Gamification in Social Media


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How you can use game mechanics to increase user engagement, from market research surveys to controlling traffic speed. Cheskin Added Value's Leigh Marriner presented this fascinating lecture at Stanford University.

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Gamification in Social Media

  1. 1. Gamification in Social Media Cheskin Added ValueStanford BUS 109 Marketing and Social Media Strategy 255 Shoreline Dr., Suite 350 Date: Authors: Redwood Shores, CA 94065 October 2011 650-802-2100 Leigh.Marriner@cheskin-added-
  2. 2. What does Cheskin Added Value do?We answer central marketing questions. Market Innovation Positioning Brand Equity Communication Trends/Foresight OpFinder Brand Positioning Brand Navigator Concept Testing Cultural Insights Habits/Practices CharacterLab™ Brand Copy Testing Iconography Market Mapping Concept Testing Brand Character Tracking Brand Stretch Market Opps Ideation Cultural Traction Semiotic Audit Segmentation Fast Track Sustainability Portfolio Strategy© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 1
  3. 3. We have a global perspective, with 22 offices in 14 countries Hong Kong Beijing Los Angeles Shanghai San Francisco London Mumbai Guangzhou New York Paris Seattle Barcelona Madrid Philippines Nuremberg Cape Town Singapore Milan Johannesburg Warsaw Sydney Moscow © 2011 Cheskin Added Value© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 2
  4. 4. We help leaders innovate 1980s Apply Ethnography to Business 1990s Leverage technology to better understand consumers 2000s Designing brands that express meaningful experiences© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 3
  5. 5. Gamification The application of gaming concepts and techniques to non-game experiences, in order to drive desired behaviors. Better engagement Lift of target behaviors On-boarding Conversion Increase re- Virality engagement (broadcasting)© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 4
  6. 6. The power of gamification You can incentivize any action you value Can help you better engage both enthusiastic and even passive audiences Delivers real business value© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 5
  7. 7. What is the key to success? Requires that you identify the behaviors or actions you want from participants, alongside their relative value Then identify engagement-based strategies (game mechanics) to engineer a path to your goal Identify the behaviors you want to elicit – awareness, click-throughs, recommendations, purchases – then determine motivators that can provoke each of those behaviors© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 6
  8. 8. What are rewards? The best reward is the intrinsic satisfaction a user gets from participating – it’s not necessarily keeping score. Gamification is not just a rewards or loyalty system. Although these can, and typically do, form part of a gamification environment, they’re just pieces of the overall puzzle. Ideally it has so much “fun value” that the pure engagement qualities of playing can in itself be the reward.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 7
  9. 9. “I never thought of it as a game” I never thought of it as a game. So Facebook is not a game. A lot of times Foursquare will x it’s kind of weird when people say, have nice little coupons of My experience is not cheapened by 1 point for “Do you play FourSquare?” I thought of it as another application. hey, if you are around here writing on some friend’s I don’t play it to like win something check this out or get $10.00 wall. That’s just overdoing and I don’t really care if I’m Mayor off this bakery or stuff like it. It’s been a social of anything. I can see where my that. I actually kind of like network for me and like the friends have been and stuff like that. That’s actually kind of way that they’ve employed that, but I don’t necessarily think of cool. game mechanics, they’ve it as a competition. kept it that way and I appreciate that. I think tips are usually they’re funny, which is kind I feel Foursquare’s figured out a balance, it’s not of cool, like I went to this disgusting to me when they do game mechanics or café up in San Francisco give me points which I can earn. If I check in the called Epicenter and one of same place, they give me less points than my the tips was like ask the checking into a new place. They use it in a more cashier what he can do with clever way so that I go to new places, so I feel like a computer. And I was so they’re doing me something, I’m getting benefits if I go intrigued and I really wanted to new places because I get to get more points. to… .© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 8
  10. 10. What are game mechanics? Game mechanics are essentially a marriage of tools that measure and report statistics. Those statistics are used to represent progress and justify rewards.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 9
  11. 11. Game Mechanics What makes games so addicting? GAME PSYCHOLOGY1 GAME MECHANICS2 RESULTS3 1. It’s a pleasurable activity 1 Competition Better instructions- you have a 2. Its an activity that we feel 2 Achievements goal and it’s measurable that we can perform - a challenge that requires skill 3 Points 3. Clear goals for our activity Better feedback- anytime you 4 Purposeful do something the environment 4. Constant feedback on our responds progress 5 Collecting 5. Exercise control over our Connects you to emotions- environment 6 Shared “fiero” experience 6. We become less self- 7 Social reciprocity absorbed Better community 8 Feedback & Exchanges 9 Customization 10 ExpressiveSource: 1) Gamasutra, The Psychology Behind Games, April 26, 2005 2) Beautiful Interfaces, Farmville’s 5 Psychological Hooks, 2009; Amy Jo Kim, © 2011 Cheskin Added Value 10Shufflebrain; AppsLab, Why Gaming is the Future of Everything, November 5th, 2009 3) Jane McGonigal, UX Week Video,
  12. 12. Game mechanics are integral to social networking sites “Points or “Feedback & Follower Counts” “Achievements” Exchanges” “Collecting”© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 11
  13. 13. Instant reinforcing feedback loops Can incent people to do things they previously shunned; i.e. short-burst knowledge management within a company Tweet count (“score”) Tweet instantly visible (“result”) Irregular feedback by other people responding/retweeting @mentions tab is the Behaviorist’s irregular reward schedule mechanism. Pavlov figured out irregular rewards worked best of all. = self-reinforcing (“addictive”)© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 12
  14. 14. Metagames as a model for increasing engagement Real world reward systems drive engagement Metagames layer a rewards system on an existing real life activity. Real life leveling systems can be applied to everything. School behavior charts Frequent Flyer Programs Contests/raffles Discounts for being a frequent shopper Metagame design advances engagement. Participating in a game and receiving real world benefits like discounts or public recognition increases engagement. Currently Foursquare is tapping into the reward mechanism by creating a platform where businesses can reward their customers. Rewards could include special graphics, titles, credits, social accolades, QR-coded coupons. © 2011 Cheskin Added Value 13Source: Amy Jo Kim, Shufflebrain; Metagames Presentation
  15. 15. Gaming mechanics are being applied to the newestgeneration of social tools -1- Points for completing real world tasks Gambit Tasks: Gambit Payment’s online payment system makes the earning opportunities CrowdFlower brings to the online workforce available in virtual economies for the first time in the history of social games.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 14
  16. 16. Gaming mechanics are being applied to the newestgeneration of social tools -2- Solving real world situations - points, achievements, purposeful, shared: Urgent Evoke :The goal of the social network game is to help empower young people all over the world, and especially young people in Africa, to come up with creative solutions to our most urgent social problems.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 15
  17. 17. Gaming mechanics are being applied to the newestgeneration of social tools -3- Answering questions: points, achievements, collecting, purposeful, shared StackOverflow: Technical Q&A site with crowdsourced moderation and reputation system. People are encouraged to give best answers and ask best questions with points, badges, and tags© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 16
  18. 18. How have brands used gamification? Post % completed of surveys when log in Design own drink and share on iPhone for loyalty program points Buy high end products cheaply if get there fast enough© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 17
  19. 19. Game mechanics can be mis-used E.g. reward users with points for clicking around a site or remaining on a page to consumer content “The user will get hooked and consciously participate as soon as they recognise the value in it.” Why does the user care about these points?© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 18
  20. 20. Let’s design game mechanics for highway speed camera system In Finland, ticket charge based on income. Saw 3% decrease in speed. Fast car owners had money and didn’t care. Their solution: Took pictures of every car going by. Once a month one person who had gone under the speed limit won the lottery of all the penalties. 30% decrease in speed Game was linked directly to the outcome desired.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 19
  21. 21. Game mechanics in market research When respondents enjoyed the experience, researchers received 2-3 x as much feedback and participants took more time with their answers. They explored how game rules could turn questions into puzzles.1 Instead of asking respondents how much they liked a brand, we asked them how happy they would be to wear a given brand on their T-shirt. Instead of asking where they liked to go on holiday, they were invited to imagine they had to publish a magazine offering holiday recommendations. Describe yourself yielded 2.4 words and 85% response. Describe yourself in exactly seven words yielded an average of 4.5 words and 98% response. When asked how much they liked a list of music acts, they got 83 evaluated. When asked to imagine they owned their own radio station and decide which artists to play, the number of artists evaluated rose to 148. When asked to list favorite foods, on average listed 6. When told they had 2 minutes, it produced 35 items. (1) Engage Research and GMI, September 2011. 30 experiments with >5,000 people.© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 20
  22. 22. Game playing in market research Turning marketing surveys into games, based on stock market trading For getting consumer reactions to new product ideas Players buy and sell different product concepts Has been used for ski resorts, crossover vehicles, laptop bags, smartphones, mirroring results found through traditional research Do Respondents Prefer Surveys or Stock Trading? Source: Professor Ely Dahan, UCLA Anderson School of Managaement© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 21
  23. 23. Game playing in market research Something even simpler than markets for predicting preference Individuals expectation of what others will prefer is a better predictor than their own preference Source: Professor Ely Dahan, UCLA Anderson School of Managaement© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 22
  24. 24. Design Principles Use gaming to enhance real life activities. Measure behavior and report it Create achievement “badges” that can be collected and displayed: Create brag-able moments Don’t let the gaming mechanics get in the way Easy to share: quick, simple and reward those that share Easy to “play”: simple, low involvement, quick Easy to join: leverage existing social networks like Facebook /Twitter; game tries to make players invite more friends to join Game pacing: grant rewards over time; sandbox play, continuously add new things Make it mobile Make it fun!Source: Amy Jo Kim, Shufflebrain; Metagames Presentation, The social behavior incentive (how your app can be as addictive as © 2011 Cheskin Added Value 23Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare) by Robert Scoble on January 23, 2010
  25. 25. Further reading© 2011 Cheskin Added Value 24