Indias relationship with other member countriesDocument Transcript
Chapter 1India’s relationship with other member countries of BRICSBrazil–India relationsBrazil–India relationsBrazil IndiaBrazilian president Dilma Rousseff with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.Brazil–India relations refers to the bilateral relations between Brazil and India.Brazil and India also share historical ties as a result of the Portuguese Empire. Morerecently, Brazil and India have co-operated in the multilateral level on issues such asinternational trade and development, environment, reform of the UN and the UNSCexpansion.
Country comparisonBrazil IndiaPopulation 190,732,694 1,210,193,422Area 8,514,877 km² (3,287,597 sq. mi) 3,287,240 km² (1,269,210 sq. mi)PopulationDensity22/km² (57/sq. mi) 364/km² (943/sq. mi)Capital Brasília New DelhiLargest CitySão Paulo - 11,037,593 (19.889.559Metro)Mumbai - 13,922,125 (21,347,412 Metro)GovernmentFederal presidential constitutionalrepublicFederal parliamentary constitutionalrepublicOfficiallanguagesPortugueseHindi, English and 17 other officiallyrecognized languages.Mainreligions74% Roman Catholicism,15.4% Protestant, 7.4% non-Religious,1.3% Kardecist spiritism, 1.7% Otherreligions, 0.3% Afro-Brazilianreligions80.5% Hinduism, 13.4% Islam,2.3% Christianity, 1.9% Sikhism,0.8%Buddhism, 0.4% Jainism, 1.2% otherreligionsGDP(nominal)US$2.612 trillion ($12,200 percapita)US$1.430 trillion ($1,176 per capita)GDP (PPP) US$2.309 trillion ($11,845per capita) US$4.469 trillion ($3,703 per capita)
Militaryexpenditures$39.97 billion (FY 2009) $37.6 billion (FY 2011-12)HistoryIndian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lulada Silva.Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at RajghatIndia’s links with Brazil go back five centuries. Portugal’s Pedro Alvares Cabral isofficially recognized as the first European to ―discover‖ Brazil in 1500. Cabral was sentto India by the King of Portugal after the return of Vasco da Gama from his pioneeringjourney to India. Cabral is reported to have been blown-off course on his way to India.Brazil became an important Portuguese colony and stop-over in the long journeyto Goa. This Portuguese connection led to the exchange of several agricultural crops
between India and Brazil in the colonial days. Indian cattle were also imported to Brazil.Most of the cattle in Brazil are of Indian origin.Diplomatic relations between India and Brazil were established in 1948. The IndianEmbassy opened in Rio de Janeiro on May 3, 1948, moving to Brasília on August 1,1971.One of the major sources of tension between the two nations was the decolonizationprocess of the Portuguese enclaves in India, principally Goa. Despite pressure fromIndia on Portugal to retreat from the subcontinent, Brazil supported Portugal’s claim forGoa. Brazil only changed course in 1961, when it became increasingly clear that Indiawould succeed is taking control of Goa by force from an increasingly feeble Portugal,which faced too many internal problems to pose a potent military threat to India. Still,when Nehru’s armies overwhelmed Portuguese resistance and occupied Goa, theBrazilian government criticized India sharply for violating international law. While Braziltried to explain to India that its position was to be understood in the context of a longtradition of friendship between Brazil and Portugal, the Indian government was deeplydisappointed that Brazil, a democratic and a former colony, would support a non-democratic Portugal against democratic and recently independent India.During the Portuguese Empire, chilies were traded from the New World to India andcows were sent the other way, amongst other trades.Cultural relationsA successful Festival of India was organized during the visit of President K.R.Narayanan to Brazil in May 1998. There is also a presence of ISKCON, Satya SaiBaba, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Bhakti Vedanta Foundation and other Indianspiritual gurus and organisations have chapters in Brazil.A statue of Mohandas Gandhi is located near the Parque Iberapuera at São Pauloand another statue is also at Rio de Janeiro. A group called the Filhos de Gandhi (Sonsof Gandhi) participates regularly in the carnival in Salvador. Private Brazilianorganisations occasionally invite Indian cultural troupes.Caminho das Índias, a popular telenovela in Brazil aired in 2009, popularized Indianculture in Brazil. Books about India started to pop up on the best-selling list, the numberof travels to India by Brazilians tourists increased dramatically and restaurants and evennightclubs with Indian themes starting to open.
Economic relationsIn recent years, relations between Brazil and India have grown considerably and co-operation between the two countries has been extended to such diverse areasas science and technology, pharmaceuticals and space. The two-way trade in 2007nearly tripled to US$ 3.12 billion from US$ 1.2 billion in 2004.Global software giant, Wipro Technologies, also set up a business processoutsourcing centre in Curitiba to provide shared services to AmBev, the largest breweryin Latin America. AmBevs zonal vice president, Renato Nahas Batista, said "We arehonored to be a part of Wipros expansion plans in Brazil and Latin America." AmBevsportfolio includes leading brands like Brahma, Becks, Stella and Antarctica.21st century relationsThe President of India, Pratibha Patil with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula daSilva in April 2008. India and Brazil enjoy strong bilateral relations which are clearlyreflected in various international forums such as IBSA.UNSC reformBoth countries want the participation of developing countries in the UNSC permanentmembership since the underlying philosophy for both of them are: UNSC should bemore democratic, legitimate and representative - the G4 is a novel grouping for thisrealization.South-South cooperationBrazil and India are involved in the IBSA initiative.The first ever IBSA Summit was held in Brasília in September 2006, followed by theSecond IBSA Summit held in Pretoria in October 2007, with the third one held in NewDelhi in October 2008. The fourth IBSA meet was again hosted in Brasília, just before
the second BRIC summit. Four IBSA Trilateral Commission meetings were already heldtill 2007 since the first one was held in 2004 and had covered many areas such asscience, technology, education, agriculture, energy, culture, health, social issues, publicadministration and revenue administration. The target of US$10 billion in trade wasalready achieved by 2007.Both countries view this as a tool of transformation diplomacy to bring economicgrowth, sustainable development, poverty reduction and regional prosperity in the vastregions of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The IBSA Fund for Alleviation of Poverty andHunger has already provided funds for capacity building in East Timor and for the fightagainst HIV/AIDS in Burundi and has won the South-South Partnership Award at the2006 UN Day event held in New York City on 19 December 2006.
India–Russia relationsIndia-Russian relationsIndia RussiaIndian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at the 2008 G8Summit in Hokkaido.Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic ofIndia and the Russian Federation. During the Cold War, India and the SovietUnion (USSR) enjoyed a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomaticrelationship. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia inherited the close relationship withIndia, even as India improved its relations with the West after the end of the Cold War.Traditionally, the Indo-Russian strategic partnership has been built on five majorcomponents: politics, defense, civil nuclear energy, counter terrorismcooperation and space.These five major components were highlighted in a speechgiven by the Indian Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai in Russia. However, in recentyears a sixth component, economic, has grown in importance with both countries setting
a target for $20 billion in bilateral trade by 2015. In order to facilitate this target bothcountries are looking to develop a free trade agreement. Bilateral trade between bothcountries in 2012 grew by over 30%. The powerful IRIGC is the main body thatconducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries.Both countries are members of many international bodies where they jointlycollaborate closely on matters of shared national interest. Important examples includethe UN, BRICS, G20 and SCO where India has observer status and has been asked byRussia to become a full member. Russia also strongly supports India receiving apermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. In addition, Russia hasexpressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is a foundingmember.India is the second largest market for the Russian defense industry. In 2004, morethan 70% of the Indian Militarys hardware came from Russia, making Russia the chiefsupplier of defense equipment. India has an embassy in Moscow and 2 Consulates-General (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). Russia has an embassy in NewDelhi and 4 Consulates-General (in Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Mumbai).Soviet Union and IndiaA cordial relationship with India that began in the 1950s represented the mostsuccessful of the Soviet attempts to foster closer relations with Third World countries.The relationship began with a visit by Indian Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru tothe Soviet Union in June 1955 and Khrushchevs return trip to India in the fall of 1955.While in India, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union supported Indiansovereignty over the disputed territory of the Kashmir region and over Portuguesecoastal enclaves.The Soviet relationship with India rankled the Chinese and contributed to Sino-Soviet enmity during the Khrushchev period. The Soviet Union declared its neutralityduring the 1959 border dispute and the Sino-Indian war of 1962, although the Chinesestrongly objected. The Soviet Union gave India substantial economic and militaryassistance during the Khrushchev period, and by 1960 India had received more Sovietassistance than China had. This disparity became another point of contention in Sino-Soviet relations. In 1962 the Soviet Union agreed to transfer technology to co-producethe MiG-21 jet fighter in India, which the Soviet Union had earlier denied to China.
In 1965 the Soviet Union served successfully as peace broker between India andPakistan after an Indian-Pakistani border war. The Soviet Chairman of the Council ofMinisters, literally Premier of the Soviet Union, Alexei Kosygin, met with representativesof India and Pakistan and helped them negotiate an end to the military conflictover Kashmir.In 1971 the former East Pakistan region initiated an effort to secede from its politicalunion with West Pakistan. India supported the secession and, as a guarantee againstpossible Chinese entrance into the conflict on the side of West Pakistan, signed a treatyof friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union in August 1971. In December, Indiaentered the conflict and ensured the victory of the secessionists and the establishmentof the new state of Bangladesh.Relations between the Soviet Union and India did not suffer much during therightist Janata Partys coalition government in the late 1970s, although India did move toestablish better economic and military relations with Western countries. To counterthese efforts by India to diversify its relations, the Soviet Union proffered additionalweaponry and economic assistance.During the 1980s, despite the 1984 assassination by Sikh separatists of PrimeMinister Indira Gandhi, the mainstay of cordial Indian-Soviet relations, India maintaineda close relationship with the Soviet Union. Indicating the high priority of relations withthe Soviet Union in Indian foreign policy, the new Indian Prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi,visited the Soviet Union on his first state visit abroad in May 1985 and signed two long-term economic agreements with the Soviet Union. In turn, Gorbachevs first visit to aThird World state was his meeting with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in New Delhi in late1986. Gorbachev unsuccessfully urged Gandhi to help the Soviet Union set up an Asiancollective security system. Gorbachevs advocacy of this proposal, which had also beenmade by Brezhnev, was an indication of continuing Soviet interest in using closerelations with India as a means of containing China. With the improvement of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1980s, containing China had less of a priority, but closerelations with India remained important as an example of Gorbachevs new Third Worldpolicy.
Russia and IndiaRelations with India have always been and I am sure will be one of the mostimportant foreign policy priorities of our country. Our mutual ties of friendship are filledwith sympathy, and trust, and openness. And we must say frankly that they were neverovershadowed by disagreements or conflict. This understanding - this is indeed thecommon heritage of our peoples. It is valued and cherished in our country, in Russia,and in India. And we are rightfully proud of so close, so close relations between ourcountries.— Dmitry Medvedev, about relations with IndiaWe are confident that India lives in the hearts of every Russian. In the same way, Ican assure you that Russia also lives in our souls as a Homeland, as people who shareour emotions, our feelings of mutual respect and constant friendship. Long live ourfriendship!— Pratibha Patil, about relations with RussiaPolitical relationsThe first major political initiative, since the collapse of the Soviet Union, betweenIndia and Russia began with the Strategic Partnership signed between both countries in2000. President Vladimir Putin stated in an article written by him in the Hindu, "TheDeclaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000became a truly historic step". Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also agreed with hiscounterpart by stated in speech given during President Putins 2012 visit to India,"President Putin is a valued friend of India and the original architect of the India-Russiastrategic partnership". Both countries closely collaborate on matters of shared nationalinterest these include at the UN, BRICS, G20 and SCO where India has observerstatus and has been asked by Russia to become a full member. Russia also stronglysupports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. Inaddition, Russia has vocal backed India joining the NSG and APEC. Moreover, it hasalso expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is afounding member.Russia currently is only one of two countries in the world (the other being Japan)that has a mechanism for annual ministerial-level defense reviews with India. The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC), which is one of the largest and
comprehensive governmental mechanisms that India has had with any countryinternationally. Almost every department from the Government of India attends it.IRIGCIndo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is the main body thatconducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries. Some havedescribed it as the steering committee of Indo-Russia relations. It is divided into twoparts, the first covering, Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and CulturalCooperation. This is normally co-chaired by the Russian Deputy Prime Minister andthe Indian External Affairs Minister. The second part of the commission covers MilitaryTechnical Cooperation this is co-chaired by the two countries respective DefenseMinisters. Both parts of IRIGC meet annually.In addition, to the IRIGC there are other bodies that conduct economic relationsbetween the two countries. These include, the Indo-Russian Forum on Trade andInvestment, the India-Russia Business Council, the India-Russia Trade, Investment andTechnology Promotion Council and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce.Military relationsFormer Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russias President Vladimir Putinin November 2001.Defense relations between India and the Russian Federation have a historicalperspective. The Soviet Union was an important supplier of defense equipment forseveral decades, and that relationship was inherited by Russia after the break-up of theSoviet Union. Today, the cooperation is not limited to a buyer-seller relationship but
includes joint research and development, training, service to service contacts, includingjoint exercises. The last joint naval exercises took place in April 2007 in the Sea ofJapan and joint airborne exercises were held in September 2007 in Russia. The lastmilitary exercise between Russian and Indian army units were held in Uttarakhand inOctober 2010. However, the bilateral relations seem to be strained with Russiacancelling both its Indra series of military exercises with India for the year 2011. In April2011, a flotilla of five warships from the Indian navys eastern fleet that went for jointnaval exercises to Vladivostok in the Russian far- east, was turned back without anyman oeuvres. The joint army exercises scheduled to be held in Russia in June, 2011was also cancelled shortly afterwards. One of the reasons given was that the MoD hadnot informed Moscow of the army exercises in advance.An Inter-Governmental commission on military-technical cooperation is co-chairedby the Defense Ministers of the two countries. The Seventh session of this Inter-Governmental Commission was held in October 2007 in Moscow. During the visit, anagreement on joint development and production of prospective multi role fighters wassigned between the two countries.An India–Russia co-operation agreement was signed in December 1988. It hasresulted in the sale of a multitude of defense equipment to India and also theemergence of the countries as development partners as opposed to purely a buyer-seller relationship. Two programs that evidence this approach are the projects to formIndian-Russian joint ventures to develop and produce the Fifth Generation FighterAircraft (FGFA) and the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA). The agreement is pending a10-year extension.The Sukhoi Su-30MKI was jointly built by Russia and India
The jointly built FGFA will be based on the Sukhoi PAK FAIndia and Russia have several major joint military programs including:BrahMos cruise missile program5th generation fighter jet programSukhoi Su-30MKI program (230+ to be built by Hindustan Aeronautics)Ilyushin/HAL Tactical Transport AircraftAdditionally, India has purchased/leased various military hardware from Russia:T-90S Bhishma with over 1000 to be built in IndiaAkula-II nuclear submarine (2 to be leased with an option to buy when the leaseexpires)INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier programTu-22M3 bombers (4 ordered)US$900 million upgrade of MiG-29Mil Mi-17 (80 ordered)Ilyushin Il-76 Candid (6 ordered to fit Israeli Phalcon radar)The Farkhor Air Base in Tajikistan is currently jointly operated by India and Russia.However, more recently the defense relationship between India and Russia has beendrifting apart. The relationship has been strained due to delays and frequent pricingchanges for INS Vikramaditya, and repeated delays in delivery of several criticaldefense systems. In May 2011, Russia canceled joint army and naval exercises withIndia allegedly in response to the elimination of Mikoyan MiG-35 from the Indian MRCAcompetition. An Indian Navy report to the Ministry of Defense referred to Russia as afair-weather friend and recommended the review of Russias status as a strategic
partner. Both countries signed a defense deal worth $2.9 billion during President Putinsvisit to India in December 2012.Economic relationsIndian and Russian diplomats holding talks at Hyderabad House in New DelhiBilateral trade turnover is modest and stood at US$ 3 billion in 2006–07, of whichIndian exports to Russia were valued at US$ 908 million. The major Indian exports toRussia are pharmaceuticals; tea, coffee and spices; apparel and clothing; ediblepreparations; and engineering goods. Main Indian imports from Russia are iron andsteel; fertilizers; non-ferrous metals; paper products; coal, coke & briquettes; cereals;and rubber. Indo-Russian trade is expected to reach US$10 billion by 2010.The India-Russia Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific,Technological and Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC) is co-chaired by Indias External AffairsMinister and the Russian Deputy Prime Minister. There are six Joint Working Groups[WG] under the IRIGC, namely, WG on Trade and Economy [trade and financialmatters], WG on Energy [oil and gas, thermal and hydro power, non-conventionalenergy], WG on Metallurgy and Mining [steel, non-ferrous metal, coal], WG on Science& Technology; WG on Communication and Information Technology; and WG on Cultureand Tourism. The 13th of the IRIGC was held in Moscow on 12 October 2007.The two countries have set up India-Russia Forum on Trade and Investment at thelevel of the two Commerce Ministers to promote trade, investment and economiccooperation. The first Forum was held in New Delhi on 12–13 February 2007, whichwas attended by the Minister of Commerce and Industry and the Russian Minister ofEconomic Development and Trade, apart from a large number of businessrepresentatives from both sides. The Minister of Commerce & Industry,
Shri Kamal Nath participated in the 11th Saint Petersburg International EconomicForum on 9–10 June 2007.In February 2006, India and Russia also set up a Joint Study Group to examineways to increase trade to US$ 10 billion by 2010 and to study feasibility ofa Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA). The group finalized itsreport after its fourth meeting in Moscow in July 2007. It has been agreed that a JointTask Force would monitor the implementation of the recommendation made in the JointStudy Group Report, including considering CECA. The second BRIC summit was heldin Brasília in April 2010. India and Russia agreed to jointly study a ComprehensiveEconomic Cooperation Agreement with Belarus-Kazakhstan with the aim of boostingtrade ties and achieving the ambitious trade target of $ 20 billion by 2015. PrimeMinister Manmohan Singh stated in speech given during President Putins 2012 visit toIndia, "Our bilateral trade has grown by over 30 per cent this year. There is stilluntapped potential in areas such as pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, mining, steel,information technology, civil aviation, telecommunications, infrastructure, foodprocessing, innovation and services, which we will work to exploit".Cooperation in the Energy sectorEnergy sector is an important area in Indo-Russian bilateral relations. In 2001, ONGC-Videsh Limited acquired 20% stake in the Sakhalin-I oil and gas project in the RussianFederation, and has invested about US $ 1.7 billion in the project. The Russiancompany Gazprom and Gas Authority of India Ltd. have collaborated in jointdevelopment of a block in the Bay of Bengal. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project withtwo units of 1000 MW each is a good example of Indo-Russian nuclearenergy cooperation. Both sides have expressed interest in expanding cooperation in theenergy sector.In December 2008, Russia and India signed an agreement to build civilian nuclearreactors in India during a visit by the Russian president to New Delhi.Space CooperationSpace is another key sector of cooperation between the two countries. DuringPresident Vladimir Putins visit to India in December 2004, two space-related bilateralagreements were signed viz. Inter-Governmental umbrella Agreement on cooperation in
the outer space for peaceful purposes and the Inter Space Agency Agreement oncooperation in the Russian satellite navigation system "GLONASS". Subsequently anumber of follow-up agreements on GLONASS have been signed. In November 2007,the two countries have signed an agreement on joint lunar exploration. These spacecooperation programs are under implementation. Chandrayaan-2 is a joint lunarexploration mission proposed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) andthe Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA) and has a projected cost of 425 crores(US$90 million). The mission, proposed to be launched in 2013 by a GeosynchronousSatellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) launch vehicle, includes a lunar orbiter and a rovermade in India as well as one Lander built by Russia.Science and TechnologyThe ongoing cooperation in the field of science & technology, under the IntegratedLong-Term Programme of cooperation (ILTP) is the largest cooperation programme inthis sphere for both India and Russia. ILTP is coordinated by the Department of Scienceand Technology from the Indian side and by the Russian Academy of Sciencesand Russian Ministry of Industry & Science and Technology from the Russian side.Development of SARAS Duet aircraft, semiconductor products, super computers, poly-vaccines, laser science and technology, seismology, high-purity materials, software & ITand Ayurveda have been some of the priority areas of co-operation under the ILTP.Under this programme, eight joint Indo- Russian centers have been established to focuson joint research and development work. Two other Joint Centers on Non-ferrousMetals and Accelerators and Lasers are being set up in India. A Joint TechnologyCentre based in Moscow to bring cutting edge technologies to the market is also underprocessing. An ILTP Joint Council met in Moscow on 11–12 October 2007 to reviewcooperation and give it further direction. In August 2007, an MoU was signed betweenDepartment of Science and Technology and Russian Foundation of Basic Research,Moscow to pursue scientific cooperation.North-South Transport CorridorFor more details on this topic, see North-South Transport Corridor.The "North-South" Transport Corridor Agreement [INSTC] has been ratified by allthe three original signatory states, viz. India, Iran and Russia, and has come into force
since 16 May 2002. This route is expected to reduce the cost of movement of goodsbetween India and Russia and beyond. The 3rd Coordination Council Meeting of theINSTC was held in October 2005 in New Delhi and the 4th meeting was held in Aktau,Kazakhstan in October 2007 to discuss further streamlining the operation of thecorridor.Cooperation in the sphere of CultureIndia–Russia relations in the field of culture are historical. Five Chairs relating toIndology have been established in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan and Vladivostok.Days of Russian Culture were held in India in November 2003, in Delhi, Kolkata andMumbai. "Days of Indian Culture" in Russia were organized from September- October2005 in Russia. 130th birth anniversary of Nikolai Roerich and 100th birth anniversary ofSvyatoslav Roerich were celebrated in India in October 2004. Chief Minister of NationalCapital Territory of Delhi led a delegation for participating in the event "Days of Delhi inMoscow" from 28 May 1 June 2006. The "Year of Russia in India" was held in 2008. Itwas followed by the "Year of India in Russia" in 2009. There is a Hindi Department, inthe University of Moscow.TerrorismOn international terrorism, India and Russia agree that there is no justification forterrorism, and this must be fought against, without compromise and wherever it exists.Russia has supported the Indian draft at the UN on Comprehensive Convention onInternational Terrorism [CCIT]. The two sides signed an MoU on cooperation incombating terrorism in December 2002. A Joint Working Group on CombatingInternational Terrorism meets from time to time and its fourth meeting was held in Delhion 24 October 2006.Both Russia and India have faced the problem of terrorism, Indiahas seen it in the context of its military presence in Kashmir and Russia has seen it inChechnya and both the countries are supportive of each other on the issue of terrorism.Nuclear DealsOn 7 November 2009, India signed a new nuclear deal with Russia apart from thedeals that were agreed upon by the two countries earlier. India and Russia are indiscussion for construction of two more nuclear power units at Kudankulam. The two
units already set up are ready for operation. During Russian president Vladimir Putinsvisit to India for the 13th annual summit, a cooperative civilian nuclear energy road mapwas agreed to. Running until 2030, sixteen to eighteen new reactors will be constructed,with installed capacity of 1000 MW each. A 1000 MW reactor costs around $2.5 billionso the deal may touch $45 billion in worth.
China–India relationsChina-India relationsIndia ChinaIndian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (L) with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao (R).Sino-Indian relations, also called Indo-China relations, refers to the bilateralrelationship between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India.Relations began in 1950 when India was among the first countries to break relationswith the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC. China and India are theworlds most populous countries and also fastest growing major economies. Theresultant growth in China and Indias global diplomatic and economic influence has alsoincreased the significance of their bilateral relationship.China and India are two of the world’s oldest civilizations and have coexisted inpeace for millennia. Cultural and economic relations between China and India date backto ancient times. The Silk Road not only served as a major trade route between India
and China, but is also credited for facilitating the spread of Buddhism from India to EastAsia. During the 19th century, Chinas growing opium trade with the British Raj triggeredthe Opium Wars. During World War II, India and China played a crucial role in haltingthe progress of Imperial Japan.Relations between contemporary China and India have been characterizedby border disputes, resulting in three major military conflicts — the Sino-Indian War of1962, the Chola incident in 1967, and the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish. However, sincelate 1980s, both countries have successfully attempted to reignite diplomatic andeconomic ties. In 2008, China emerged as the largest trading partner of India and thetwo countries have also attempted to extend their strategic and military relations.Despite growing economic and strategic ties, several issues continue to strain Sino-Indian relations. Though bilateral trade has continuously grown, India faces massivetrade imbalance heavily in favor of China. The two countries have failed to resolve theirlong-standing border dispute and Indian media outlets repeatedly report Chinesemilitary incursions into Indian Territory. Both nations have steadily built-up militaryinfrastructure along border areas. Additionally, India harbors suspicions about Chinasstrong strategic relations with its arch-rival Pakistan while China has expressedconcerns about Indian military and economic activities in disputed South China Sea.Recently, China has said that "Sino-Indian ties" would be the most "importantbilateral partnership of the century". On June 21, 2012, Wen Jiabao, the Premier ofChina and Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India set a goal to increase bilateraltrade between the two countries to 100 billion dollars by 2015.
Geographical overviewMap of Eastern and Southern Asia.(The border between the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of Indiaover Arunachal Pradesh/South Tibet reflects actual control, without dotted line showingclaims.)China and India are separated by the formidable geographical obstacles ofthe Himalayan mountain chain. China and India today share a border along theHimalayas and Nepal and Bhutan, two states lying along the Himalaya range, andacting as buffer states. In addition, the disputed Kashmir province of India (claimedby Pakistan) borders both the PRC and India. As Pakistan has tense relations withIndia, Kashmirs state of unrest serves as a natural ally to the PRC.Two territories are currently disputed between the Peoples Republic of China andIndia: Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh is located near the fareast of India, while Aksai Chin is located near the northwest corner of India, at thejunction of India, Pakistan, and the PRC. However, all sides in the dispute have agreedto respect the Line of Actual Control and this border dispute is not widely seen as amajor flashpoint.
GDP (PPP)(2012) US$4.735 trillion US$12.380 trillionGDP (PPP) percapita(2012)US$3,900 US$9,100Human Develop 0.547 (medium) 0.663 (medium)Foreign exchange reserves 289,737 (millions of USD)3,285,090 (millions ofUSD)Military expenditures US$46.8 billion (1.83% of GDP)US$140 billion (2012)(1.3% of GDP)ManpowerActive Troops: 1,325,000 (1,155,100Reserve personnel)Active Troops:approximately2,285,000 (800,000Reserve Personnel)Early historyAntiquityXiangqi, or Chinese chess, which, like Western Chess is believed to be descendedfrom the Indian chess game of chaturanga. The earliest indications reveal the gamemay have been played as early as the third century BC.India and China had relatively little modern political contact before the 1950s.However, both countries have had extensive and close historical cultural contact since
the 1st century, especially with the transmission of Buddhism from India to China. Traderelations via the Silk Road acted as economic contact between the two regions.China and India have also had some contact before the transmission of Buddhism.References to a people called the Chinas, now believed to be the Chinese, are found inancient Indian literature. The Indian epic Mahabharata (c. 5th century BC) containsreferences to "China", which may have been referring to the Qin state which laterbecame the Qin Dynasty. Chanakya (c. 350-283 BC), the prime minister of the MauryaEmpire and a professor at Takshashila University, refers to Chinese silk as "cinamsuka"(Chinese silk dress) and "cinapatta" (Chinese silk bundle) in his Arthashastra.In the Records of the Grand Historian, Zhang Qian (d. 113 BC) and Sima Qian (145-90 BC) make references to "Shendu", which may have been referring to the IndusValley (the Sindh province in modern Pakistan), originally known as "Sindhu"in Sanskrit. When Yunnan was annexed by the Han Dynasty in the 1st century, Chineseauthorities reported an Indian "Shendu" community living there.Middle AgesThe Shaolin Monastery in Dengfeng, Henan, China.After the transmission of Buddhism from India to China from the 1st centuryonwards, many Indian scholars and monks travelled to China, such as Batuo (fl. 464-495 AD)—founder of the Shaolin Monastery—and Bodhidharma—founderof Chan/Zen Buddhism—while many Chinese scholars and monks also travelled toIndia, such as Xuanzang (b. 604) and I Ching (635-713), both of whom were students
at Nalanda University in Bihar. Xuanzang wrote the Great Tang Records on theWestern Regions, an account of his journey to India, which later inspired WuChengens Ming Dynasty novel Journey to the West, one of the Four Great ClassicalNovels of Chinese literature.Tang and Harsha dynastiesDuring the 7th century, Tang Dynasty China gained control over large portions ofthe Silk Road and Central Asia. Wang Xuance had sent a diplomatic mission to northernIndia, which was embroiled by civil war just following the death of EmperorHarsha (590–647). After the murder of 30 members of this mission by usurper claimantsto the throne, Wang fled, and returned with allied Nepali and Tibetan troops to back theopposing claimant. With his forces, Wang besieged and captured the capital, while hisdeputy Jiang Shiren captured the usurper and sent him back to Emperor TangTaizong (599-649) in Changan as a prisoner.During the 8th century, the astronomical table of sines by the Indianastronomer and mathematician, Aryabhata (476-550), were translated into the Chineseastronomical and mathematical book of the Treatise on Astrology of the KaiyuanEra (Kaiyuan Zhanjing), compiled in 718 AD during the Tang Dynasty. The KaiyuanZhanjing was compiled by Gautama Siddha, an astronomer and astrologer bornin Changan, and whose family was originally from India. He was also notable for histranslation of the Navagraha calendar into Chinese.
Ming dynastyStele installed in Calicut by Zheng He(modern replica)Chinese fishing nets in Kochi, Kerala, India.Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming Dynasty China sponsored a series of sevennaval expeditions. Emperor Yongle designed them to establish a Chinese presence,impose imperial control over trade, and impress foreign people in the Indian Oceanbasin. He also might have wanted to extend the tributary system, by which Chinesedynasties traditionally recognized foreign peoples.Admiral Zheng He was dispatched to lead a series of huge naval expeditions toexplore these regions. The largest of his voyages included over 317 ships and 28,000men, and the largest of his treasure ships were over 126.73 m in length. During hisvoyages, he visited numerous Indian kingdoms and ports. On the first three voyages,Zheng He visited Southeast Asia, India, Bengal, and Ceylon. The fourth expedition wentto the Persian Gulf and Arabia, and later expeditions ventured down the east
African coast, as far as Malindi in what is now Kenya. Throughout his travels, Zheng Heliberally dispensed Chinese gifts of silk, porcelain, and other goods. In return, hereceived rich and unusual presents from his hosts, including African zebras and giraffesthat ended their days in the Ming imperial zoo. Zheng He and his company paidrespects to local deities and customs, and in Ceylon they erected a monument (GalleTrilingual Inscription) honoring Buddha, Allah, and Vishnu.Sino-Sikh WarIn the 18th to 19th centuries, the Sikh Confederacy of the Punjab region in Indiawas expanding into neighboring lands. It had annexed Ladakh into the stateof Jammu in 1834. In 1841, they invaded Tibet with an army and overran parts ofwestern Tibet. Chinese forces defeated the Sikh army in December 1841, forcing theSikh army to withdraw from Tibet, and in turn entered Ladakh and besieged Leh, wherethey were in turn defeated by the Sikh Army. At this point, neither side wished tocontinue the conflict, as the Sikhs were embroiled in tensions with the British that wouldlead up to the First Anglo-Sikh War, while the Chinese was in the midst of the FirstOpium War with the British East India Company. The Chinese and the Sikhs signed atreaty in September 1842, which stipulated no transgressions or interference in theother countrys frontiers.After independenceJawaharlal Nehru based his vision of "resurgent Asia" on friendship between thetwo largest states of Asia; his vision of an internationalist foreign policy governed by theethics of the Panchsheel, which he initially believed was shared by China, came to griefwhen it became clear that the two countries had a conflict of interest in Tibet, which hadtraditionally served as a geographical and political buffer zone, and where Indiabelieved it had inherited special privileges from the British Raj.However, the initial focus of the leaders of both the nations was not the foreignpolicy, but the internal development of their respective states. When they didconcentrate on the foreign policies, their concern wasn’t one another, but ratherthe United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and thealliance systems which were dominated by the two superpowers.
1950sOn October 1, 1949 the People’s Liberation Army defeated the Kuomintang(Nationalist Party) of China in a civil war and established the Peoples Republic ofChina. On August 15, 1947, India became an independent dominion under BritishCommonwealth and became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution cameinto effect on January 26, 1950. Mao Zedong, the Commander of the Liberation Armyand the Chairman of the Communist Party of China viewed Tibet as an integral part ofthe Chinese State. Mao was determined to bring Tibet under direct administrative andmilitary control of People’s Republic of China and saw Indian concern over Tibet as amanifestation of the Indian Governments interference in the internal affairs of thePeople’s Republic of China. The PRC sought to reassert control over Tibet and toend Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) and feudalism, which it did by force of arms in 1950.To avoid antagonizing the Peoples Republic of China, Nehru informed Chinese leadersthat India had neither political nor territorial ambitions, nor did it seek special privilegesin Tibet, but that traditional trading rights must continue. With Indian support, Tibetandelegates signed an agreement in May 1951 recognizing PRC sovereignty butguaranteeing that the existing political and social system of Tibet would continue. Directnegotiations between India and the PRC commenced in an atmosphere improved byIndias mediation efforts in bringing about a ceasefire to the Korean War (1950–1953).Meanwhile, India was the 16th state to establish diplomatic relations with thePeoples Republic of China, and did so on April 1, 1950.In April 1954, India and the PRC signed an eight-year agreement on Tibet that setforth the basis of their relationship in the form of the Five Principles of PeacefulCoexistence (or Panch Shila). Although critics called the Panch Shila naive, Nehrucalculated that in the absence of either the wherewithal or a policy for defense of theHimalayan region, Indias best guarantee of security was to establish a psychologicalbuffer zone in place of the lost physical buffer of Tibet. It is the popular perception thatthe catch phrase of Indias diplomacy with China in the 1950s was Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai,which means, in Hindi, "Indians and Chinese are brothers" but there is evidence tosuggest that Nehru did not trust the Chinese at all. Therefore, in unison with diplomacy,Nehru sought to initiate more direct dialogues between the peoples of China and Indiain various ways, including culture and literature. Around that time, the famous Indianartist (painter) Beohar Rammanohar Sinha from Visva-BharatiSantiniketan, who hadearlier decorated the pages of the original Constitution of India, was sent to China in1957 on a Government of India fellowship to establish a direct cross-cultural and inter-
civilization bridge. Noted Indian scholar Rahul Sankrityayan and diplomat NatwarSingh were also there, and Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan paid a visit to PRC. Between1957 and 1959, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha not only disseminated Indian art in PRCbut also became skilled in Chinese painting and lacquer-work. He also spent time withgreat masters Qi Baishi, Li Keran, Li Kuchan as well as some moments with MaoZedong and Zhou Enlai. Consequently, up until 1959, despite border skirmishes anddiscrepancies between Indian and Chinese maps, Chinese leaders amicably hadassured India that there was no territorial controversy on the border though there issome evidence that India avoided bringing up the border issue in high level meetings.In 1954, India published new maps that included the Aksai Chin region within theboundaries of India (maps published at the time of Indias independence did not clearlyindicate whether the region was in India or Tibet). When an Indian reconnaissance partydiscovered a completed Chinese road running through the Aksai Chin region ofthe Ladakh District of Jammu and Kashmir, border clashes and Indian protests becamemore frequent and serious. In January 1959, PRC premier Zhou Enlai wrote to Nehru,rejecting Nehrus contention that the border was based on treaty and custom andpointing out that no government in China had accepted as legal the McMahon Line,which in the 1914 Simla Convention defined the eastern section of the border betweenIndia and Tibet. The Dalai Lama, spiritual and temporal head of the Tibetan people,sought sanctuary in Dharmsala, Himachal Pradesh, in March 1959, and thousands ofTibetan refugees settled in northwestern India, particularly in Himachal Pradesh. ThePeoples Republic of China accused India of expansionism and imperialism in Tibet andthroughout the Himalayan region. China claimed 104,000 km² of territory over whichIndias maps showed clear sovereignty, and demanded "rectification" of the entireborder.Zhou proposed that China relinquish its claim to most of Indias northeast inexchange for Indias abandonment of its claim to Aksai Chin. The Indian government,constrained by domestic public opinion, rejected the idea of a settlement based onuncompensated loss of territory as being humiliating and unequal.1960sSino-Indian War1962 Border disputes resulted in a short border war between the Peoples Republicof China and India in 20 October 1962. The PRC pushed the unprepared andinadequately led Indian forces to within forty-eight kilometres of the Assam plains in the
northeast and occupied strategic points in Ladakh, until the PRC declared aunilateral cease-fire on 21 November and withdrew twenty kilometers behind itscontended line of control.At the time of Sino-Indian border conflict, a severe political split was taking place inthe Communist Party of India. One section was accused by the Indian government asbeing pro-PRC, and a large number of political leaders were jailed. Subsequently, CPIsplit with the leftist section forming the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 1964.CPI(M) held some contacts with the Communist Party of China in the initial period afterthe split, but did not fully embrace the political line of Mao Zedong.Relations between the PRC and India deteriorated during the rest of the 1960s andthe early 1970s as Sino-Pakistani relations improved and Sino-Soviet relationsworsened. The PRC backed Pakistan in its 1965 war with India. Between 1967 and1971, an all-weather road was built across territory claimed by India, linkingPRCs Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region with Pakistan; India could do no more thanprotest, however 1971 war with Pakistan, India won a landslide victory. The PRCcontinued an active propaganda campaign against India and supplied ideological,financial, and other assistance to dissident groups, especially to tribes in northeasternIndia. The PRC accused India of assisting the Khampa rebels in Tibet. Diplomaticcontact between the two governments was minimal although not formally severed. Theflow of cultural and other exchanges that had marked the 1950s ceased entirely. Theflourishing wool, fur and spice trade between Lhasa and India through the NathulaPass, an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road in the then Indian protectorate of Sikkim wasalso severed. However, the biweekly postal network through this pass was kept alive,which exists till today.Later skirmishesIn late 1967, there were two skirmishes between Indian and Chinese forces inSikkim. The first one was dubbed the "Nathu La incident", and the other the "Cholaincident". Prior to these incidents had been the Naxalbari uprising in India by theCommunist Naxalites and Maoists.In 1967, a peasant uprising broke out in Naxalbari, led by pro-Maoist elements. Apronunciation by Mao titled "Spring Thunder over India" gave full moral support for theuprising. The support for the revolt marked the end for the relations between CPC andCPI (M). Naxalbari-inspired communists organized armed revolts in several parts of
India, and in 1969 they formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist).However, as the naxalite movement disintegrated in various splits, the PRC withdrew itspolitical support and turned non-committal towards the various Indian groups.On 11 September 1967, troops of the Indian Armys 2nd Grenadiers were protectingan Engineering Company that was fencing the North Shoulder of Nathu La, whenChinese troops opened fire on them. This escalated over the next five days to anexchange of heavy artillery and mortar fire between the Indians and the Chinese. 62Indian soldiers, from the 2nd Grenadiers and the Artillery regiments werekilled. Brigadier Rai Singh Yadav, the Commanding Officer, was awarded the MVC andCapt PS Dager was awarded a Vir Chakra (posthumous) for their gallant actions. Theextent of Chinese casualties in this incident is not known.In the second incident, on 1 October 1967, a group of Indian Gurkha Rifles soldiers(from the 7th Battalion of the 11th Regiment) noticed Chinese troops surrounding asentry post near a boulder at the Chola outpost in Sikkim. After a heated argument overthe control of the boulder, a Chinese soldier bayoneted a Gurkha rifleman, triggering thestart of a close-quarters knife and fire-fight, which then escalated toa mortar and HMG duel. The Chinese troops had to signal a ceasefire just after threehours of fighting, but later scaled Point 15450 to establish them there. The Gurkhasoutflanked them the next day to regain Point 15450, and the Chinese retreated acrossthe LAC. 21 Indian soldiers were killed in this action. The Indian governmentawarded Vir Chakras to Rifleman Limbu (posthumous) and battalion commander MajorK.B. Joshi for their gallant actions. The extent of Chinese casualties in this skirmish isalso not known.1970sIn August 1971, India signed its Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperationwiththe Soviet Union, and the United States and the PRC sided with Pakistan inits December 1971 war with India. Although China strongly condemned India, it did notcarry out its veiled threat to intervene on Pakistans behalf. By this time, the PRC hadjust replaced the Republic of China in the UN where its representatives denouncedIndia as being a "tool of Soviet expansionism."India and the PRC renewed efforts to improve relations after Indian PrimeMinister Indira Gandhis Congress party lost the 1977 elections to MorarjiDesais Janata Party. The new Desai government sought to improve long-strained
relations with India and the PRC. In 1978, the Indian Minister of External Affairs AtalBihari Vajpayee made a landmark visit to Beijing, and both nations officially re-established diplomatic relations in 1979. The PRC modified its pro-Pakistan standon Kashmir and appeared willing to remain silent on Indias absorption of Sikkim and itsspecial advisory relationship with Bhutan. The PRCs leaders agreed to discuss theboundary issue, Indias priority, as the first step to a broadening of relations. The twocountries hosted each others news agencies, and Mount Kailash and MansarowarLake in Tibet, the mythological home of the Hindu pantheon, were opened toannual pilgrimages1980sIn 1981 PRC minister of foreign affairs Huang Huawas invited to India, where hemade complimentary remarks about Indias role in South Asia. PRC premier ZhaoZiyang concurrently toured Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.In 1980, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi approved a plan to upgrade thedeployment of forces around the Line of Actual Control to avoid unilateral redefinitionsof the line. India also increased funds for infrastructural development in these areas.In 1984, squads of Indian soldiers began actively patrolling the Sumdorong ChuValley in Arunachal Pradesh (formerly NEFA), which is north of the McMahon Line asdrawn on the Simla Treaty map but south of the ridge which Indian claims is meant todelineate the McMahon Line. The Sumdorong Chu valley "seemed to lie to the north ofthe McMahon line; but is south of the highest ridge in the area, and the McMahon line ismeant to follow the highest points" according to the Indian claims, while the Chinese didnot recognize the McMahon Line as legitimate and were not prepared to accept anIndian claim line even further north than that. The Indian team left the area before thewinter. In the winter of 1986, the Chinese deployed their troops to the Sumdorong Chubefore the Indian team could arrive in the summer and built a Helipad atWandung. Surprised by the Chinese occupation, Indias then Chief of ArmyStaff, General K.Sundarji, airlifted a brigade to the region.Chinese troops could not move any further into the valley and were forced to movesideways along the Thag La ridge, away from the valley. By 1987, Beijings reaction wassimilar to that in 1962 and this prompted many Western diplomats to predict war.However, Indian foreign minister N.D. Tiwari and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi travelledto Beijing over the following months to negotiate a mutual de-escalation.
After the Huang visit, India and the PRC held eight rounds of border negotiationsbetween December 1981 and November 1987. These talks initially raised hopes thatprogress could be made on the border issue. However, in 1985 the PRC stiffened itsposition on the border and insisted on mutual concessions without defining the exactterms of its "package proposal" or where the actual line of control lay. In 1986 and 1987,the negotiations achieved nothing, given the charges exchanged between the twocountries of military encroachment in the Sumdorung Chu Valley of the Tawang tract onthe eastern sector of the border. Chinas construction of a military post and helicopterpad in the area in 1986 and Indias grant of statehood to Arunachal Pradesh (formerlythe North-East Frontier Agency) in February 1987 caused both sides to deploy newtroops to the area, raising tensions and fears of a new border war. The PRC relayedwarnings that it would "teach India a lesson" if it did not cease "nibbling" at Chineseterritory. By the summer of 1987, however, both sides had backed away from conflictand denied that military clashes had taken place.A warming trend in relations was facilitated by Rajiv Gandhis visit to China inDecember 1988. The two sides issued a joint communiqué that stressed the need torestore friendly relations on the basis of the Panch Shila and noted the importance ofthe first visit by an Indian prime minister to China since Nehrus 1954 visit. India and thePeoples Republic of China agreed to broaden bilateral ties in various areas, working toachieve a "fair and reasonable settlement while seeking a mutually acceptable solution"to the border dispute. The communiqué also expressed Chinas concern about agitationby Tibetan separatists in India and reiterated Chinas position that Tibet was an integralpart of China and those anti-China political activities by expatriate Tibetans was not tobe tolerated. Rajiv Gandhi signed bilateral agreements on science and technologycooperation, on civil aviation to establish direct air links, and on cultural exchanges. Thetwo sides also agreed to hold annual diplomatic consultations between foreignministers, and to set up a joint ministerial committee on economic and scientificcooperation and a joint working group on the boundary issue. The latter group was to beled by the Indian foreign secretary and the Chinese vice minister of foreign affairs.1990sAs the mid-1990s approached, slow but steady improvement in relations with Chinawas visible. Top-level dialogue continued with the December 1991 visit of PRCpremier Li Peng to India and the May 1992 visit to China of Indian president R.
Venkataraman. Six rounds of talks of the Indian-Chinese Joint Working Group on theBorder Issue were held between December 1988 and June 1993. Progress was alsomade in reducing tensions on the border via confidence-building measures, includingmutual troop reductions, regular meetings of local military commanders, and advancenotification of military exercises. Border trade resumed in July 1992 after a hiatus ofmore than thirty years, consulates reopened in Bombay (Mumbai) and Shanghai inDecember 1992, and, in June 1993, the two sides agreed to open an additional bordertrading post. During Sharad Pawars July 1992 visit to Beijing, the first ever by an Indianminister of defense, the two defense establishments agreed to develop academic,military, scientific, and technological exchanges and to schedule an Indian port call bya Chinese naval vessel.Substantial movement in relations continued in 1993. The sixth-round joint workinggroup talks were held in June in New Delhi but resulted in only minor developments.However, as the year progressed the long-standing border dispute was eased as aresult of bilateral pledges to reduce troop levels and to respect the cease-fire line alongthe India-China border. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and Premier Li Peng signed theborder agreement and three other agreements (on cross-border trade, and on increasedcooperation on the environment and in radio and television broadcasting) during theformers visit to Beijing in September. A senior-level Chinese military delegation made asix-day goodwill visit to India in December 1993 aimed at "fostering confidence-buildingmeasures between the defense forces of the two countries." The visit, however, came ata time when press reports revealed that, as a result of improved relations between thePRC and Burma, China was exporting greater amounts of military materiel to Burmasarmy, navy, and air force and sending an increasing number of technicians to Burma. Ofconcern to Indian security officials was the presence of Chinese radar technicians inBurmas Coco Islands, which border Indias Union Territory of the Andaman andNicobar Islands. Nevertheless, movement continued in 1994 on troop reductions alongthe Himalayan frontier. Moreover, in January 1994 Beijing announced that it not onlyfavored a negotiated solution on Kashmir, but also opposed any form of independencefor the region.Talks were held in New Delhi in February 1994 aimed at confirming established"confidence-building measures" and discussing clarification of the "line of actualcontrol", reduction of armed forces along the line, and prior information aboutforthcoming military exercises. Chinas hope for settlement of the boundary issue wasreiterated.
The 1993 Chinese military visit to India was reciprocated by Indian army chief of staffGeneral B. C. Joshi. During talks in Beijing in July 1994, the two sides agreed thatborder problems should be resolved peacefully through "mutual understanding andconcessions." The border issue was raised in September 1994 when PRC minister ofnational defense Chi Haotian visited New Delhi for extensive talks with high-level Indiantrade and defense officials. Further talks in New Delhi in March 1995 by the India-ChinaExpert Group led to an agreement to set up two additional points of contact along the4,000 km border to facilitate meetings between military personnel. The two sides alsowere reported as "seriously engaged" in defining the McMahon Line and the line ofactual control vis-à-vis military exercises and prevention of air intrusion. Talks in Beijingin July 1995 aimed at better border security and combating cross-border crimes and inNew Delhi in August 1995 on additional troop withdrawals from the border made furtherprogress in reducing tensions.Possibly indicative of the further relaxation of India-China relations, at least therewas little notice taken in Beijing, was the April 1995 announcement, after a year ofconsultation, of the opening of the Taipei Economic and Cultural Center in New Delhi.The center serves as the representative office of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and isthe counterpart of the India-Taipei Association in Taiwan; both institutions have the goalof improving relations between the two sides, which have been strained since NewDelhis recognition of Beijing in 1950.Sino-Indian relations hit a low point in 1998 following Indias nuclear tests in May.Indian Defense Minister George Fernandes declared that "China is Indias number onethreat", hinting that India developed nuclear weapons in defense against Chinasnuclear arsenal. In 1998, China was one of the strongest international critics of Indiasnuclear tests and entry into the nuclear club. During the 1999 Kargil War China voicedsupport for Pakistan, but also counseled Pakistan to withdraw its forces.
2000sIndian and Chinese officers at Nathu La. Nathu La was re-opened in 2006 followingnumerous bilateral trade agreements. The opening of the pass is expected to bolsterthe economy of the region and play a key role in the growing Sino-Indian trade.With Indian President K. R. Narayanans visit to China, 2000 marked a gradual re-engagement of Indian and Chinese diplomacy. In a major embarrassment for China, the17th Karmapa, Urgyen Trinley Dorje, who was proclaimed by China, made a dramaticescape from Tibet to the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. Chinese officials were in aquandary on this issue as any protest to India on the issue would mean an explicitendorsement on Indias governance of Sikkim, which the Chinese still hadntrecognized. In 2002, Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji reciprocated by visiting India, with afocus on economic issues. 2003 ushered in a marked improvement in Sino-Indianrelations following Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayees landmark June 2003 visitto China. China officially recognized Indian sovereignty over Sikkim as the two nationsmoved toward resolving their border disputes.2004 also witnessed a gradual improvement in the international area when the twocountries proposed opening up the Nathula and Jelepla Passes in Sikkim which wouldbe mutually beneficial to both countries. 2004 was a milestone in Sino-Indian bilateraltrade, surpassing the $10 billion mark for the first time. In April 2005, ChinesePremier Wen Jiabao visited Bangalore to push for increased Sino-Indian cooperation inhigh-tech industries. In a speech, Wen stated "Cooperation is just like two pagodas(temples), one hardware and one software. Combined, we can take the leadershipposition in the world." Wen stated that the 21st century will be "the Asian century of theIT industry." The high-level visit was also expected to produce several agreements todeepen political, cultural and economic ties between the two nations. Regarding theissue of India gaining a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, on his visit, WenJiabao initially seemed to support the idea, but had returned to a neutral position on the
subject by the time he returned to China. In the South Asian Association for RegionalCooperation (SAARC) Summit (2005) China was granted an observer status. Whileother countries in the region are ready to consider China for permanent membership inthe SAARC, India seems reluctant.A very important dimension of the evolving Sino-Indian relationship is based on theenergy requirements of their industrial expansion and their readiness to proactivelysecure them by investing in the oilfields abroad - in Africa, the Middle East and CentralAsia. On the one hand, these ventures entail competition (which has been evident in oilbiddings for various international projects recently). But on the other hand, a degree ofcooperation too is visible, as they are increasingly confronting bigger players in theglobal oil market. This cooperation was sealed in Beijing on January 12, 2006 during thevisit of Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar, who signed anagreement which envisages ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) and the China National PetroleumCorporation (CNPC) placing joint bids for promising projects elsewhere. This may haveimportant consequences for their international relations.On July 6, 2006, China and India re-opened Nathula, an ancient trade route whichwas part of the Silk Road. Nathula is a pass through the Himalayas and it was closed 44years prior to 2006 when the Sino-Indian War broke out in 1962. The initial agreementfor the re-opening of the trade route was reached in 2003, and a final agreement wasformalized on June 18, 2006. Officials say that the re-opening of border trade will helpease the economic isolation of the region. In November 2006, China and India had averbal spat over claim of the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Indiaclaimed that China was occupying 38,000 square kilometers of its territory in Kashmir,while China claimed the whole of Arunachal Pradesh as its own. In May 2007, Chinadenied the application for visa from an Indian Administrative Service officer in ArunachalPradesh. According to China, since Arunachal Pradesh is a territory of China, he wouldnot need a visa to visit his own country. Later in December 2007, China appeared tohave reversed its policy by granting a visa to Marpe Sora, an Arunachal born professorin computer science. In January 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Chinaand met with President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao and had bilateraldiscussions related to trade, commerce, defense, military, and various other issues.Until 2008 the British Governments position remained the same as had been sincethe Simla Accord of 1913: that China held suzerainty over Tibet but not sovereignty.Britain revised this view on 29 October 2008, when it recognized Chinese sovereigntyover Tibet by issuing a statement on its website. The Economist stated that although the
British Foreign Offices website does not use the word sovereignty, officials at theForeign Office said "it means that, as far as Britain is concerned, Tibet is part ofChina. This change in Britains position affects Indias claim to its North Easternterritories which rely on the same Simla Accord that Britains prior position on Tibetssovereignty was based upon.In October 2009, Asian Development Bank formally acknowledging ArunachalPradesh as part of India approved a loan to India for a development project there.Earlier China had exercised pressure on the bank to cease the loan, however Indiasucceeded in securing the loan with the help of the United States and Japan. Chinaexpressed displeasure at ADB for the same.2010sIn April 2010, the second BRIC summit was held in Brasília.Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao paid an official visit to India from Dec.15-17,2010 atthe invitation of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. He was accompanied by 400 Chinesebusiness leaders, who wished to sign business deals with Indian companies.In April 2011, the first BRICS summit was held in Sanya, Hainan, China. During theevent, the two countries agreed to restore defense co-operation, and China had hintedthat it may reverse its policy of administering stapled visas to residents of Jammu andKashmir. This practice was later stopped, and as a result, defense ties were resumedbetween the two nations and joint military drills were expected.It was reported in February 2012 that India will reach US$100 billion dollar tradewith China by 2015.The second BRICS summit was held in New Delhi, India. It was agreed during thesummit that Chinas government would encourage domestic companies to import moreproducts from India in order to balance the trade deficit. Also during the summit,Chinese President Hu Jintao told Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh that "it isChinas unswerving policy to develop Sino-Indian friendship, deepen strategiccooperation and seek common development" and "China hopes to see a peaceful,prosperous and continually developing India and is committed to building more dynamicChina-India relationship". Other topics were discussed, including border disputeproblems and a unified BRICS central bank.
In response to Indias test of a missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to Beijing,the PRC called for the two countries to "cherish the hard-earned momentum of co-operation".India–South Africa relationsIndo-South African relationsIndia South AfricaThe bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of SouthAfrica have grown strong since the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994. Bothnations have since developed close strategic, cultural and economic ties.India and South Africa also share an extensive energy partnership. In 2010, Indiaimported 1.4 million tonnes of South African coal in February, making it the largestpurchaser of coal from the country. Ties with further solidified with South Africas 2011acceptance into the BRICS group.BackgroundThere is a major resident Indian community in South Africa. Mohandas KaramchandGandhi (more commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi) had commenced his political-legal career in South Africa, experimenting with civil disobedience in the 1890s and1900s, to improve the quality of living of the Indians living there. A statue to him was
unveiled in Pietermaritzburg by Sourav Ganguly, the captain of the Indian nationalcricket team during the 2003 Cricket World Cup.Indians also contributed to the African National Congresss struggle against theApartheid regime. The Indian government was an outspoken critic of the apartheid-eraSouth African government, refusing to maintain diplomatic relations. Indias supportevoked goodwill in South Africa and other African countries.Development of bilateral relationsBoth countries established diplomatic relations after the end of apartheid in 1994.South African leader Nelson Mandela was awarded the Mahatma Gandhi PeacePrize by the Indian government. Both nations have also promoted sporting ties, withthe Indian national cricket team and the South Africa national cricket team frequentlyexchanging visits and participating in cricket tournaments hosted by either nation.Economic tiesBilateral trade grew exponentially from USD 3 million in 1992-93 to USD 4 billion in2005-06, and the two governments have targeted increasing bilateral trade to USD 12billion by 2010. Gold bullion constitute one-third of Indias imports from South Africa,while India polishes and processes diamonds from South African mines. South Africahas promoted signing a free trade agreement with India and the Southern AfricaCustoms Union (SACU), whichincludes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland along with South Africa.Bharti Airtel was scheduled to acquire MTN to make one of the worlds largesttelecommunications companies, and also touted as step in South-South cooperation.The deal was, however, rejected by the South African government of Jacob Zuma onthe grounds that MTN would not be as South African anymore amid concerns of dual-listing on the Indian and South African stock exchanges.Military tiesIndia and South Africa have also developed military cooperation, trading arms and jointexercises and programs to train forces.
IBSAIndian PM Manmohan Singh with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and South AfricanPresident Thabo Mbeki.On June 6, 2003 India and South Africa signed an agreement with Brazil, known asthe Brasília Declaration, establishing "South-South" cooperation, based on the premiseof the three nations being regional powers of South Asia, Southern Africa and SouthAmerica. The declaration called for extensive tripartite cooperation on strategic,commercial and cultural affairs, development of a tripartite free trade agreement and aunited front in negotiating with Western nations in the World Trade Organization (WTO),calling for reform of the U.N. Security Council and supporting each others bidfor permanent membership with veto rights. The IBSA Dialogue Forum was created topromote cooperation and consensus on issues of trade, poverty alleviation, intellectualproperty rights, social development, agriculture, climate change, culture, defense,education, energy, health-care, information society, science and technology,peaceful nuclear energy, tourism and transport. The fourth summit was held in Brasília.The three nations pledged to boost trilateral trade to USD 15 billion by 2010. The threenations have also expanded military cooperation and conducted joint naval exercises in2008.