http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:James_Clerk_Maxwell.png Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. Mathematical physics refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theoretical_physicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_physics
http://www.clerkmaxwellfoundation.org/ Portrait as a Young Man
Michael HyltonApril 25, 2013History of Mass MediaDr. Michael McBrideMC4302.281 (Index 39820)JamesClerkMaxwellScottish Physicistin Theoretical andMathematical Physicsborn 13 June 1831 -- died 5 November 18791
.James Clerk Maxwell -- BackgroundMaxwell was born in 1831 in Edinburgh, Scotland.At 25 he became professor of physics at MarischalCollege in Aberdeen. From there he moved first toKings College, London, and then to Cambridge tobecome the first professor of experimental physicsand director of the newly created CavendishLaboratory. It was at the Cavendish, over the next50 years, that much of the physics of todaydeveloped from Maxwells inspiration.2“Maxwells importance in the history of scientific thought is comparable toEinstein’s (whom he inspired) and to Newton’s (whose influence he curtailed)”Ivan Tolstoy, biographer of Maxwell
The development of radiotelephony, the transmission andreception of sound via radio waves, was the first steptoward achieving broadcasting. That step required a seriesof smaller steps…a series of inventions, including:Telegraphy: Samuel F. B. Morse,Electricity: Thomas Edison,Telephony: Alexander Graham Bell telephony, andWireless Telegraphy: James Clerk MaxwellCommunications Timeline Overview:Where does Maxwell fit?3
What enables Wireless Telegraphy?James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist, built onto a group of discoveries to theorize thatenergy passes through space as waves, traveling at the speed of light. Those waves ofenergy are similar to the signals that could be carried over telegraph wires. It is those wavesof energy (seen pictured on these slides’ background) that enable wireless telegraphy.Maxwell called them electromagnetic radio wavesand theorized communication signals could be carried by them.4
His theory turned into reality in 1887 when German physicist Heinrich Hertzconstructed a device that included two coils or hoops of wire, one of whichwas an oscillator that produced electromagnetic radio waves. He found thatthe oscillating coil excited electrical current in the other coil. As he moved thetwo coils farther apart, similar results were seen. The first transmission andreception of radio waves had taken place.So important was this contribution that his name has since been adopted asthat of the measure of all radio frequencies. However, he never promoted theuse of wireless communication. Maxwell’s Theory to Reality5
When Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell theorized that energy passedthrough space as waves traveling at the speed of light, he launched wirelesstelegraphy. Because of Maxwell, in 1877, German physicist Heinrich Hertzconstructed a device demonstrating the first transmission and reception of whathad been previously discovered by Maxwell to be electromagnetic radio waves.So important was his (Maxwell’s) contribution (which enabled Hertz to create adevice to transmit Maxwell’s discovery) that his (Maxwell’s) name has since beenadopted as that of the measure of all radio frequencies.Might we know of James Clerk Maxwell IF, history would have read…5But Sadly…and much to thechagrin of JC’s Mother…
7So, instead of the MMx - MegaMax, historygives us the current—haha, pun intended—and widely known, universally accepted radiofrequency nomenclature…MHz MegaHertz !…That is NOT how History reports!About 20 years after Maxwell’s discovery, Lee DeForest brought Radio into practical life. Our text book, American MediaHistory, lays out much more on the historical and scientific journey to radio at the bottom of page 240 and continues throughpage 246.Not to worry, James went on to make his Mother proud by tirelessly movingforward with his work as a theoretical physicist, making “game-changing”discoveries which continue to impact our lives ! But despite his significantcontributions ………..…………….
Most Everyone in the general public asks:Who is James C. Maxwell?8While our text gives only thebriefest of mentions to JamesClerk Maxwell, anotherbook, entitled The Man WhoChanged Everything: The Life ofJames Clerk Maxwell, providesa detailed biography of “one ofthe greatest scientists of ourtime and yet a man relativelyunknown to the wider public.”…
Generally, it is only ScientificHistorians…and/or scientists themselves,give Maxwell his due …9According to biographer, Basil Mahon: [Maxwell approached] science with afreshness unbound by convention or previous expectations, he produced someof the most original scientific thinking of the nineteenth century — and hisdiscoveries went on to shape the twentieth century.“One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.”--Albert Einstein“From a long view of the history of mankind—seen from, say, ten thousand years fromnow—there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the nineteenth centurywill be judged as Maxwell’s discovery of the laws of electrodynamics.”--Richard Feynmann
Generally, it is only ScientificHistorians…and/or scientiststhemselves, give Maxwell his due …10Monday, 29 November, 1999, articlein BBC News:Albert Einstein has been voted thegreatest physicist of all time…pushing Sir Isaac Newton into secondplace. [James C. Maxwell is third.]The survey was conducted among 100of todays leading physicists.
Generally, it is only ScientificHistorians…and/or scientiststhemselves, give Maxwell his due …11In 1996, Carl Sagan wrote about James C. Maxwell:While he is almost forgotten in popular culture, radar astronomerswho map other worlds have remembered: the greatest mountainrange on Venus, discovered by sending radio waves fromEarth, bouncing them off Venus, and detecting the faint echoes, isnamed after him.Less than a century after Maxwells prediction of radio waves, the firstquest was initiated for signals from possible civilizations on planets ofother stars. …A number of searches…for the time-varying electric andmagnetic fields crossing the vast interstellar distances from possibleother intelligences - biologically very different from us - who had alsobenefited sometime in their histories from the insights of localcounterparts of James Clerk Maxwell.
ACHIEVEMENTS of J.C. MaxwellHis theory of classical electromagnetism demonstrates that electricity, magnetismand light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely theelectromagnetic field.12
ACHIEVEMENTS of J.C. MaxwellMaxwell contributed to the field of optics and the study of color vision, creating thefoundation for practical color photography.From 1855 to 1872, he published at intervals a series of valuable investigationsconcerning the perception of color, color-blindness and color theory.13
Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in theform of waves at the speed of light (slide 12)The unification of light and electrical phenomena led to the prediction of the existenceof radio waves.Maxwells achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "secondgreat unification in physics", after the first one realized by Isaac Newton.Maxwell also helped develop a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetictheory of gases.His discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation forsuch fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics.He is also known for presenting the first durable color photograph in 1861 (slide 13)Maxwells discovery of electro-magnetic radiation directly led to the development ofradio and infrared telescopes.Contributions of James Clerk Maxwell14
Hawaii Tribune Herald, Tuesday June 20th 2006Joint Astronomy Center marks birthday of James Clerk MaxwellFamous Scottish physicist discovered theory of electromagnetism, changing mans views on lightJune 13 was the 175th anniversary of Maxwells birth. The famous Scottish physicist discovered the theory ofelectromagnetism and forever changed mans views on the nature of light. The James Clerk MaxwellSubmillimeter Telescope atop Mauna Kea was named after this father of modern physics.His namesake telescope on Mauna Kea opened in 1987. It is the largest telescope of its kind. Its 50-foot dishcollects submillimeter radiation, a form of light of wavelengths between infrared light and radio waves. Thisradiation is used to study the coldest material in the universe, such as interstellar clouds, the birthplaces of starsand planets, and dust rings around young stars.Contributions of James Clerk Maxwell15 Model ofTelescopeLocation inHawaii
The Sunday Post, April 23 2006Brainy young James wasnt so daft after allBy Patrick McFallHIS school pals ribbed him mercilessly for his country accent, his tender years and his ill-fittingclothes.But the boy they cruelly dubbed "Daftie" at Edinburgh Academy would go on to become one of thegreatest scientists who ever lived.James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) made arguably the most significant discovery of our age - thetheory of electromagnetism.It paved the way for the invention of TVs, mobile phones, microwaves and nuclear energy andearned Maxwell a legacy as the father of modern physics.His fundamental contributions to maths, engineering and astronomy continue to electrify andshape the world we live in today.The great Albert Einstein, no less, was openly indebted to the Scots work and described it as"the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton."Contributions of James Clerk Maxwell16
R E S O U R C E S• http://www.maxwellyear2006.org/• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_Laboratory• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:James_Clerk_Maxwell.png• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theoretical_physics• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_physics• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell• http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electromagnetism.htm• The Man Who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwellby Dr. Basil Mahon• Maxwell and The Nerds• From The Demon-Haunted World by Carl Sagan (Headline, 1996)• http://amasci.com/amateur/nerdsmax.html• http://www.maxwellyear2006.org/html/press_coverage.html#Press5• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell_Telescope• http://monkeymagico.deviantart.com/art/Electromagnetism-133347005(background image)• http://www.clerkmaxwellfoundation.org/17