient Embedded Turbine Engine (HEETE) Program AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 22
    • Airbreathing Propulsion Integration   Serpentine inlets and nozzles to provide engine obscuration and embedding in airframe   Significant challenge to minimize flow distortion at aerodynamic interface plane (AIP)   Seeking to develop bleedless inlet technologies to avoid performance losses from bleed air   Passive and active flow control approaches being explored to avoid flow separation   Must allow for wide range of mass flow rates; nozzles, thrust vectoring, actuation Passive or active flow control to avoid separation in serpentine inlet/nozzle AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 23
    • Supersonic Propulsion Integration: Combined-Cycle Scramjet Systems AEDC APTU tests under FaCET of common turbo-ramjet/scramjet flowpath AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 24
    • Supersonic Inlets: Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) Control   Bleedless mixed-compression inlets need methods to avoid BL separation   Maximize inlet pressure recovery   Shock-boundary layer interaction (SBLI) can trigger separation at or after shocks   AFRL using experiments and numerical simulations to develop suitable control   Passive sub-boundary layer vortex generator micro-ramps   Alternative passive control elements Shock-boundary layer interaction measurements (Lapsa & Dahm 2009) Simulations of passive control of shock-boundary layer interaction control using micro-ramps (Galbraith et al. 2009) AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 25
    • Advanced Diagnostics for SBLI Data Stereo Particle Imaging Velocimetry Data for Shock Boundary Layer Interactions Instantaneous (u, v, w) across 2D spanwise Mean Strain Rate Sxx (x, y) planes Fields AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 26
    • Computational Modeling & Simulation (M&S) to Support Air Force Needs Computational aeromechanics support to Air Force Seek Eagle   Properly integrated M&S can give large aircraft/stores compatibility and weapons integration reductions in cost of physical testing   Continued improvements needed in CFD methods (incl. numerics and physics)   E.g., USAF Seek Eagle use of CFD to assess aircraft/stores compatibility   6-DOF time-accurate trajectory codes using dynamic offset grids   Platform/stores configurations exceed what can be tested directly Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) Stores Separation from B-52 B-52 Heavy Stores Adapter AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 27
    • Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program   HIFiRE flights use sounding rocket descent trajectories to explore fundamental hypersonics technologies   AFRL and Australian DSTO with NASA; rocket flights at Woomera, White Sands, and Pacific Missile Range   Primary focus on aerosciences and propulsion areas; also stability & control and sensors & instrumentation   Propulsion experiments on Flights 2 (US), 3 (AUS), and 6-9 (US/AUS)   Scramjet fueling/combustion, integration, performance AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 28
    • Scramjet Engine Development   Hydrocarbon-fueled dual-mode ram/scramjet combustor allows operation over Mach range   Thermal management, ignition, flameholding   GDE-1 was flight weight hydrocarbon fuel- cooled but with open-loop fuel system   GDE-2 was closed-loop hydrocarbon fuel- cooled system intended for NASA X-43C   SJX61-1,2 were closed-loop HC fuel-cooled development/clearance engines for X-51A Ground Demo Engine (GDE-2) SJX61-1 Development Engine SJX61-2 Flight Clearance Engine AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 29
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator First Flight on 26 May 2010   240-sec of continuous JP-fueled scramjet combustion in fuel-cooled combustor   Four flight experiments beginning late 2009   B-52 underwing launch; ATACMS booster to separation and scramjet ignition   Actual first flight performance:   Total mission time = 210 sec   Time on scramjet = 143 sec   Total distance traveled = 170 mi   Scramjet ethylene start and JP-7 transition   Scramjet fuel control and cooling   Fuel setting for 4.7 ≤ Mach ≤ 5.25   Actual scramjet Mach achieved was 4.9   TM lost before fuel setting for high Mach   Possible seal leak at nozzle junction   Nearly all other test objectives were met on this initial flight experiment AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 30
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 31
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator Cleared for Public Release: WPAFB 08-2865 AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 32
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 33
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 34
    • X-51A Scramjet Engine Demonstrator   300-sec of continuous JP-fueled scramjet combustion in fuel-cooled combustor   Four flight experiments beginning in 2010   B-52 underwing launch; ATACMS booster ~30 sec to separation and scramjet ignition AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 35
    • Robust Scramjet Scale-Up Program X-51A uses small-scale combustor AFRL Robust Scramjet program Possible follow-on flights Scale-up and combustor Large-scale to test navigation and reconfiguration for vehicle inert strike on 3X, 10X, 100X target scales? Possible ISR Potential step to or global strike vehicle a future airbreathing TSTO access-to-space system Dual flowpaths, mode Combined TBCC nozzle transitions, cocooning AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 36
    • Hypersonic Global ISR Vehicles   JP-fueled scramjet propulsion system could potentially enable a medium-size rapid-response ISR vehicle having operationally relevant range capability   Mach 6 limit avoids complex thermal management penalties at higher Mach   Vertical takeoff / horizontal landing (VTHL) enables single-stage rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) system having 5000 nmi range with 2000 lbs payload   Integral rocket boost to Mach 3.5 with ram-scram acceleration to Mach 6   Resulting notional vehicle is 80 ft long with 42,000 lbs empty weight Notional Mach 6 single-stage reusable VTHL ISR vehicle with 5000 nmi range (Astrox) AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 37
    • Airbreathing Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) Access to Space Vehicles   Airbreathing systems offer enormous advantages for TSTO access-to-space; reusable space access with aircraft-like operations   Air Force / NASA conducting joint configuration option assessments using Level 1 & 2 analyses   Reusable rockets (RR), turbine-based (TBCC) and rocket-based (RBCC) combined cycles AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 38
    • Laser-Based Directed Energy Systems   Laser-based directed energy systems approaching operationally useful power, size, and beam quality   Distinction between tactical DE (e.g., ATL in C-130) vs. strategic DE (e.g., ABL in B747)   Tactical-scale systems enabled ultra-low collateral damage strike and airborne self-defense AFRL Fiber Laser Testbed   Technology path from COIL lasers to bulk solid state (e.g., HELLADS) to fiber lasers to DPALs   Demonstration path leads to airborne test (ELLA) General North Oscura Peak (NOP) ELLA Flight Demonstration AFRL Rubidium DPAL Experiment Atomics White Sands Missile Range Unit Cells Textron 2010 2012 2017 AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 39
    • Electric Laser on a Large Aircraft (ELLA): Integration of Laser DE in B-1B USAF Chief Scientist Conducting ELLA   ELLA seeks to integrate and demonstrate tactically Integration Assessment in B-1B relevant high-power laser DE in airborne platform   C-130 and B-1B platforms were considered; B-1B selected as most challenging (aero-optics)   Will integrated fully modular HELLADS-derived laser in forward weapons bay of B-1B   Thermal management integrates with existing PAO lines in weapons bay; full beam control   Current FY17 tests and demonstration planned 3 Weapons Bays AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 40
    • Emerging Roles and New Concepts for Large and Medium Size UAVs   UAS moving beyond traditional surveillance and kinetic strike roles   Longer-endurance missions require high-efficiency engine technologies   In-flight automated refueling will be key for expanding UAS capabilities   May include ISR functions beyond traditional electro-optic surveillance   LO may allow ops in contested or denied (non-permissive) areas   Electronic warfare (EW) by stand-in jamming is a possible future role   Wide-area airborne surveillance (WAAS) is increasingly important   Directed energy strike capability is likely to grow (laser and HPM) AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 41
    • Current Unmanned Aircraft Systems of the U.S. Air Force and DoD U.S. Air Force RQ-4 Global Hawk MQ-1 Predator MQ-9 Reaper RQ-11 Raven Wasp III BATMAV RQ-170 Sentinel U.S. Army U.S. Navy / Marines RQ-7 Shadow MQ-1C Warrior RQ-11 Raven Scan Eagle RQ-11 Raven RQ-8 Fire Scout Wasp III BATMAV RQ-2 Pioneer AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 42
    • MAVs Involve New Aerodynamic Regimes With Strong Fluid-Structure Coupling   Micro UAVs open up new opportunities for close-in sensing in urban areas   Low-speed, high-maneuverability, and hovering not suited even to small UAVs   Size and speed regime creates low-Re aerodynamic effects; fixed-wing UAVs become impractical as size decreases   Rotary-wing and biomimetic flapping- wing configurations are best at this size   Requires lightweight flexible structures and unsteady aero-structural coupling AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 43
    • Low Reynolds Number Flow Associated with Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicles   Unsteady aerodynamics w/ strong coupling to flexible structures is poorly understood   AFRL water tunnel with large pitch-plunge mechanism allows groundbreaking studies   Advanced diagnostics (SPIV) combined with CFD are giving insights on effective designs   MAV aerodynamics, structures, and control are accessible to university-scale studies AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Cleared for Public Release 28 June 2010 44
    • Concluding Remarks   Air Force S&T priorities span across a wide range of technical areas   Technology Horizons gives the vision for key USAF S&T over next decade   Remote-piloted and autonomous air vehicle systems will play a central role   RPAs, HALE aircraft and airships   Technologies for reducing fuel costs will become increasingly important   Airships, HWB, VAATE programs   High-speed systems for strike, ISR, and access-to-space are advancing   Laser-based directed-energy systems are approaching operational utility AIAA Combined Conferences Keynote Presentation Unclassified 28 June 2010 45