Chapter 08 DISCOVERING COPUTERS 2012

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  • 1. Discovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
  • 2. Objectives Overview Define system Describe the Summarize the software and identify functions of an startup process on a the two types of operating system personal computer system software Summarize the Summarize the Briefly describe features of several features of several various server stand-alone operating embedded operating operating systems systems systems Explain the purpose of several utility programsSee Page 397 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 2for Detailed Objectives
  • 3. System Software• System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices Operating Utility systems ProgramsPage 398 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 3
  • 4. Operating Systems• An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources Start and shut Provide a user Manage Manage down a interface programs memory computer Establish an Coordinate Configure Monitor Internet tasks devices performance connection Provide Automatically Control a Administer utilities update network securityPages 398 - 399 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 4
  • 5. Operating SystemsPages 398 – 399 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 5Figure 8-1
  • 6. Operating System Functions• The process of starting or restarting a computer is called booting Cold boot Warm boot • Turning on • Using the a computer operating that has system to been restart a powered off computer completelyPage 400 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 6Figure 8-2
  • 7. Operating System FunctionsPage 401 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 7Figure 8-3
  • 8. Operating System Functions A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts •You can boot from a boot disk •A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computerPage 402 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 8
  • 9. Operating System Functions• An operating system includes various shut down options Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to Hibernate saves any open RAM, turns off all unneeded documents and programs to functions, and then places a hard disk before removing the computer in a low- power from the computer power statePage 402 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 9
  • 10. Operating System Functions • A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen • With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual imagesPages 402 – 403 10 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-4
  • 11. Operating System Functions• With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructionsPage 403 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 11Figure 8-5
  • 12. Operating System Functions• How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity Single tasking Single user and Foreground and and multiuser background multitasking Preemptive Multiprocessing multitaskingPages 404 - 405 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 12
  • 13. Operating System FunctionsPage 404 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 13Figure 8-6
  • 14. Operating System Functions• Memory management optimizes the use of RAM• Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAMPage 406 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 14Figure 8-8
  • 15. Operating System Functions• The operating system determines the order in which tasks are processedPage 407 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 15Figure 8-9
  • 16. Operating System FunctionsPage 408 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 16
  • 17. Operating System Functions• Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connectionsPage 408 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 17Figure 8-10
  • 18. Operating System Functions• A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devicesPages 408 – 409 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 18Figure 8-11
  • 19. Operating System Functions• Operating systems often provide users with the capability of: Searching for Viewing Securing a Managing files files images computer Uninstalling Cleaning up Defragmenting Diagnosing programs disks disks problems Backing up Setting up files and disks screen saversPage 409 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 19
  • 20. Operating System Functions• Automatic update automatically provides updates to the programPage 409 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 20Figure 8-12
  • 21. Operating System Functions • Some operating systems • A network are designed to work administrator uses the with a server on a server operating system network to: • A server operating – Add and remove system organizes and users, computers, and other devices coordinates how – Install software and multiple users access administer network and share resources on security a networkPage 410 21 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8
  • 22. Operating System Functions • Each user has a user account – A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user – A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user namePage 410 22 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-13
  • 23. Types of Operating SystemsPage 412 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 23Figure 8-14
  • 24. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device Windows Mac OS X 7 UNIX LinuxPage 412 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 24
  • 25. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• Windows 7 is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating system to date and is available in multiple editions: Windows 7 Windows 7 Home Starter Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Ultimate ProfessionalPages 413 - 414 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 25
  • 26. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• Windows 7 provides programs such as: Windows Windows DVD Firewall Maker Windows Desktop Media Player Gadget GalleryPage 414 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 26
  • 27. Stand-Alone Operating SystemsPage 414 27 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figures 8-16 – 8-17
  • 28. Stand-Alone Operating SystemsPage 415 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 28Figure 8-18
  • 29. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use• Latest version is Mac OS XPage 415 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 29Figure 8-19
  • 30. Stand-Alone Operating Systems UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s Linux is an open- source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating systemPages 416 – 417 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 30Figures 8-20 – 8-21
  • 31. Server Operating Systems Windows UNIX Linux Server 2008 Solaris NetWarePages 417 - 418 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 31
  • 32. Server Operating Systems• Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003 – Part of the Windows Server 2008 family – Multiple editions• Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology – Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resourcesPages 417 - 418 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 32
  • 33. Embedded Operating Systems• An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device Windows Windows Palm OS iPhone OS Embedded CE Phone 7 Google Embedded BlackBerry Symbian OS Android LinuxPages 418 - 420 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 33
  • 34. Embedded Operating SystemsPages 419 – 420 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 34Figures 8-22 – 8-26
  • 35. Utility Programs• A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasksPage 421 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 35Figure 8-27
  • 36. Utility Programs • A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management – Displaying a list of files – Organizing files in folders – Copying, renaming, delet ing, moving, and sorting files and folders – Creating shortcutsPage 422 36 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-28
  • 37. Utility Programs• A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specifyPage 422 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 37Figure 8-29
  • 38. Utility Programs • An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file • An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system filesPage 423 38 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-30
  • 39. Utility Programs• A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files – Downloaded program files – Temporary Internet files – Deleted files – Unused program filesPage 423 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 39Figure 8-31
  • 40. Utility Programs • A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster – DefragmentingPages 423 – 424 40 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-32
  • 41. Utility Programs • A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium • A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original formPage 424 41 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-33
  • 42. Utility Programs • A screen saver causes a • A personal firewall display device’s screen detects and protects a to show a moving image personal computer or blank screen if no from unauthorized activity occurs for a intrusions specified timePage 425 42 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figures 8-34 – 8-35
  • 43. Utility Programs A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer negativelyA worm copies A Trojan horse An antivirus itself hides within or program repeatedly in looks like a protects a memory or legitimate computerover a network program against virusesPages 425 - 426 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 43
  • 44. Utility ProgramsPages 425 – 426 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 44Figures 8-36 – 8-37
  • 45. Utility Programs Spyware is a program placed on Adware displays an online a computer without the user’s advertisement in a banner or knowledge that secretly collects pop-up window information about the user• A spyware remover detects • An adware remover is a and deletes spyware and program that detects and other similar programs deletes adwarePage 426 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 45
  • 46. Utility Programs• Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed Web filtering Anti-spam software programs Phishing Pop-up filters blockersPages 426 - 427 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 46
  • 47. Utility Programs• A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s) – Compressing files frees up room on the storage media – Two types of compression • Lossy • Lossless• Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files – Can be uncompressedPage 427 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 47
  • 48. Utility Programs• A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computerPage 427 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 48Figure 8-38
  • 49. Utility Programs • Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, an d video files on a recordable or rewritable optical discPage 428 49 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-39
  • 50. Utility Programs • A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performancePage 428 50 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8Figure 8-40
  • 51. Summary Definition of an operating Functions common to system most operating systems Variety of stand-alone operating systems, server operating systems, and Several utility programs embedded operating systemsPage 429 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 8 51
  • 52. Discovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Chapter 8 Complete