• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
• Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Projec...
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Japan, Strategies

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Japan, Strategies

  1. 1. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectJapan: Strategies for ImprovingCitizens’ Access to Information and theRole of Information CommissionersOsaka UniversityNoriko Okubo
  2. 2. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 General regulations for access to information(1)National level① Law Concerning Access to Information Held by theAdministrative Organs (LAI) (1999)② Law Concerning Access to Information Held byIncorporated Administrative Agencies (2001)(2) Local levelOrdinances concerning access to information heldby local governments2 Special provisions in the environmental legislation(ex.: PRTR Act)Legal Schemes
  3. 3. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Applicable OrgansAll national administrative organs2 Scope of the administrative documentsDocuments, pictures and electromagneticrecords held by the administrative organconcerned for organizational use by itsemployeesIncluding:(1) Documents before final decisions(2) Documents obtained/prepared before theenforcement of LAIScope of LAI
  4. 4. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Any person has the right to request disclosure2 PrincipleObligation to disclose Documents3 6 categories of exceptionsObligation: Partial Disclosure4 Exception of exceptionDiscretionary Disclosure of Non-DisclosureInformation for Public Interest GroundsHowever, Limited number of examples in practice(only 8 cases in 2011)Right to Request Disclosure
  5. 5. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectInformation disclosure may be refused if it might adverselyaffect:1 personal information2 confidential corporate informationHowever, information which is relevant for the protectionof a persons life, health, livelihood or property shall bedisclosed.3 national security/international relations4 maintenance of public safety5 deliberation process of administrative decision6 confidentiality of the proceedings of public authorities6 categories
  6. 6. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Deadline for Disclosure Decisions30 days from the request (extendable formore 30 days)2 Fees(1) Disclosure request: cir. US$ 2 - 3(2) Documents:Inspection : cir. US$ 1 up to 100 pagesCopy: cir. US$ 0.1 /1 pageProcedure for Disclosure
  7. 7. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectAny dissatisfied requesters has access to a reviewprocedure.1 Appeal to the Administrative Organ(1) Reference to the Information DisclosureReview Board(2) Review Board: Submitting a report(report: open to the public)2 LitigationOnly 15-30 cases/yearAccess to Justice
  8. 8. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 OrganizationUnder the Cabinet OfficeCommissioners + Secretariat (incl. Examination Officers)5 Panels (3 Commissioners/panel)2 Commissioners・Total: 15 members・5 full-time Commissioner, 10 part-time Commissioner・Appointed by the Prime Minister subject to the Dietapproval・Term: 3 years3 Competence・Submission of reports・Ex officio examination・Solicit to show the requested documents(in camera examination)Information Disclosure and PersonalInformation Protection Review Board
  9. 9. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 RequestsTotal: 96,677Ministry of Infrastructure: 39,010Ministry of Environment: 5022 Decisions: 83,712(1) Disclosure: 42,983 (51.4%)(2) Partial disclosure: 38,688 (46.2%)(3) Nondisclosure: 2,041 (2.4%)Nondisclosure information: 40,325Nonexistence: 2,278Glomar denial: 339Status of Enforcement (2011)
  10. 10. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectNumber of Request48,67059,88773,31887,12378,63949,93061,08976,87072,39086,03496,677020,00040,00060,00080,000100,000120,0002001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Number of request
  11. 11. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectDecisions56.169.1 70.9 74.4 71.845.6 42.635 38.3 41.451.432.526.6 25.3 22.2 23.343.2 52.961.3 58.5 56.1 46.211.44.3 3.8 3.4 4.911.24.5 3.7 3.2 2.5 2.40%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011DecisionsAll disclosure Partical disclosure Non-disclosure
  12. 12. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Number of administrative appeals: 1,077cf. Litigation: 122 Duration of the processWithin 6 months: 21.6%6-9 months: 18.5%9-12 months: 22.4%more than 1 year: 37.5%3 Board’s RecommendationsAdmit: 3.4%Partially admit: 20.6%Dismiss: 76%Administrative Appeals (2011)
  13. 13. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access ProjectNumber of Administrative Appeals1,3599141,1581,3677448001,0188517399521,07702004006008001,0001,2001,4001,6002001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Number of administrative appeals
  14. 14. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Requested documents: Old inspection documents2 Original decision: NondisclosureMain reasons: personal information of workersconfidential corporate dataknowhow data to investigate by inspector3 Review by the Board: Ex officio examination(1) Requests to the authority for detailed research aboutexistence/nonexistence of the factories(2) Examinationby the official of the Board(3) Inquiry to the concerned corporations4 Recommendations in 2013(1) Documents concerning the closed workplaces shall bedisclosed (except personal data) (Kishiwada Case).(2) Old Documents concerning production process etc.: 19documents of 25 requested documents shall be partially disclosed(Amagasaki Case).Recent Cases : Asbestos Kishiwada Caseand Amagasaki Case
  15. 15. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Request: documents concerning work at Fukushimanuclear power plants with exposure to radiation2 Original decision: Partial disclosureMain reason: confidential corporate data3 Recommendations on 14 March 2013:expanding the extent of partial disclosure(1) Data concerning high-dose radiation areas in theFukushima Plants(2) Some parts of roadmap for controlling the accidentand cold shutdown of nuclear reactorsRecent Cases: Fukushima Accident
  16. 16. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Confidential cooperate information(1) Information on emissions which is relevant forprotection of:① a person’s life, health, livelihood, or property (LAI),② the environment (Aarhus)Aarhus > LAI(2) Information which has been voluntarily provided inresponse to a request by the Administrative Organon the condition of non-disclosure: Aarhus = LAI2 Non-Existence(1) No preparation of documents(2) Elapse of the statutory period for retaining therecordsHottest Issues
  17. 17. • Click to edit Master text styles– Second level• Third level– Fourth level» Fifth levelグリーンアクセスプロジェクト Green Access Project1 Accountability and Transparency have been dramaticallyimproved after the LAI enforcement.2 It is time for next step. However, the bill for revision ofLAI in 2011 was blocked in the Diet.3 Some options for the next steps(1) Expanding applicable organizations(2) Strengthening discretionary disclosure of non-disclosure information(3) Strengthening control of management of publicdocuments(4) Strengthening legal obligation to submit relevantenvironmental information to the administrative agency(5) Strengthening system of collection and disseminationof environmental information based on the relevantenvironmental legislationNext Challenges

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