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Presentation of Toxoplasmosis gondii for a micro class

Presentation of Toxoplasmosis gondii for a micro class

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  • 1. Justin L. DeNise Microbiology 410:615:01 4/5/2007 T. gondii - DeNise
  • 2. Kingdom - Protista Phylum - Apicomplexa Class - Conoidasida Subclass - Coccidiasina Order - Eucoccidiorida Family - Sarcocystidae Genus - Toxoplasma Species - T. gondii T. gondii - DeNise
    • Obligate Intracellular Parasite
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Usually Harmless
    • Oral-Fecal Pathway
    • -Cats
    • 400-4000 cases annually in the US
    General Information Classification
  • 3. T. gondii - DeNise Life Cycle
  • 4. T. gondii - DeNise Toxoplasmosis
    • Primarily Infects Blood and Lymph
    • Flu-like Symptoms
    • Prevalence-
    • 22-40% (60 million+ in the US alone)
    • Can cause brain damage in immunocompromised individuals
    • -AIDS/Chemotherapy
    • -Brain Defects
    • -Vision Impairment if it develops in the eye
    • -Fetuses
    • -Stillbirth
    • -Brain Defect
    • Side effect: schizophrenia, neuroticism, paranoia
    • Antibody concentration can increase proportion of births to lean towards males
  • 5. T. gondii - DeNise Prevalence
  • 6. T. gondii - DeNise
  • 7. T. gondii - DeNise How to Become Infected
    • Accidental ingestion of fecal matter from an infected cat 7-21 days post infection
    • Ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked meat
    • -Pork, lamb, venison
    • -Cross-contamination with infected meat
    • Drinking water infected with T. gondii
    • Receiving an infected organ or infected blood in a transfusion (rare)
  • 8. T. gondii - DeNise Development of Toxoplasmosis
    • Ingestion of oocysts
    • -8 sporozoites
    • Trophozoites (tachyzoites)
    • -‘Tachy’ means ‘fast’ in Greek
    • -Named due to their rapid reproduction
    • Increase in immune response causes the host cell to develop cell walls to form “tissue cysts”
    • Bradyzoites
    • - ‘Brady’ means ‘slow’ in Greek
    • -Named for slow reproduction rate inside cysts
    • -Can reproduce silently for years
    • Activation of a cyst
  • 9. T. gondii - DeNise Symptoms
    • Typical Cases
    • Flu-like symptoms (swollen lymph glands, muscle aches, and malaise)
    • Severe Cases (acute infection or reactivation)
    • Ocular and neural damage
    • Reduced Vision
    • Blurred Vision
    • Pain (bright light)
    • Redness of the Eye
    • Tearing
    • Infected Infants
    • Few have symptoms at birth, may reappear up to three decades later
    • Hydrocephaly/Microcephaly, Intracranial Calcifications, Deafness, Seizures, Cerebral Palsy, Retinal Damage, and Mental Retardation
  • 10. T. gondii - DeNise Treatment
    • Not necessary if the individual is otherwise healthy and not pregnant
    • Pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid
    • -Can be toxic to patient
    • -Useless once in bradyzoite stage
    Detection
    • Serological tests (not very accurate)
    • PCR
    • -Relatively new
    • -Accuracy approaches 100%
  • 11. T. gondii - DeNise Pyrimethamine
    • Interferes with folic acid synthesis, which is necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis in most protozoan
    • Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
    • Anti-malarial
    Sulfadazine
    • Interferes with folic acid synthesis
    • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase
    • Synnergistic with pyrimethamine
    Folinic Acid
    • Can be converted to folic acid without dihydrofolate reductase
    • Reduces side effects of the other medications
    Side Effects
    • Hyper sensitivity
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • -B12/folic acid deficiency-induced anemia
    • Leukopenia
    • -Low WBC count
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • -Low platelet count
    • Pancytopenia
    • -Lower RBC, WBC, and platelet count
    • Atrophic glossitis
    • Hematuria
    • -Blood in the urine
    • Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Pulmonary eosinophilia
    • Hyperphenylalaninemia
    • - Phenylalanine Hydroxylase deficiency (metal retardation)
  • 12. T. gondii - DeNise Antibody Detection
  • 13. T. gondii - DeNise Prevention
    • Wear gloves when doing work outside that could involve soil
    • When preparing raw meat, always wash all utensils and the preparation area thoroughly with soap and hot water afterwards
    • Cook all meat to an internal temperature of 160° F (colorless fluids and no longer pink)
    • Never taste meat before it’s finished cooking
    • Clean kitty litter boxes daily
    • Do not feed undercooked meat to a cat
    • Keep your cat indoors and feed it dry or canned food
    • If you are immunocompromised or pregnant, have someone else empty the kitty litter box and generally take care of the cat
    • Always wash your hands with soap and hot water after being in a position that could possibly contaminate you
  • 14. T. gondii - DeNise Questions to Think About
    • Why is Antibody Detection not very effective for T. gondii ?
    • Why is it important to wash the kitchen utensils and preparation area thoroughly after preparing meat which could potentially contain T. gondii ?
  • 15. T. gondii - DeNise Thanks For Listening
  • 16. T. gondii - DeNise References
    • DPDx Diagnostic Findings Website:
    • http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx/HTML/Toxoplasmosis.asp?body=Frames/S-Z/Toxoplasmosis/body_Toxoplasmosis_serol1.htm
    • Jaroslav Flegr. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons, Naturwissenschaften, August 2006
    • Jeffrey L. Jones,* Deanna Kruszon-Moran,† and Marianna Wilson* *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland, USA Vol. 13, No. 4 • April 2007
    • Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States, 1999–2000. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Nov [ 7/3/2007 ]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no11/03-0098.htm
    • Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] Nov 2003 [ 7/3/2007 ]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no11/03-0143.htm
    • CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/toxoplasmosis
    • Images from wikipedia.com