011 20 skeletal_20system

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  • Osteoblasts Osteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralisation. Osteoclasts Osteoclasts are specialised cells that resorb bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite. Osteocytes Bone adapts to applied forces by growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength. Osteocytes are thought to be part of the cellular feed-back mechanism which directs bone to form in the places where it is most needed. They lie within mineralised bone and it is thought that they may detect mechanical deformation and mediate the response of the osteoblasts.
  • 011 20 skeletal_20system

    1. 1. Biology Class <ul><li>By Mrs. Nitaya yokasing </li></ul><ul><li>Kamalasai school </li></ul>Skeletal System
    2. 2. Skeletal System
    3. 3. Function of the Skeletal System <ul><li>Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs </li></ul><ul><li>Protection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain </li></ul><ul><li>Movement - bones act as levers for muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral storage - calcium & phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell formation - hematopoiesis </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Long Bones - metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Short Bones - carpals, tarsals </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Bones - rib, scapula, skull, sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Bones - vertebrae, some facial bones </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid - patella </li></ul>Types of Bones
    5. 5. Bone Classification
    6. 6. Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis diaphysis yellow marrow epiphyseal line periosteum compact bone spongy bone Endosteum hyaline cartilage Anatomy of a Long Bone Sharpey’s fibers
    7. 7. Axial Skeleton
    8. 8. Appendicular Skeleton
    9. 9. Axial Skeleton
    10. 10. Axial Skeleton
    11. 11. Posterior View Axial Skeleton
    12. 12. Sinal Cavities <ul><li>Warm and moisten air </li></ul><ul><li>Lighten the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance voice resonance </li></ul>Frontal Sinus Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus
    13. 13. Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx The Vertebral Column Axial Skeleton
    14. 14. Cervical Vertebrae
    15. 17. Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2) The Thoracic Cage Axial Skeleton
    16. 18. Sacrum & Coccyx Axial Skeleton
    17. 19. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle Appendicular Skeleton
    18. 20. Appendicular Skeleton Humerus Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 14 Phalanges 5 Metacarpals
    19. 21. Humorus
    20. 22. Ulna & Radius
    21. 23. Hand Bones
    22. 24. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis
    23. 25. Ischium Ilium Acetabulum Pubis Ischium Obturator foramen Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis (lateral view)
    24. 26. Male Pelvic Girdle                                                    Female Pelvic Girdle Male vs Female Pelvis
    25. 28. Patella The Lower Limb (Legs) Appendicular Skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges 7 Tarsals
    26. 29. Femur
    27. 30. Patella
    28. 31. Tibia & Fibula
    29. 32. metatarsals phelangies tarsals metatarsals phelangies tarsals Foot
    30. 33. Fetal Skull
    31. 34. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) Fibrous Joints suture pubis symphisis
    32. 35. Slightly Movable Joint (ampharthrosis) Cartilagenous Joints
    33. 36. Synovial Joints (diarthrosis)- freely moveable femur ligaments pelvis
    34. 37. Synovial Joints femur pelvis hyaline cartilage synovial cavity joint capsule
    35. 38. Knee Joint
    36. 39. Abduction Extension Rotation Flexion Adduction Synovial Joint Movement
    37. 40. 275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long) Fetal Skeleton
    38. 41. cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months Adult Childhood Just before birth
    39. 42. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell Bone cells that aid in remodeling
    40. 43. Bone Repair : <ul><li>Electrical stimulation of the fracture site: </li></ul><ul><li>Increases speed and completeness of healing </li></ul><ul><li>The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ultrasound treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35% </li></ul><ul><li>3. Free vascular fibular graft technique: </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant fibula in arm </li></ul><ul><li>Gives good blood supply not available in other treatments </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bone substitutes: </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Sea bone- coral </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial bone- ceramic </li></ul>
    41. 45. hematoma callus bony callus Repair of Fractures bone remodeling
    42. 46. Diseases of the Skeletal System: <ul><li>Osteoporosis - bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier </li></ul><ul><li>Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>age, gender (more in women) </li></ul><ul><li>estrogen and testosterone decrease </li></ul><ul><li>insufficient exercise (or too much) </li></ul><ul><li>diet poor in Ca ++ and protein </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal vitamin D receptors </li></ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul>
    43. 47. Osteoporosis 29 40 84 92
    44. 48. Rickets - vitamin D deficiency Osteomalacia - soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin D Pagets Disease - spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodeling Rheumatoid arthritis - autoimmune reaction Diseases of the Skeletal System:
    45. 50. INQUIRY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSHoonPWwXQ <ul><li>What is a fontanel? </li></ul><ul><li>How many bones in the adult skeleton? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between the appendicular and axial skeleton? </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate adduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight bearing vertebrae are called? </li></ul><ul><li>What does an osteoclast do? </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Credit: 1-page reaction paper on bipedalism and problems associated with our human frame. Attach article. Turn in 1-week from today. </li></ul>

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