Jordan Grandt and Cristina GonzalezHonors 10th World Literature and CompositionMrs. Lester and Ms. Hamilton16 April 2012 Shaping SheetIntro[slide] addiction in veterans.[slide] Thesis: How can addiction be proven as a legitimate disease? Addiction in veterans should beconsidered a mental illness by the military. Ways to prove addiction as a disease are how they connectto other mental illnesses, as well as how they affect the brain.Body Paragraph 1[slide]Topic Sentence: How can addiction be proven as a disease to the military?1.*slide+Concrete Detail: The “Disease Model” is used to prove and understand whether or notsomething is considered a legitimate disease. This is used by doctors and scientists all over the world todetermine the view of a situation. (McCauley)Commentary: This model says that as long as you have an organ that gets a physical, cellular defect, andas a result, you see symptoms, it is called a disease. (McCauley)[slide] Commentary: These symptoms differ only by severity or stage of illness.Commentary: The disease model “strips away the nonsense about personality and social environment.”Commentary: With addiction, you see all of these, with brain cells and symptoms. (McCauley)[slide] Commentary:These symptoms are prevalent in veterans addicted to substances.2. [slide]Concrete Detail: The behaviors and relapses are considered common for a chronic disease.(Neergaard)Commentary: Frustrating relapses are known for being related to chronic diseases. (Neergaard)
[slide]Commentary: Also, most drug related prison sentences end in relapses, so many punishments donot help in the long run.Commentary: Since relapses are so common in addiction, along with other chronic diseases, we believethat there should be treatment for these individuals instead of just punishment. (Brooks)[slide]Commentary: People with mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are pardoned frompunishments such as jail and are sent to mental treatment.Commentary: Why should one disease get treatment, but not addiction?3. [slide]Concrete Detail: Like many other diseases, addiction has no cure, but has many triggers.(Brooks)Commentary: Stress plays a huge part in addiction, just like many other diseases. (McCauley)Commentary: Veterans have a huge chance for triggers, such as stress in daily life, as well as otherknown triggers.*slide+Commentary: A “cure” for addiction is not available; however the disease can be managed withcoping skills. (Brooks)Commentary: Many diseases do not have cures, like addiction. The military should provide moresuccessful treatment options for addiction.Body Paragraph 2[slide] Topic Sentence: How do mental illnesses in veterans connect to addiction?1. [slide]Concrete Detail: Doctors have recently been prescribing addicting pharmaceuticals to veteranswith PTSD and other mental illnesses. (Brooks)Commentary: Veterans are being prescribed more and more opioids, such as OxyContin, Percocet andVicodin (Brooks).Commentary: “...healing from the traumas of war is a process that continues over years of work andneeds more than a Band Aid.” (Stovroff)
[slide] Commentary: These drugs do not treat the root of the problem of psychological issues, but oftenlead to addiction. (Brooks)Commentary: If these addictive pills were controlled more instead of being prescribed all of the time,addiction in veterans would be less of an issue.2. [slide]Concrete Detail: 140,000 veterans returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan were diagnosedwith some sort of pain. (Kounang)Commentary: The severity of these veterans experience during war time plays a major role in thisstatistical evidence.[slide]Commentary: Mental disorders, such as depression or drug and alcohol abuse, were very commonamong these veterans. (Kounang)Commentary: These veterans were 2.4 more times likely to be prescribed opioid painkillers thanveterans without any mental health diagnosis. (Kounang)3. [slide]Concrete Detail: Nick, an Army infantryman, was suffering from depression and other mentalillnesses when he tried to kill himself with heroin (Hahn).Commentary: After many tragic things in his life, brought about by life and the military, Nick becameaddicted to heroin, a deadly drug.[slide] Commentary: The military did nothing to prevent this from happening, despite it being commonthroughout all branches of the military.Commentary: He only tried heroin as a way to end the mental illnesses and pain brought about by hisexperiences in joining the military during wartime.Body Paragraph 3[slide]Topic Sentence: How does addiction in veterans affect the brain?1. [slide]Concrete Detail: The brains reward system as dopamine is released when one is addicted tosomething and uses it regularly. (Neergaard)
Commentary: Eventually, the brain’s dopamine levels get so used to this addiction that it is no longerpleasurable, even though the person is still addicted.Commentary: This happens to people who are addicted to very long, until there is never enough of thesubstance to get the same feeling as it once did.[slide]Commentary: These levels become routine and ritual among the brain.Commentary: This leads to more severe cases of addiction in both veterans and civilians.2. [slide]Concrete Detail: Persistent stress releases hormones such as CRF.[slide]Commentary: CRF acts on genes for dopamine neurotransmission.Commentary: People under this severe stress increase their risk-taking behavior in the search of relief.Commentary: This can be in addition to dangerous substances such as drugs and alcohol.[slide]Commentary: Veterans are under obvious, severe stress from their surroundings and civilian life.3. [slide]Concrete Detail: Dopamine is released in the midbrain whenever substances are used.Commentary: Once the substance is used, and dopamine levels are high, the brain tags this item as asurvival mechanism.Commentary: After this, the user is unable to derive normal pleasure like they were before.[slide] Commentary: The persons life becomes solely devoted to this “survival mechanism.”Conclusion: [slide] Addiction should be considered a disease by the military due to the many facts thatinclude it as a legitimate disease.