1. Regenerative Acceleration Generator Technology Evaluation KERS to KEGS Innovation A white paper prepared by: Mark G. Anderson, PE & Thane Heins ReTechnology Power and Water Engineering April 10, 20
2. Regenerative Acceleration Technology EvaluationSummary: Electric regenerative braking systems convert dynamic motion into electricity to charge batterieswhile slowing vehicles. Resistant generator induced torque slows rotating motor-generators resulting in currentflow back to a battery system thereby transferring momentum reducing kinetic energy and storing electricalenergy in the EV’s batteries. This concept may be intuitively obvious to most casual technicians. Regenerativeacceleration is a more difficult notion to merely accept or grasp partly because the exciting results appear tobreak traditional laws of physics. Impressive, well-documented demonstrations provide astonishing empiricalresults but overreach foundational academics challenging learned professionals to theorize and document whyregenerative acceleration works. Endorsement from recognized university labs such as MIT, Ottawa University,Condordia University has helped to embolden regenerative acceleration toward widespread commercialapplication.The purpose of this evaluation is to test the argument and empirical results presented by Potential Differenceregarding Regenerative Acceleration, to identify weaknesses in the premises and structure of the argument anduse results to either improve or abandon the position that regenerative acceleration technology is viable. Thispaper also offers recommendations to complete the evaluation cycle through hypothetical analysis, additionaltesting and performance verification to support a marketing plan for widespread commercial application.Background: Mark G. Anderson, PE and others were invited to learn about, observe, witness, and evaluate theviability and application potential for regenerative acceleration technology as developed by PotentialDifferences, Inc. on March 11 – 12, 2012 near Toronto, Canada. Several demonstrations were presented andexamined. The final comprehensive operating test was recorded by professional videographer ending with apanel discussion including the inventor, unbiased professional engineers, commercially interested parties andwitnesses.Regenerative brakes are most commonly seen in electric or hybrid vehicles. Electric regenerative brakesdescended from dynamic (rheostatic) brakes which have been used on electric and diesel-electric locomotivesand streetcars since the mid-20th century. In either of those systems, braking is accomplished by switchingelectric motors to act as generators that convert motion into electricity instead of electricity into motion. Ofcourse, traditional friction-based brakes are also required for full braking of moving vehicles.Instead of losing the potential energy developed in a moving vehicle to heat loss through traditional braking, thepotential energy of the back electro-motive force (EMF) can be used to recharge the battery system to improveefficiency and increase range.Electric regenerative braking systems are estimated to operate effectively at a wide efficiency range dependingon momentary factors such as deceleration rate, speed, direction (uphill vs. downhill), topography and state ofbattery system charge, as well as design factors specific to each vehicle such as torque, number of drive wheelsand whether they are connected in series or parallel. The main disadvantage of regenerative (vs. dynamic)brakes is the need to closely match the electricity generated with the supply. DC power requires voltage to beclosely controlled and monitored. Regenerative braking primarily works with moving vehicles.Potential Difference has taken a polar opposite approach with the technological development of regenerativeacceleration. Engineer and inventor Thane Heins reports that unlike a conventional coil that stores its energy inan external magnetic field (thereby inducing counter-electromotive-torque), the Regenerative Acceleration Coilstores potential energy as voltage inside the coil when a magnetic field approaches the coil (thereby eliminating
3. counter-torque), and releases this energy as the magnet moves away as a complementary-electromotive-torque. The potential energy is dissipated through the coils via current flow which creates a delayed magneticfield having the same polarity as the receding magnetic field.The net effect is fourfold:1) The receding magnetic field is accelerated away from the coil faster than it otherwise would be;2) The next opposite magnetic pole on the rotor is attracted toward the coil with additional force; and,3) Electric current delivers power to the system’s batteries.4) The prime mover input power is reduced by up to 62% in the demonstration prototype. KERS CONVENTIONAL COIL OPERATION WITH REGARDS TO GENERATOR COIL INDUCED COUNTER-ELECTROMOTIVE ARMATURE REACTION /EV REGENERATIVE BRAKINGCONVENTIONAL COIL OPERATION SUMMARY 1) (FIG1) WHEN A ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD APPROACHES A CONVENTIONAL GENERATOR COIL WHICH IS CONNECTED TO A LOAD, A VOLTAGE IS INDUCED IN THE COIL ACCORDING TO FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION CURRENT FLOWS IN THE COIL ACCORDING TO OHM’S LAW AND IT PRODUCES A REPELLING MAGNETIC FIELD BECAUSE THE COIL OPERATES AS AN ELECTROMAGNET AND PRODUCES THE SAME MAGNETIC POLARITY AS THE APPROACHING ROTOR MAGNET ACCORDING TO LENZ’S LAW. 2) ADDITIONAL EXTERNAL FORCE MUST BE APPLIED TO T HE ROTOR TO OVERCOME THE COIL’S INTERNALLY INDUCED REPELLING MAGNETIC FIELD. 3) (FIG 2) WHEN THE ROTOR MAGNET MOVES AWAY FROM THE COIL THE CURRENT FLOW IN THE COIL CHANGES DIRECTION AND THE COIL NOW ATTRACTS THE ROTOR MAGNET AS IT TRIES TO MOVE AWAY. 4) (FIG 2A) THE CONVENTIONAL GENERATOR COIL IS ALWAYS PRODUCING COUNTER-ELECTROMOTIVE-FORCES WHICH WORK AGAINST THE ROTATION OF THE ROTOR AND ADDITIONAL ENERGY MUST BE SUPPLIED FROM THE EXTERNAL SOURCE TO OVERCOME THESE FORCES TO AVOID SYSTEM DECELERATION AND LOSS O F POWER TO THE LOAD. 5) THE MORE POWER DELIVERED TO THE LOAD THE GREATER THESE COUNTER FORCES ARE AND THE MORE POWER MUST BE SUPPLIED TO OVERCOME THEM.
4. KERS CONVENTIONAL COIL OPERATION WITH REGARDS TO GENERATOR COIL INDUCED COUNTER-ELECTROMOTIVE ARMATURE REACTION /EV REGENERATIVE BRAKING THE CONVENTIONAL GENERATOR COIL REPELLS THE APPROACHING SOUTH POLE ROTOR MAGNETIC FIELD (F3) WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY ATTRACTING AND PREVENTING THE NORTH POLE MAGNETIC FIELD’S DEPARTURE (F2) AS IT TRIES TO MOVE AWAY.
5. KEGS ReGen-X COIL OPERATION WITH REGARDS TO GENERATOR COIL INDUCED COMPLEMENTARY-ELECTROMOTIVE ARMATURE REACTION /EV REGENERATIVE ACCELERATIONReGen-X COIL OPERATION SUMMARY 1) (FIG 3) WHEN A ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD APPROACHES A ReGen-X GENERATOR COIL ABOVE A CRITICAL MINIMUM FREQUENCY WHICH IS CONNECTED TO A LOAD, CURRENT DOES NOT FLOW IN THE COIL AT T=1 BECAUSE THE COIL IMPEDANCE PREVENTS IT AS DICTATED BY THE EQUATION: Zt = 2 pi F L + Rdc + Xc 2) THIS ACTION PRODUCES NO MAGNETIC FIELD BECAUSE CURRENT MUST FLOW IN THE COIL FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD TO BE PRODUCED. 3) NO ADDITIONAL FORCE MUST BE APPLIED TO THE ROTOR TO OVERCOME THE COIL’S INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD BECAUSE NONE EXISTS. 4) (FIG 4) WHEN THE ROTOR MAGNET REACHES TOP DEAD CENTRE (TDC) THE INDUCED VOLTAGE IN THE COIL IS MAXIMUM WHILE THE COIL IMPEDANCE IS MINIMUM AND THE COIL’S MAXIMUM INDUCED VOLTAGE CAN NOW BE DISSIPATED THROUGH THE LOW DC RESISTANCE OF THE COIL AND THE LOAD. 5) THIS PRODUCES A MAXIMUM MAGNITUDE REPELLING MAGNETIC FIELD WHICH APPLIES ADDITIONAL FORCE AND KINETIC ENERGY TO THE ROTOR MAGNET AND ACCELERATES ITS DEPARTURE AS IT IS ALREADY MOVING AWAY FROM THE COIL. 6) (FIG 5) THE DELAYED REPELLING MAGNETIC FIELD ALSO ATTRACTS THE APPROACHING OPPOSITE ROTOR POLE MAGNET ON THE ROTOR WHICH IS NOW COMING INTO POSITION. 7) THE MORE POWER DELIVERED TO THE LOAD THE GREATER THESE COMPLEMENTARY FORCES ARE AND THE LESS POWER MUST BE SUPPLIED BY THE EXTERNAL SOURCE. INITIALLY WHEN THE FIRST ROTOR MAGNET APPROACHES THE ReGen- X COIL WHICH IS CONNECTED TO THE LOAD, NO CURRENT FLOWS IN THE COIL BECAUSE THE HIGH COIL IMPEDANCE PREVENTS IT. THE GENERATOR COIL IS NEUTRAL AND DOES NOT PRODUCE EITHER A REPELLING MAGNETIC FIELD OR AN ATTRACTING ONE.
6. KEGS ReGen-X COIL OPERATION WITH REGARDS TO GENERATOR COIL INDUCED COMPLEMENTARY-ELECTROMOTIVE ARMATURE REACTION /EV REGENERATIVE ACCELERATION THE ReGen-X GENERATOR COIL ATTRACTS THE APPROACHING SOUTH POLE ROTOR MAGNETIC FIELD WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY REPELLING THE NORTH POLE MAGNETIC FIELD AS IT MOVES AWAY FROM TDC. ALL FORCES IN THE ReGen-X SYSTEM PROVIDE KINETIC ENERGY IN THE SAME DIRECTION AND ARE CUMULATIVE.
7. Regenerative acceleration has much broader application possibilities because it can be applied to all electricmotors – including those that are not part of a moving vehicle requiring braking. This technology development iscurrently being evaluated, tested, scrutinized and considered for wide scale deployment in numerous sectorsincluding electric motors mounted in stationary applications including, but not limited to those such as hydro-power plant generators, large industrial motors in process and manufacturing plants, small motors incompressors and refrigeration, wind and diesel generators, and even solar power systems.Premise: Thane Heins has developed a series of electro-mechanical prototypes to demonstrate the electro-magnetic characteristics of regenerative acceleration to prove a stance that is seen as virtually impossible,because the process, as represented, appears to violate basic laws of energy or thermodynamics, and motion.This paper attempts to explain the counter-intuitive results that have been gathered (and 3rd-party verified) byarguing on a conventional platform that known laws of physics are not violated, but perhaps re-directed.Definitions, Rules and Evaluation: 1) Supporting equations, including common classical theorems, are not used nor the scope of this paper. 2) Regenerative Braking: A regenerative brake is an apparatus, device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. 3) Laws of Physics and Thermodynamics: a. Laws of Thermodynamics: The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion). i. First Law of Thermodynamics: According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system increases or decreases only by the amount of heat supplied to (or removed from) the system and the amount of work done by (or to) the system. Hence, the internal energy of a closed system only changes precisely as heat and work are transferred in or out of it. As a result, perpetual motion machines of the first kind (see below) are impossible. ii. Second law of thermodynamics: The second law of thermodynamics resolves that differences in temperature, pressure, and chemistry balance over time at equilibrium in any isolated physical system. The second law declares that it is impossible for machines to generate usable energy from the abundant internal energy of nature by processes called perpetual motion of the second kind. b. Laws of Energy: i. Law of Conservation of Energy: The nineteenth century law of conservation of energy is a law of physics. It states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant over time. The total energy is said to be conserved over time. For an isolated system, this law means that energy can change its location within the system, and that it can change form within the system, for instance chemical energy can become kinetic energy, but that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. c. Laws of Motion: i. First law of motion: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. ii. Second law of motion: The acceleration, a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m, i.e., F = ma.
8. iii. Third law of motion: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear.4) Perpetual Motion Machine: Perpetual motion describes a hypothetical situation in which machines might operate indefinitely and/or produce more useful work or energy than they consume, whether they might operate indefinitely or not. The traditional broad argument within the scientific community is that perpetual motion in an isolated system would violate the first and/or the second laws of thermodynamics. On the other hand, such machines clearly exist and are capable of operating indefinitely from sources within nature such as geothermal, wave or tidal power systems which extract energy from seemingly perpetual sources—such as massive natural heat sinks which are capable of indefinitely supplying energy as long as the source remains available. These are not considered to be perpetual motion machines, because they are consuming energy from an external source in isolated systems. The interesting caveat is that though successful isolated system ‘perpetual motion’ devices are physically impossible in terms of our current understanding of the laws of physics, the pursuit of perpetual motion remains popular. Regenerative acceleration is not such a system and does not fall into any of the ‘perpetual motion’ categories described below: a. Perpetual Motion Machines of the First Kind: A machine that produces work without the input of energy. It thus violates the first law of thermodynamics: the law of conservation of energy. Note that Regenerative Acceleration operates based on magnetic field moving through inductive coil creating electrical current, a common phenomenon. b. Perpetual Motion Machines of the Second Kind: A perpetual motion machine that can spontaneously convert thermal energy into mechanical work. Thermal energy can be converted to work without violating the law of conservation of energy, however it does violate the second law of thermodynamics because there is only one heat reservoir involved, which is being spontaneously cooled without involving a transfer of heat to a cooler reservoir. This conversion of heat into useful work, without any side effect, is impossible, according to the second law of thermodynamics. Regenerative acceleration is not a process or product of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind and does not violate the second law of thermodynamics. Regenerative acceleration is not dependent on converting heat to work.5) Regenerative Acceleration utilizes a specially wound thin wire coil to store potential energy as voltage as magnets mounted on a flywheel cause the magnetic field to approach the coil, and releases the energy in the coil as the magnet moves away. The potential energy is dissipated through the coils via current flow which creates a delayed magnetic field having the same polarity as the receding magnetic field.
9. Results of Findings of Demonstration:During the demonstrations on March 11 – 12, 2012 in Uxbridge, Ontario, Canada, several iterations ofregenerative braking, normal operation, and regenerative acceleration were conducted. All leads and powersupplies were checked for connectivity, including instrumentation and power meters. The motor and systemwere run in normal operation during each test, demonstrating normal, anticipated results as a baseline prior toinitiating regenerative braking or regenerative acceleration.In each case, regenerative braking showed results as expected where current returned power to the systemwhen regenerative braking was applied, and the motor slowed.Also, more importantly in each case regenerative acceleration was also subsequently applied andinstrumentation verified invariably an increase in the amperage to the battery system while the motor speedincreased. This is difficult to grasp at first look and the demonstration makes more sense after reflection of theabove explanation about the storage and release of ‘power’ as the flywheel moves the magnets and magneticfield toward and away from the coil.Recommendations: 1) Detailed recording of data including current versus torque during normal operation, regenerative braking, and regenerative acceleration through multiple demonstrations; 2) Motorize the prototype system to demonstrate how, with a fixed amount of input energy, at a given RPM; a. The system runs longer while utilizing regenerative acceleration coils than it does with conventional coils; b. The system re-charges a rechargeable battery more completely while utilizing regenerative acceleration coils than it does with conventional coils; 3) Design, assembly, installation and testing of two new regenerative acceleration systems for: a. A 12 kw diesel generator and a 40 or 250 kw diesel generator; b. These regenerative acceleration systems will be installed and tested on FG Willson/Caterpillar diesel generators at Technomoteur S.A. in Haiti;Conclusion:Regenerative acceleration appears to be a viable motor enhancement technology significantly impacting motorefficiency based design which incorporates positive effects of magnetic field captured, stored and released ininductive motor coils.
10. References:Holman, Jack P. (1980). Thermodynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 217. ISBN 0-07-029625-1.Where does the energy go?". Advanced technologies and energy efficiency, Fuel Economy Guide. US Dept. ofEnergy. 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2012.Journal/Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 38: 1906–1907 page 374-398. Institutionof Electrical Engineers. 7 February 1907. Regenerative Control of Electric Tramcars and Locomotives. AlfredRaworth, November 22, 1906. Retrieved 23 March 2012.Straun Jno, T Robertson, John Markham (19 February 2007). "The Regenerative Braking Story: 2007". VenturePublications. Retrieved 23 March 2012.GM patent 5775467 – Floating electromagnetic brake system.Roger Ford (July 2, 2007). "Regenerative braking boosts green credentials". Railway Gazette International.Retrieved 23 March 2012.Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole. ISBN0-534-40842-7.MISN-0-158 The First Law of Thermodynamics by Jerzy Borysowicz for Project PHYSNET.ReGen-X Demonstration Videos Liberty e-cars Toronto Demo:http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkH1zLdXy1Sw5CvDRDLh70mMmDbmKn0SN&feature=plcp HERO Electric CEO Toronto Demo:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0-5QNrT7lA&list=PL24ABC533E6537D68&index=1&feature=plpp_video Toronto EV Transportation Industry Demo and 3D Film Shoot:http://www.youtube.com/user/PDiCanada1
11. KEGS vs KERSADDENDUM: Supplemental ReGen-X KEGS Information KERS vs KEGS1) KERS Kinetic Energy Recovery SystemIn the conventional KERS generator torque paradigm the vehicle stored kinetic energytorque (Tt) rotates the generator. The generator responds by creating a counter-electromotive-counter torque (Tg) which opposes the original torque supplied by thevehicle’s inertia and the system decelerates the vehicle while charging the KERSbatteries for later use.2) KEGS Kinetic Energy Generating SystemIn the ReGen-X KEGS innovation developed by Potential Difference Inc. the generatorcreates a complimentary-clockwise-electromotive torque (Tg) while supplying power tothe KEGS batteries which adds to the original torque supplied by the vehicle (Tt) andthe system adds kinetic energy which accelerates the vehicle while charging the KEGSbatteries for later use.
12. EV WORLD REGEN-X REVIEW:Mike Brace, Professional Mechanical Engineer, Technical Editor at EV World"Mike Brace" firstname.lastname@example.org://www.slideshare.net/ThaneCHeins/heins-effect-gaining-credibility-ev-worldNRC Scientist Test Data shows: 1. The on-load conventional generator coil decelerating the system, requiring a 12% prime mover input increase to sustain power to the load. 2. The on-load ReGen-X coil accelerating the system, requiring a 40% prime mover input decrease while delivering over 200% more power to the load than #1 above. https://www.box.net/s/kqo8knpgk7femc0jldnzFor more information please contact:Thane C. HeinsPresident & CEOPotential +/- Difference Inc. R & D"Using our potential to make a difference"Email: email@example.comCell: 613.795.1602YOUTUBE http://www.youtube.com/user/pdicanada1Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=107557432&trk=tab_pro