Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident(1)


Published on

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident(1)

  1. 1. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 1 Introduction In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded. The lack of information led to exaggerated claims of the number killed by the blast in the immediate area. Contamination is still a problem, however, and disputes continue about how many will eventually die as a result of the world’s worst nuclear accident. The operating crew was planning to test whether the turbines could produce sufficient energy to keep the coolant pumps running in the event of a loss of power unit the emergency diesel generator was activated. To prevent any interruptions to the power of the reactor, the safety systems were deliberately switched off. To conduct the test, the reactor had to be powered down to 25 percent of its capacity. This procedure did not go according to plan and the reactor power level fell to less than 1 percent. The power therefore had to be slowly increased. But 30 seconds after the start of the test, there was an unexpected power surge. The reactor’s emergency shutdown failed. The reactor’s fuel elements ruptured and there was a violent explosion. The 1000- tonne sealing cap on the reactor building was blown off. At temperatures of over 20000 C, the fuel rods melted. The graphite covering of the reactor then ignited. The graphite burned for nine days, churning huge quantities of radiation into the environment. The accident released more radiation than the deliberate dropping of a nuclear bomb on Hiroshima, Japan in August 1945.
  2. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 2 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Background On April 26, 1986, a sudden surge of power during a reactor systems test destroyed Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union. The accident and the fire that followed released massive amounts of radioactive material into the environment. Emergency crews responding to the accident used helicopters to pour sand and boron on the reactor debris. The sand was to stop the fire and additional releases of radioactive material; the boron was to prevent additional nuclear reactions. A few weeks after the accident, the crews completely covered the damaged unit in a temporary concrete structure called the “sarcophagus”, to limit further release of radioactive material. After the accident, officials closed off the area within 30 kilometers of the plant, except for persons with official business at the plant and those people evaluating and dealing with the consequences of the accident and operating the undamaged reactors. Attempts to clean up While trying to keep the nuclear disaster a secret, the Soviets were also trying to clean it up. At first they poured water on the many fires then they tried to put them out with sand and lead and then nitrogen. It took nearly two weeks to put the fires out. Citizens in the nearby towns were told to stay indoors. Physical clean-up of the area continued. Contaminated topsoil was placed into sealed barrels and radiated water contained. Short term impact of Chernobyl disaster Workers involved in the recovery and cleanup after the accident received high doses of radiation. In most cases, these workers were not equipped with individual dosimeters to measure the amount of radiation received. Further, domestic producers varied, so experts could only estimate their doses. According to Soviet estimates, between 300,000 and 600,000 people participated in the cleanup of the 30 kilometer evacuation zone around the reactor, but many did not enter the zone until two years after the accident.
  3. 3. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 3 Chronology of the Event 1. December 2, 1984, was a routine day at the UCIL factory in Bhopal 2 MIC was stored in an underground tank. The pipeline washing started at 9:30 p.m. as a routine maintenance operation 3. Between 10:30 - 11:00 p.m.: workers engaged in pipeline washing became aware of a leak. Little attention was however paid considering it a normal leak. A casual attempt was made to trace the source of leakage, but of no use. The leak continued. 4. Around 12:15 - 12:30 a.m.: The pressure in the MIC tank about upto 55 pounds per square inch (which was the maximum the gauge could read). The temperature had also shot up to 200 degree C and was increasing. An operator saw that the concrete above the tank was cracking. About 12:30 a.m., the relief valve of the tank gave away and large quantities of MIC gas leaked into the atmosphere. 6. The workers at the factory realized the risk of a massive disaster. They tried to activate the safety systems available at the factory at about 12:30 a.m. The three safety systems available within the factory and their condition at that time were as under: 7. Turning on the flare tower to burn off toxic gas. This system was not in working condition as a piece of pipeline leading to the tower had been removed for maintenance. 8. Using the vent gas scrubber, which was considered the main line of defence. It was also not in an operational condition. 9. Transferring the MIC from the tank into a nearby spare tank. The gauge of the spare tank indicated that the tank already contained something. This gauge indicator was found defective, later on. 10. After failure in all the three safety systems, the workers attempted to douse the leaking gas with water spray. The water spray reached a height of 100 ft. from the
  4. 4. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 4 ground, while the leak was at 120, ft. above the ground. At 1.00 a.m., realising that nothing could be done to stop the leak, the workers at the plant fled. 11 At about 1.00 a.m. thousands of people living around the plant were awakened by the suffocating, burning effects of the gas. As on three sides, the UCIL plant was- surrounded by slums and other poor settlements, the people living in these colonies were the worst sufferers. 12. There was no warning or guidance to the general public around this time. There were two types of alarms in the factory, one mild siren for workers and one loud public siren. The public siren was started only at about 2:30 a.m. 13. About 2.00 a.m., a large number of people were rushing out of the town through the highways leaving Bhopal. The mad rush on the main roads of the city resulted in stampedes. About two lakh people had fled the city by 3:30 a.m.. The gas clouds dissipated around 3:30 a.m.. 14. By 4:00 a.m. hospitals were crowded with suffering people. In the wake of the tragic disaster, a large number of people lost their lives and received injuries, many to their lungs and eyes. According to the Government reports, 1754 persons had died and 200,000 were injured.
  5. 5. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 5 The Leakage and Its Subsequent Effects The release In November 1984, most of the safety systems were not functioning and many valves and lines were in poor condition. In addition, several vent gas scrubbers had been out of service as well as the steam boiler, intended to clean the pipes. Another issue was that Tank 610 contained 42 tons of MIC, more than safety rules allowed for. During the night of 2–3 December 1984, water entered a side pipe that was missing its slip- blind plate and entered Tank E610 which contained 42 tons of MIC. A runaway reaction started, which was accelerated by contaminants, high temperatures and other factors. The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the pressure. This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic gases. About 30 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes. Methylamine (1) reacts with phosgene (2) producing methyl isocyanate (3) which reacts with 1-naphthol (4) to yield carbonyl (5)
  6. 6. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 6 The gas cloud The gases were blown in southeastern direction over Bhopal. As of 2008, UCC had not released information about the possible composition of the cloud. Apart from MIC, the gas cloud may have contained phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, monomethyl amine (MMA) and carbon dioxide, either produced in the storage tank or in the atmosphere. The gas cloud was composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air, stayed close to the ground and spread outwards through the surrounding community. The nature of the cloud is still discussed. The chemical reactions would have produced a liquid or solid aerosol with high density. The concentrations at ground level would have been much higher than earlier published. Acute Effects The initial effects of exposure were coughing, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation, burning in the respiratory tract, blepharospasm, breathlessness, stomach pains and vomiting. People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. Many people were trampled trying to escape. Thousands of people had died by the following morning. Primary causes of deaths were choking, reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema. Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema, tubular necrosis of the kidneys, fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis. The stillbirth rate increased by up to 300% and neonatal mortality rate by around 200%. The effects of the disaster were exacerbated by factors including the on-site storage of dangerous chemicals in an area closely surrounded by residential slums and the fact that the company had elected to use a more dangerous pesticide manufacturing method than was available.
  7. 7. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 7 Reversible reaction of glutathione (top) with methyl isocyanate (MIC, middle) allows the MIC to be transported into the body Immediate aftermath In the immediate aftermath, the plant was closed to outsiders (including UCC) by the Indian government, which subsequently failed to make data public, contributing to the confusion. The initial investigation was conducted entirely by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Central Bureau of Investigation. The UCC chairman and CEO Warren Anderson, together with a technical team, immediately traveled to India. Upon arrival, however, Anderson was placed under house arrest and urged by the Indian government to leave the country within 24 hours. Union Carbide organized a team of international medical experts, as well as supplies and equipment, to work with the local Bhopal medical community, and the UCC technical team begins assessing the cause of the gas leak. The health care system immediately became overloaded. In the severely affected areas, nearly 70 percent were underqualified doctors. Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties. Doctors and hospitals were not aware about proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation and they were directed to give cough medicine and eye drops to the patients. There were mass funerals and mass cremations. Bodies were dumped into the Narmada River, less than 100 km from Bhopal. Within a few days, trees in the vicinity became barren, and 2,000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed of. 170,000 people were treated at hospitals and temporary dispensaries. 2,000 buffalo,
  8. 8. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 8 goats, and other animals were collected and buried. Supplies, including food, became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears. Fishing was prohibited causing further supply shortages. Lacking any safe alternative, on 16 December, tanks 611 and 619 were emptied of the remaining MIC by reactivating the plant and continuing the manufacture of pesticide. Despite safety precautions such as covering the plant in wet hessian and having water carrying helicopters continually overflying the plant, this led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal. The Government of India passed the "Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act" that gave the government rights to represent all victims, whether or not in India. Complaints of lack of information or misinformation were widespread. Formal statements were issued that air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs were safe within the city. At the same time, people were informed that poultry was unaffected, but were warned not to consume fish. No one under the age of 18 was registered at the time of the accident. The number of children exposed to the gases was at least 200,000.Within weeks, the State Government established a number of hospitals, clinics and mobile units in the gas-affected area to treat the victims. UCC would establish a relief fund and subsequently offer interim relief to the Indian government, who would turn it down. Long term impact of Chernobyl disaster Immediately following the accident, the main health concern involved radioiodine, which has a half-life of eight days. For the longer term, there is concern about contamination of the soil with cesium-137, which has a half-life of about 30 years.
  9. 9. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 9 Chernobyl Accident Effects, Facts And Figures Children  Today in Ukraine 6,000 children are born every year with genetic heart defects. More than 3,000 will die for lack of medical attention.  Children born since 1986 are affected by a 200 percent increase in birth defects and a 250 percent increase in congenital birth.  85% of Belarusian children are deemed to be Chernobyl victims: they carry “genetic markers” that could affect their health at any time and can be passed on to the next generation.  UNICEF found increase in children’s disease rates, including 38% increase in malignant tumours, 43% in blood circulatory illness and 63% in disorders of the bone, muscle and connective tissue system.  More than one million children continue to live in contaminated zones. Health  Seven million people living in the affected areas received the highest known exposure to radiation in the history of the atomic age.  Belarusian doctors have identified increase in a number of cancers, including: a 200% increase in breast cancer, a 100% increase in the incidence of cancer and leukemia and a 2400% increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer. Thyroid Cancer A large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has occurred among people who were young children and adolescents at the time of the accident and lived in the most contaminated areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. This was due to the high levels of radioactive iodine released from the Chernobyl reactor in the early days after the accident.
  10. 10. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 10 Mental health and psychological effects The Chernobyl accident led to extensive relocation of people, loss of economic stability, and long term threats to health in current and possibly future generations. Widespread feelings of worry and confusion, as well as a lack of physical and emotional well-being were commonplace.  The mortality rates among the population already outstrip their birth rates. Environment  99% of the land of Belarus has been contaminated to varying degrees above internationally accepted levels.  2,000 towns and villages were evacuated, and more than 400,000 people have been relocated from their homes since 1986. Decades later, another 70,000 are still waiting to evacuate.  The exclusion zone, known as “Death Valley”, has been increased from 30 to 70 square kilometers. No humans will ever be able to live in it again. Economy  The cost of the Chernobyl blast and its consequences is being carried by the survivors and will be handed down to their children for generations.  The Chernobyl disaster costs Belarus 20% of its annual national budget.
  11. 11. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 11 Solutions The Chernobyl Shelter Fund The Chernobyl Shelter Fund was established in 1997 at the Denver 23rd G8 summit to finance the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP). The plan calls for transforming the site into an ecologically safe condition by means of stabilization of the sarcophagus followed by construction of a New Safe Confinement (NSC). While the original cost estimate for the SIP was US$768 million, the 2006 estimate was $1.2 billion. The SIP is being managed by a consortium of Bechtel, Battelle, and Electricité de France, and conceptual design for the NSC consists of a movable arch, constructed away from the shelter to avoid high radiation, to be slid over the sarcophagus. The NSC is expected to be completed in 2015, and will be the largest movable structure ever built. The United Nations Development Programme The United Nations Development Programme has launched in 2003 a specific project called the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme (CRDP) for the recovery of the affected areas. The programme was initiated in February 2002 based on the recommendations in the report on Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The main goal of the CRDP's activities is supporting the Government of Ukraine in mitigating long-term social, economic, and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. CRDP works in the four most Chernobyl- affected areas in Ukraine: Kyivska, Zhytomyrska, Chernihivska and Rivnenska. The International Project on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident The International Project on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPEHCA) was created and received US $20 million, mainly from Japan, in hopes of discovering the main cause of health problems due to 131 I radiation. These funds were divided between Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, the three main affected countries, for further investigation of health effects. As there was significant corruption in former Soviet countries, most of the foreign aid was given to Russia, and no positive outcome from this money has been demonstrated.
  12. 12. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident[ ] April 30, 2014 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 12 Conclusion The tragedy of Bhopal continues to be a warning sign at once ignored and heeded. Bhopal and its aftermath were a warning that the path to industrialization, for developing countries in general and India in particular, is fraught with human, environmental and economic perils. Some moves by the Indian government, including the formation of the MoEF, have served to offer some protection of the public's health from the harmful practices of local and multinational heavy industry and grassroots organizations that have also played a part in opposing rampant development. The Indian economy is growing at a tremendous rate but at significant cost in environmental health and public safety as large and small companies throughout the subcontinent continue to pollute. Far more remains to be done for public health in the context of industrialization to show that the lessons of the countless thousands dead in Bhopal have truly been heeded.