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International and national strategic imperatives

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  • In order to understand what knowledge society is all about, it is important to first differentiate between what knowledge and information means. On the one hand information is news, stories, be they facts or opinions in the form of spoken, written, graphics, and/or sounds presentations which can be stored and/or circulated among two or more individuals. An information society is one in which there is trade of information. And on the other hand, knowledge is the outcome of reconstructed information by an individual with regard to his/her personal life experiences. Therefore, knowledge society is one whereby societal issues of injustice, solidarity, democracy and peace promotion are addressed. Moreover, it is one that promote change by provision of universal and fair access to information (being a teacher in knowledge society)
  • Significantly the development of the knowledge society requires the integration of information communication technologies (ICTs). And that gives rise to various interrelated aspects of the society: a networked society, collective intelligence, electronic learning and new competences for teachers. In a networked society communication has no limits and/or boundaries and changes all aspects of the formal education to meet the demand of the new technological era. And so a networked society reinforces the idea of collective intelligence whereby individuals in a society work together in order to achieve desired goals. For schooling it means a paradigm shift from traditional ways of teaching and learning to a more electronic limitless type of learning and teaching.
  • Pervasiveness of technology.A solid education requires good teaching practices and so teacher education and recruitment is crucial in addressing issues of inequalities and affecting learning outcomes. Numerous studies: for example, (unesco-llcba 2008) show that a number of sub-saharan African countries are in need of information communications technologies to help them find solutions to the many economic, educational and social challenges that they face. Convincingly, the results of these study and many other studies strongly encourages the idea that ICTs must be fully integrated in teacher education programs across Africa as a developing continent. Without doubt the inclusion of ICTs proposes that there must be new standards for skills, attitudes and/or competencies by which old and new teachers should be measured against. And thus there was a continental call for African countries, states, professional bodies and institutions of higher learning to co-operate in establishing these required skills, attitudes and competencies.
  • The south African department of education acknowledges the importance of ICTs as vital to almost every changing aspect of society. Moreover, believes that introducing ICTs in schools promoted new ways for students and teachers to engage critically in the process of selecting, gathering, sorting and analyzing information. Also, the department believes that ICTs have the potential to enhance the management and administrative capacity of schools(doe).
  • Education for all goalsIt is globally accepted that education is a basic human right. Other nations for example the united kingdom believe that education is vital for society in the sense that it can be used by individuals to improve their skills, living conditions and open up new opportunities. Moreover good education will prepare the coming generation with skills and competencies needed for maintaining and monitoring a sustainable development in society. Significantly, education is viewed as a good investment: an educated population yields an economic growth, better health and nutritional results, less death ratings and stable social state of the society. With regard to economic growth there is 0.37% increment of the GDP for an additional schooling year which can further increase to 1% when learning experiences cultivates quality learning outcomes. These figures are validated by the fact that an educated population has a chance of gaining better and improving salaries. Also, education is viewed as a force crucial to dealing with universal problems including global competitiveness, climate change, conflict and insecurity.
  • With regard to economic growth there is 0.37% increment of the GDP for an additional schooling year which can further increase to 1% when learning experiences cultivates quality learning outcomes. These figures are validated by the fact that an educated population has a chance of gaining better and improving salaries. Also, education is viewed as a force crucial to dealing with universal problems including global competitiveness, climate change, conflict and insecurity.
  • There are numerous initiatives addressing the issue of education for all and one such initiative is “the education for all by 2015” initiative which was established 13 years ago. The aim of this initiative is to alter the lives of all human-beings around the world by using formal education. The initiative has its basis on the following listed goals to be achieved by the year 2015:1. To expand early childhood care and education2. To provide free and compulsory primary education to all3. To promote learning and life skills for young people and adults4. To increase adult literacy by 50%5. To achieve gender parity by 2005, and gender equality by 20156. To improve the quality of education(Education International’sResponse to the GlobalMonitoring Report 2008)Most of the goals in the list have been met and some are still to be met. Regrettably, the goal to achieve gender parity by the year 2005 was not met and also the funding were never enough to meet needs to monitor and maintain basic education.
  • Future national strategic plansThe department of education has in store a national strategic plan that will be implemented for correcting the faults in the education system of South Africa. Basically, this plan highlights the goals and tasks of the department during a period of 3 years from the year 2011 to the year 2014. Significantly, this plan gives account of the manner in which the department intend to transform education by emphasizing on the importance of newly formed concept triple T, which stands for Teacher, Time and Text. Generally, triple T is about the ideology of teachers being always on time to teach while making use of quality text books.
  • This plan resulted after the department realized that it was confronted with numerous challenges that required to be dealt with in order to promote quality education. These challenges included for example: mediocre learner outcomes in all phases, inadequate proper learner and teacher support resources, un-moderated and un-benchmarked school based tests and examinations and unsuitable working relations between administrators in the education sector
  • The government intends to use this plan to meet these setbacks in hopes to achieve the following objectives: • Increment of Grade 3 learners competent in minimum language and numeracy for Grade 3.• Increment of Grade 6 learners competent in minimum language and mathematics for Grade 6.• Increment of Grade 9 learners competent in minimum language and mathematics Grade 9.• Increment of Grade 12 learners who become eligible for a Bachelors programme at a university.• Increment of Grade 12 learners who pass mathematics. • Increment of Grade 12 learners who pass physical science.• Improve the average performance in languages of Grade 6 learners.• Improve the average performance in mathematics of Grade 6 learners.• Improve the average performance in mathematics of Grade 8 learners.• Ensure that all children remain effectively enrolled in school up to the year in which they turn 15.• Improve the access of children to quality early childhood development (ECD) below Grade 1.• Improve the grade promotion of learners through the Grades 1 to 9 phases of school.• Improve the access of youth to Further Education and Training beyond Grade 9.
  • On the other hand is the national planning commission which is a body of individuals appointed by the president to plan and outline objectives including in education needed to be achieved by the country is under a given period of time. In particular the plan by this commission is targeted for 2030 and has the following objective specifically for schooling: that about 80 percent of schools and learners should achieve 50% and above in literacy, mathematics and science in grade 3, 6, and 9. And also to increase the number of learners eligible to study mathematics and science at university to 450 000 per year. Another objective is to make sure that about 80% every group of learners complete the 12 cycle of schooling successfully.
  • For further education and training and skills development the objectives are: to increase graduation rate of further education and training colleges to 75 percent, produce 30 000 artisans per year, increase participation rate in further education and training colleges to 25 percent and create an additional 1 million learning opportunities per year.
  • For higher education, science and technology the objectives are as follows: increase university science and mathematics entrants to 450 000, increase graduation rates to more 25 percent , increase participation rates to more than 30 percent and produce more than 100 doctoral graduates per million per year.
  • UNESCO ICT COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHERSThe UNESCO Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) competency framework for teachers is an international initiative geared at helping developing countries to establish and implement comprehensive national teacher ICTs competency policies and standards. Moreover, it is an international benchmark which sets out the competencies required to teach effectively with ICTs. Basically, this framework highlights the fact that teachers need not only to master ICTs skills and transfer them to learners, in-fact they must be able to assist learners to acquire other skills such as collaboration, problem solving, and creativity through the use of ICTs.
  • Moreover, this framework suggests three developmental levels for teachers: at first teachers must develop technology literacy so that they can be prepared to teach learners to use these ICTs for learning effectively and meaningfully. Secondly, it is knowledge deepening which means that teachers are prepared to enable learners to acquire deep knowledge of the content delivered at school and also to encourage learners to use the knowledge outside the classroom in real life experiences. Finally, it is knowledge creation, meaning that teachers need to equip learners with necessary skills for creating new forms of knowledge that is crucial in maintaining humane and just living conditions in societies.
  • Moreover, this framework suggests three developmental levels for teachers: at first teachers must develop technology literacy so that they can be prepared to teach learners to use these ICTs for learning effectively and meaningfully. Secondly, it is knowledge deepening which means that teachers are prepared to enable learners to acquire deep knowledge of the content delivered at school and also to encourage learners to use the knowledge outside the classroom in real life experiences. Finally, it is knowledge creation, meaning that teachers need to equip learners with necessary skills for creating new forms of knowledge that is crucial in maintaining humane and just living conditions in societies.
  • Moreover, this framework suggests three developmental levels for teachers: at first teachers must develop technology literacy so that they can be prepared to teach learners to use these ICTs for learning effectively and meaningfully. Secondly, it is knowledge deepening which means that teachers are prepared to enable learners to acquire deep knowledge of the content delivered at school and also to encourage learners to use the knowledge outside the classroom in real life experiences. Finally, it is knowledge creation, meaning that teachers need to equip learners with necessary skills for creating new forms of knowledge that is crucial in maintaining humane and just living conditions in societies.
  • Again, this framework aims at the reduction of poverty and promotion of a life of good quality through the use of education as force by which these goals can be met. Also it addresses the goal of lifelong learning.
  • Information Communication Technology enhanced Teacher Standard for Africa The manner in which teachers are selected, educated and placed in schools to practice is important because it directly impact on the learning outcomes and the education system at large. Therefore, teacher education needs to be of good standard and relevant to the 21st century and its demand of technology literacy. UNESCO- International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA), points out that without doubt there needs to be high standards with which teacher education programs are measured by with regard to ICTs integration in education. Hence, the UNESCO- IICBA initiated the ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa. This initiative is a strategy to strengthen the development of teachers in Africa. Basically, ICTeTSA aims at providing a framework for the career of teachers and their professional development in the education system. Also it clarifies the expectations for teachers at every stage of their development as far as ICTs skills are concerned in learning and teaching.
  • According to the recommendations made by the ICTeTSA a teacher needs to be competent in the following areas: firstly a teacher needs to be able to engage in the process of designing instruction. Secondly, he/she must be able to facilitate and inspire student learning, innovation and creativity. Thirdly, a teacher must create and manage effective learning environments, engage in assessments and communication of student learning and finally to engage in professional development and model ethical responsibilities and understand subject matter for use in teaching (UNESCO-IICBA, 15-18, 2012)
  • On the other hand there is a document about the guidance for teacher training and professional development in ICT by the South African government in its quest to assisted and monitor teacher development. It aims at the following goals:1. To establish a pedagogical framework to promotes understanding and the use of ICT in teaching and learning.2. To establish a technical framework to equip teachers with skills of selecting and using the appropriate ICT materials for personal and professional development.3. To establish a collaboration and network framework to encourage the ability to create and participate in communities of practice
  • Transcript

    • 1. INTERNATIONALAND NATIONALSTRATEGICIMPERATIVES2010 AND BEYONDBy A.N MOKOENA
    • 2.  INFORMATION VS KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION SOCIETY VS KNOWLEDGESOCIETY
    • 3. THE RELEVANCE OF ICTs IN KNOWLEDGESOCIETYINTERELATED ASPECTS:NETWORKED SOCIETYCOLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCEELECTRONIC LEARNINGNEW COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS
    • 4. o RELATED STUDIES:UNESCO –IICBAo INTEGRATION OF ICTs IN TEACHEREDUCATION AND TRAINININGo COOPERATION OF STAKE HOLDERS
    • 5. Pervasiveness oftechnology
    • 6.  The importance of ICTs in schools New ways of learning and teaching
    • 7. A basic human right:Importance of good education :
    • 8. Education is key to economic growth:An educated population is well equipped totackle global issues:
    • 9. Global objectives for educationLink: UNESCOo Evaluation of the progress:oAchieved and non-achieved goalsso far.
    • 10. South African department ofbasic education: 2011/2014 national planThe triple T concept!!!!
    • 11. Cont….Teachers on Time using Textbooks
    • 12. Issues addressed in thenational plan:Mediocracitypoor learner outcomesInadequencyLearning & teaching materials
    • 13. Lack of standardsExam and test not benchmarkedLack of cooperationUniformity among officials
    • 14. Focal points:Grade 3,6 and 12Objectives generalized:Increase number of learners andtheir competenciesImprove performance : In mathematics and languagesand physics (grade12)Source: strategic plan:2011-2014 (Department of Education,2011)…
    • 15. Attention to early child education as well. Quality education before grade1
    • 16. The national planningcommissionObjectives for schooling:50% and above achievement450 000 university intake peryearSchool completion with merit
    • 17. Objectives for FETs and skillsdevelopment:75% intake by FET colleges30 000 artisans annually1 million learning chances
    • 18. Objectives for higher education:450 000 mathematics andscience students25% graduation increment100 doctoral grads per million
    • 19. UNESCO ICT COMPETENCYFRAMEWORK FOR TEACHERSA globally recognized initiativeDeals with ICTs competency policiesand standardsProvide benchmark for teachingeffectively with ICTs
    • 20. Cont…Produce teachers which impart in theirlearners:
    • 21. Cont…COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS
    • 22.  Competencies for teachers
    • 23. General aim of the framework: poverty reduction
    • 24.  Life long learning
    • 25. Information CommunicationTechnology enhanced TeacherStandard for AfricaPlead that teacher educationprograms should be of good qualityICT-enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa(ICTeTSA)UNESCO-IICBA initiativeStrengthens African teachersFramework for teacher’s career andprofessional development
    • 26. Clarity on how teachers shouldprogress with regard to ICTscompetency.
    • 27. ICTeTSA aims for teachers who will beable to :1.DESIGN INSTRUCTION
    • 28. 2. FACILITATE AND INSPIRE STUDENTLEARNING
    • 29. 3. CREATE AND MANAGE EFFECTIVELEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
    • 30. 4. ENGAGE IN ASSESSMENT ANDSTUDENT COMMUNICATION
    • 31. 5.ENGAGE IN PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT AND MODEL ETHICALRESPONSIBILITIES
    • 32. 6. UNDERSTAND SUBJECT MATTER FORUSE IN TEACHING
    • 33. Cont…Teacher training and professionaldevelopment in ICT(2007)Broad aims:1. Establish pedagogical framework2. Establish technical framework3. Establish collaboration and network
    • 34. The importance of meeting suchaims1. Establishing pedagogical framework:To help teachers acquire a sound andclear understanding and use of ICT forpurposes of teaching and learning.2. Establishing technical framework:
    • 35. Teachers need to know which ICT resources areimportant and useful to them both inside and outsidethe classroom3. Establishing collaboration and networkTeachers must be able to participate in and bepart of professional bodies and ICTs are therefor that use.
    • 36. references National planning commission. 2011. Thepresidency.South Africa Strategic plan 2011-2014(Department ofEducation,2011)… Response to the Global Monitoring Report(EducationInternational, 2008) UNESCO. 2005. Capacity Building of Teacher-TrainingInstitutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paris, UNESCO.