Research Paper Writing


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Research Paper Writing

  1. 1. RESEARCH - is a careful, critical, disciplined inquiry, which varies in technique and method according to the nature and conditions of the problem identified, directed towards the clarification or resolution of a problem. - is a systematic study of something for the purpose of answering questions raised by the researcher. - is the process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific manner.
  2. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH1. Research is SYSTEMATIC. - it follows an orderly and sequential procedure.2. Research is CONTROLLED. - all variables are kept constant (not allowed to change)3. Research is EMPIRICAL. - all procedures are perceived in the same manner.4. Research is ANALYTICAL. - there is a critical analysis of all the data used.5. Research is OBJECTIVE, UNBIASED, and LOGICAL. - all findings and conclusions are logical based on empirical data.6. Research employs HYPOTHESIS. - it serves as a guide in the investigation process.7. Research employs QUANTITATIVE or STATISTICAL METHODS. - the data are transformed into numerical measures.8. Research is ORIGINAL WORK. - the data are gathered from first-hand sources.9. Research is an ACCURATE INVESTIGATION, OBSERVATION, and DESCRIPTION. - all conclusions are based on actual evidence.10. Research requires COURAGE. - researchers oftentimes undergo hazards, discomfort, threats, and the like.
  3. 3. GENERAL PURPOSE OF RESEARCH- The preservation and improvement of the quality of human life.SPECIFIC PURPOSES AND GOALS OF RESEARCH1. To discover new facts about known phenomena.2. To find answers to problems which are only partially solved by existing methods and information.3. To improve existing techniques and develop new instruments or products.4. To discover previously unrecognized substances or elements.5. To discover pathways of action of known substances.6. To transform valid generalizations into systematized science.7. To provide basis for decision-making in business, industry, education, government, and in other undertakings.8. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.9. To find answer to queries by means of scientific methods.10. To expand or verify existing knowledge.
  4. 4. GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM/ TOPIC1. The research problem/topic must be chosen by the researcher himself. This is to avoid blaming others or offering excuses for any obstacle encountered.2. It must be within the interest of the researcher.3. It must be within the specialization of the researcher.4. It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle.5. It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance.6. It must be researchable and manageable. a. Data are available and accessible. b. Data must meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity, and reliability. c. Answers to the specific questions can be found. d. The hypothesis formulated is testable; it can be accepted or rejected. e. Equipment and instruments for research are available.
  5. 5. 7. It can be completed within a reasonable period of time.8. It is significant, important, and relevant to the present time and situation, and of current interest.9. The results are practical and implementable.10. It requires original, critical, and reflective thinking.11. It must show or pave way for the solution of the problem/s intended to be solved.12. It must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people. It must not advocate the promotion of antisocial, cruelty, divisiveness, etc. It must advocate the promotion of divine values and admirable human values.
  6. 6. NARROWING THE TOPIC OF YOUR RESEARCH PAPER1. The topic should be of importance; otherwise, it will not be worth the time and effort you will be required to put into paper.2. The topic should be of personal interest to you; otherwise, you may not be able to sustain your interest in it long enough to complete the paper. Not only that, you may actually enjoy your work.3. The topic should be interesting to the general reader. Avoid topics that are highly technical or specialized. Keep in mind that your paper will not be read by specialist, but by your classmates and schoolmates.4. The topic should acquaint you with a cross-section of source materials. Never consult one material only.5. The topic should be of manageable scale. * Usually ranges from 15 to 20 double-spaced, typewritten pages. * Usually allots 4 to 6 weeks for the entire project. * Availability of research sources.
  7. 7. General Topic of Narrowed Down Narrowed Down Interest Topic Further Philippine Music Contemporary Phil. Pinoy RNB Music Environment Water Pollution The Pasig River Rehabilitation World War II The Pacific War The Bombing of HiroshimaPhilippine Revolution Andres Bonifacio The Controversy Surrounding the Death of Andres Bonifacio Overseas Filipino Women OFW’s Domestic Helpers in Workers Hong Kong
  8. 8. COMPILING A RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHYBibliography - a list of books, periodicals and newspapers, and other documents used in the preparation of a research paper.FUNCTIONS OF A BIBLIOGRAPHY1. It enables the reader to verify the documentation provided by the research paper.2. It provides the reader with a list of further readings on the subject.3. It enables the reader to estimate the probable value of the research paper on the bases of the range, up-to-dateness, and reliability of the sources used. (The assumption here, is that the writers/researchers of the paper were intellectually honest enough to list down only those sources which they actually read, not just they “looked into”)
  9. 9. PROCEDURE1. Consult bibliographical guides.2. Consult an encyclopedia article on your topic.3. Consult standard reference materials such as atlases, handbooks, and dictionaries.4. Consult the card catalogue.5. Consult periodicals and newspapers.6. Consult the vertical files (leaflets, pamphlets, brochures, souvenir programs, etc.)7. Consult a guide to research paper.8. Consult the internet.
  10. 10. FORMAT OF A BIBLIOGRAPHYName of Author (surname first followed by the initials of the first name). Title of the article. Title of the source material. Place of publication. Name of publisher/publication company. Copyright date.Example:Ballou, S.V., Campbell, W.G., and Slade, C. Form & Style: A Guide to Theses, Reports, Term Papers. 8th Edition. Boston. Houghton Mufflin Company. 1991.Manlapaz, F. The Anvil Guide to Research Paper Writing. 3rd Edition. Pasig City. Anvil Publishing, Inc. 2003.Esteria, M.A. Interview by author. 19 January 2010. Montessori de Sagrada Familia. Tangos, Baliwag, Bulacan.
  11. 11. CONDUCTING AN INTERVIEWWhy the Interview?Interview - is a data-gathering device which, in a sense, is an oral questionnaire. The subject or interviewee gives the needed information verbally in a face-to-face relationship. * people are usually more willing to talk than to write. * if the interviewer is skillful enough and able to establish rapport, he is likely to draw certain types of confidential information the respondent might be reluctant to put into writing. * the interviewer can explain the purpose of the research, and can explain more clearly what information he wants.Interviews serve to: 1. Verify information gathered from written sources. 2. Clarify points of information on which written sources are evasive, ambiguous, or confusing. 3. Update information by asking your direct source for the recent developments which may not yet have been recorded in print.
  12. 12. Whom to interview? The cardinal consideration is to choose the “right” interviewee, one who is in the best position to provide you with the information you need. The interviewee then must be:1. KNOWLEDGEABLE - Does he have the information you need? Is his knowledge that of an authority?2. RELIABLE - An interviewee may have the information you need, but he may not give it to you.3. AVAILABLE - No matter how knowledgeable or reliable a resource person may be, he may still be of no use to you unless he is available.
  13. 13. Planning the Interview1. Find out which resource person is the best person to interview. The right choice of interviewee will save you the time and trouble.2. Ask for an appointment with your interviewee. This can be done in two ways: * By letter - this is advisable with an interviewee you are not personally acquainted with. Be sure to allow sufficient time for delivery. If you do not receive a reply, follow up the request. * By phone - this is permissible in cases where you have a mutual friend whose name you can mention when introducing yourself.
  14. 14. Always be certain to: a. Identify yourself and school affiliation. b. State clearly the purpose of the interview. c. Mention the period of time during which you need to schedule the interview. d. Indicate the approximate length of the time involved in the interview. e. Inquire where he would like to have the interview conducted. f. Offer to submit ahead of time a list of questions you expect to ask. This helps both you and the interviewee.3. Having secured permission from the interviewee, confirm the appointment shortly before the appointed time.
  15. 15. Conducting the Interview Itself1. Arrive promptly. It is better to have to wait that to keep your interviewer waiting.2. Come equipped with whatever materials you need to conduct the interview.3. Begin the interview by thanking the interviewee for consenting to the interview. State again the purpose of your interview.4. As a general rule, limit your questions to those on the agreed-upon list.5. Leave most of the talking to the interviewee.6. Take notes as fast as you can accurately, and as unobtrusively as possible. * Rapidly – to follow the pace of your interviewee. Use shorthand if possible. * Accurately – don’t hesitate to ask them to repeat themselves or to clarify their remarks.7. End the interview at the promised time. Thank them for granting you the interview. Whenever possible, send them a thank-you letter or any simple token.8. As soon as possible after the interview, write your notes neatly.
  16. 16. What to Avoid in Interviews?1. Avoid exerting undue pressure upon a respondent to make him participate in an interview. * they cannot be expected to freely give reliable information.2. Avoid disagreeing or arguing with or contradicting the respondent. * this may irritate him and he may not give vital information for fear of being contradicted.3. Avoid unduly pressing the respondent to make a reply. * he may give an inaccurate answer just to comply.4. Avoid using a language well over and above the ability of the respondent to understand. * he may give wrong information or may not respond at all.
  17. 17. 5. Avoid talking about irrelevant matters. * it will only prolong the interview and a waste of time.6. Avoid placing the interviewee in embarrassing situations. * sensitive things must be handled with care especially in topics relating to morality, integrity, etc.7. Avoid appearing too high above the respondent in education, knowledge, and social status. * this will make the respondent very shy and timid; rapport may not be established.8. Avoid interviewing the respondent in an unholy hour. * the respondent is too busy attending to a very important matter. * the respondent is hungry. * the respondent needs to take a rest or nap.
  18. 18. Types or Classes of Interview1. Standardized - the interviewer is not allowed to change the wordings of the questions.2. Non-Standardized - the interview has complete freedom to develop each interview in the most appropriate manner.3. Focused - also called Depth Interview. Specific attention is given to specific topics or ideas.4. Nondirective - the interviewee is allowed and even encouraged to express his feelings and views without fear, pressure, or disapproval.
  19. 19. THE QUESTIONNAIREQuestionnaire - is a list of planned, written questions related to a particular topic, used in the measurement of attitudes, and opinions.Advantages of the Questionnaire1. It is easy to construct.2. Distribution is easy and inexpensive.3. Responses are easy to tabulate.4. The respondents’ replies are free.5. Confidential information may be given freely.6. The respondent can fill out the questionnaire at will.7. The respondent can give more accurate replies.
  20. 20. Disadvantages of the Questionnaire1. The questionnaire cannot be used with the illiterate people.2. The respondents may not return the filled up copies of the questionnaire.3. If a respondent gives wrong information, it cannot be corrected at once.4. A respondent may leave some or many questions unanswered.5. Some questions may be vague. Respondents may give a wrong reply.6. The number of choices may be so limited that respondents may be forced to select responses that are not his actual choice.
  21. 21. Construction of a Questionnaire1. Doing library research.2. Talking to knowledgeable people.3. Mastering the guidelines.4. Writing the questionnaire.5. Editing the questionnaire.6. Rewriting the questionnaire.7. Pre-testing the questionnaire.
  22. 22. FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH PAPERA. Margins Left: 1.5 in Right: 1 in Top: 1 in Bottom: 1 inB. Spacing * Double-spacedC. Font / Font Size * Arial size 12D. Page Number * Upper right hand corner
  23. 23. 1. Title Page2. Acknowledgements3. Chapter I – Introduction 1.1 Purpose of the project 1.2 Definition of Terms 1.3 Scope & Delimitation 1.4 Significance of the project4. Chapter II – Review of Related Literature 2.1 ____________________ 2.2 ____________________ 2.3 ____________________ 2.4 ____________________
  24. 24. 5. Chapter III – Methodology 3.1 Methods used (at least a combination of 2 methods) 3.2 Sampling6. Chapter IV – Results, Evaluation, & Conclusion 4.1 Interpretation of Results 4.2 Summary & Conclusion 4.3 Recommendation7. Bibliography8. Appendices Appendix A – Sample Survey Form & Questionnaire Appendix B – Charts, Graphs, and Tables Appendix C – The Researchers