Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies

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Imitating traditional development paths is impossible for emerging economies. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with BCG, suggests that health systems in emerging economies need to make the right investments now to avoid problems that developed economies have encountered.

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Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies

  1. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies Abuja, May 7-9
  2. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 1 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Report: "Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies" Published as of January 2014; Next report due in January 2015 Content Preface Section I: Why health systems need leapfrogging A. Context and problem B. Opportunity C. Destination Section II: How health systems leapfrogging works A. Definition of leapfrogging B. Leapfrogging matrix Section III: What health systems leapfrogging can achieve Case study 1: Organizational innovation in medical service delivery in India Case study 2: Overcoming human resource constraints through innovative workforce models in sub-Saharan Africa Case study 3: Providing access to antenatal ultrasound care to rural communities in Uganda Case study 4: Reducing maternal and newborn mortality through simple and inexpensive disruptive product innovation Case study 5: Closing gaps in immunization coverage through better data management in sub-Saharan Africa Section IV: Conclusion Click on image to download report Note: Online version at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_HealthSystem_LeapfroggingEmergingEconomies_ProjectPaper_2014.pdf
  3. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 2 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Cost $51B, equaling 20% of GDP (2012) or 10 times public health expenditure (2012) Duration 300 years with existing training infrastructure Source: World Bank, WHO, Africa Health Workforce Observatory, BMI, IFC, BCG Exhibit 1: Imitating traditional development paths is impossible for emerging economies 800 600 400 200 0 No. of doctors in Nigeria (K) 794 203020302012 X 12 94 67 No. of doctors with current training resources No. of doctors to match OECD levels Nigeria would need over 700,000 additional doctors to reach OECD levels by 2030
  4. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 3 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. 1,000 750 500 250 0 2022 Health expenditure (Index: 1995 = 100) 3.7% p.a. 10.7% p.a. 7.4% p.a. 3.5% p.a. 0 4 8 12 16 Global health expenditure (trillion USD) 2022 67% 33% 2012 79% 21% 1995 90% 10% 2012 Developed economies Emerging economies 1995 Exhibit 2: Emerging economies are increasing their health expenditure Source: World Bank, Business Monitor International, BCG Developed economies Emerging economies For every additional $100 spent on health in 2022 (compared to 2012), $50 will have come from emerging economies
  5. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 4 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Ideal path Path to avoid 70 60 50 40 8’0004’000 5’000 6’000 7’0003’0002’0001’0000 Health-adjusted life expectancy (years, 2010) Health expenditure per capita (PPP USD, 2010) Developed economies Emerging economies Health expenditure as % of GDP Exhibit 3: Health systems in emerging economies need to avoid the path of health systems in developed economies Health-adjusted life expectancy: Estimates the number of years in full health an individual is expected to live at birth by subtracting the years of ill health (weighted according to severity) from overall life expectancy Source: World Bank, WHO, The Lancet, BCG
  6. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 5 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Source: Expert interviews, Working Group discussions, literature survey, BCG Exhibit 4: Proposed health systems vision Achieve better physical and mental health outcomes across all demographic and socio- economic groups Improve individual's satisfaction with the health system by respecting their dignity Keep the provision of health financially sustainable for both individuals and the economy as a whole
  7. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 6 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Ideal state Requirements Actual state • Increased nutritional intake • Skilled attendance at birth • Breastfeeding • Vaccination • Nutritious food • Trained midwifes • Nutritious food • Availability of vaccines • Malnutrition • Absence of trained midwifes • Malnutrition • Absence of vaccines Maternal & prenatal Infancy Maternal and newborn health Child and adolescent health Adult and reproductive health Healthy aging 1 2 3 4 Life stages Leapfrogging as a method to close the gap (quickly, cost- effectively and with scale) between actual and ideal state Source: WHO Europe, Health at key stages of life: The life-course approach, 2011, BCG Exhibit 5: The life course approach helps identify areas of major impact
  8. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 7 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Source: Expert interviews, BCG Exhibit 6: Two meanings of leapfrogging: Transformation of an entire system and significant changes within a system Actual Ideal ActualIdeal Supply side Demandside Today Vision Significant changes within a system Transformation of an entire system
  9. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 8 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Exhibit 7: Leapfrogging innovations satisfy three conditions (how?) as they move a system toward an ideal state (what?) Source: Expert interviews, Working Group discussions, BCG How? What? Acceleration Cost-effectivenessScalability
  10. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 9 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Innovation types Prevention & Health promotion Workforce Information Service delivery Financing Leadership/ Governance Medical products 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Operating model change Behavior changeB C Health System categories Micro-insurance products can increase access to care for low income populations while limiting exposure to financial risk. (Example: Hygeia Community Health Care in Nigeria) Using social marketing employing proven commercial marketing techniques to promote can improve individuals' health choices. (Example: Greenstar social marketing for family planning in Pakistan) Incentivizing the workforce to prolong equipment longevity through careful handling, regular maintenance, and safe re-use of devices sold as single-use products. (Example: CARE hospitals in India) Rewarding health insurance buyers for healthy lifestyles by adjusting premiums to measurable exercise activities and consumption habits can improve health and cut costs. (Example: Discovery Insurance in South Africa) Telemedicine can improve the quality of care for remote communities by leveraging centrally-located expertise. (Example: Fortis and GE Healthcare tele- ICU in India) Defined global standards for measuring health outcomes can allow meaningful international benchmarking and sharing of best practices. (Example: International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement ICHOM) Strengthening supply chains for medical products, for example through supply chain integration, can make products more accessible and affordable to low-income populations. (Example: "Deliver" Project by USAID) Empowered community health workers can promote health and provide primary care, supported by and acting as a gateway to more qualified health workers. (Example: Pesinet child health programs in Africa) A holistic approach to prevention and health promotion can bring health considerations into every aspect of people’s' daily lives. (Example: Health Promotion Board in Singapore) Imposing excise taxes on unhealthy products (foods, tobacco, alcohol) can discourage unhealthy consumption habits (Example: Sugar tax in Norway) Providing food labeling to help consumers better make more health-conscious choices (Example: "Traffic light" nutrition labeling in the United Kingdom) Increasing workforce awareness of financial considerations can reduce costs by promoting transparency and rewarding suggestions for process improvements. (Example: Narayana Health cost awareness policy in India) Insights from behavioral sciences can be used to effect behavior change in both the demand and provision of medical services. (Example: Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab study on immunization incentives in India) Intersectoral governance can bring health considerations into all aspects of public policy making in a holistic manner (Example: National Committee on Public Health in France) Exhibit 8: Leapfrogging matrix with major themes Source: Expert interviews, project partner organizations, desk research, BCG Technology Mobile technology can be harnessed to communicate to broad population segments, especially in rural and low-income areas (Example: Kenya Integrated Mobile MNCH Information Platform) Smart cards for health insurance buyers can streamline administration, facilitate data collection and mobility, and improve the quality of service delivery while preserving patient privacy (Example: RSBY biometric smart card in India) Refocusing medical product innovation on value to create products balancing quality with cost can increase access to care for low-income populations. (Example: Philips' infant warmer; QIAGEN CareHPV Test) Clinical decision support (CDS) software can empower health workers to improve the quality of the services they provide. (Example: Diagnostic software used by "Minute Clinic" walk-in clinics in the United States) Care can be moved from hospitals to homes by smart phone technology enabling remote support and tracking of therapy adherence. (Example: Helius software tool by Proteus Digital Health in the United Kingdom) A nationwide, integrated electronic health record system can improve quality and efficiency of care by avoiding data silos (Example: Electronic Health Record System in Estonia) Mobile technology can be used to prevent disease and create demand for health care via mobile-phone based health education programs and counseling hotlines. (Example: Project Masiluleke in South Africa) A C Proven theme Nascent theme
  11. Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies.pptx 10 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Innovation types Prevention & Health promotion Workforce Information Service delivery Financing Leadership/ Governance Medical products 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Operating model change Behavior changeB CHealth System categories Hygeia Community Health Care (HCHC): Provides low-income populations in Nigeria with affordable health insurance covering essential treatment Greenstar: Conducts social marketing to raise public awareness of reproductive health, leveraging private healthcare providers to act as franchisees CARE hospitals: Improve equipment longevity and reduce waste be safely reusing devices sold as single-use products Discovery Insurance: Rewards health insurance buyers for healthy lifestyles through a variety of benefits Fortis & GE Healthcare tele-ICU: Reorganizes delivery of critical care by connecting remote ICUs with centrally located intensivists through telemedicine International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement: Defines global standards for measuring health outcomes and foster better decision-making USAID "Deliver" Project: Provides technical assistance to streamline medical supply chains in emerging economies, increasing availability and affordability of medical products Pesinet: Deploys community health workers with limited expertise to detect and monitor childhood diseases with remote assistance from physicians Singapore Health Promotion Board: Invests in the maintenance of public health using a holistic approach, bringing health considerations into every aspect of people's daily lives Sugar Tax in Norway: Charges excise tax on unhealthy food (also: tobacco, alcohol) to discourage unhealthy consumption habits "Traffic light" nutrition labeling in the United Kingdom: Simplifies food labels to avoid obesity by helping consumers better understand products Narayana Health cost awareness policy: Incentivizes physicians to take financially prudent decisions and make suggestions for cost savings and process improvements Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab study on immunization in India: Provides non-monetary incentives for parents to immunize their children, thereby overcoming cognitive biases National Committee on Public Health in France: Creates an inter-ministerial committee to act as a steering body in coordinating health policies across all ministries concerned. Exhibit 9: Leapfrogging matrix with concrete examples Source: Expert interviews, project partner organizations, desk research, BCG Technology Kenya Integrated Mobile MNCH Information Platform: Provides pregnant women with mobile phone- based health information to promote safe pregnancy RSBY Smart Card: Uses biometric smart cards to register low-income (and often illiterate) insurance takers, streamline administration and service delivery and facilitate data collection Philips infant warmer: Provides reliable, easy-to-use and cost-effective infant thermo-regulation to reduce neonatal mortality in low-income countries Clinical decision software used at MinuteClinic: Enables nurse practi- tioners to treat routine ailments with computerized medical guidelines on diagnosis, treatment and drugs Proteus Helium system: Administers hypertension therapy remotely via smart phone technology, moving care from service points to homes Electronic Health Record System in Estonia: Creates a nationwide, integrated electronic health record system to improve the quality and efficiency of diagnosis and treatment Project Masiluleke: Leverages mobile technology for HIV/AIDS and TB prevention through phone-based counseling and text message-supported self-testing A Project Masiluleke Proven example Nascent example
  12. bcg.com | bcgperspectives.com

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