Involving forest-dependent communities in Climate Change Mitigation: Challenges and Opportunities for Successful Implement...
Outline of presentation <ul><li>Background to the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>What is REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight ...
Background to the Presentation <ul><li>This presentation is based on preliminary reflection of an ongoing 5 years research...
WHAT IS REDD+ <ul><li>Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for some 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more ...
WHAT IS REDD+..... <ul><li>The basic idea behind REDD+ is simple: Countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions ...
Global GHG sources by sector Source, IPCC 2007
Time Carbon Stocks Baseline (without project) Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) <ul><li>F...
REDD+ Negotiations  - Highlights <ul><li>Kyoto  protocol addressed afforestation and reforestation strategies but deforest...
Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania <ul><li>Forests and woodland cover about 33.5 mill. ha in Tanzania. This is ap...
Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania <ul><li>With partnership from the Norgwenia government, the UN REDD Programme, Cli...
REDD+ PILOT PROJECTS IN TANZANIA
Opportunities from REDD+ <ul><li>REDD has the potential to achieve significant multiple benefits; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ha...
RISK OF POOR INVOLVEMENT OF FOREST- DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES  <ul><li>exclusion from decision-making due to centralized , top...
Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania  <ul><li>Insecure tenure  is a major issue, which is likely to ...
Challenges cont.... <ul><li>Establishing and maintaining clear benefit sharing systems is a demanding task with previous i...
Way Forward <ul><li>Improve tenure security to strengthen local resource rights, including customary rights. </li></ul><ul...
Conclusion <ul><li>Tanzania expects to learn more from the ongoing pilot (demonstration)  projects </li></ul><ul><li>Tanza...
Thank you Thabit Jacob:  [email_address]
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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change johanesburg 2011

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A presentation about REDD+ in Tanzania and the likely threats and opportunities to forest dependent communities

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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change johanesburg 2011

  1. 1. Involving forest-dependent communities in Climate Change Mitigation: Challenges and Opportunities for Successful Implementation of REDD+ in Tanzania   Presentation for: INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS Johannesburg, South Africa. 29 & 31 August 2011   Thabit Jacob, MSc.Candidate Institute of Resource Assessment University of Dar es Salaam
  2. 2. Outline of presentation <ul><li>Background to the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>What is REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight of REDD negotiations under the UNFCC </li></ul><ul><li>Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>REDD+ Pilot projects in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities from REDD+ </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of poor involvement of forest- dependent communities </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background to the Presentation <ul><li>This presentation is based on preliminary reflection of an ongoing 5 years research programme undertaken collaboratively between Tanzanian and Norwegian universities </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology is based on an extensive literature review and several expert interviews. </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS REDD+ <ul><li>Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for some 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the entire global transport sector put together. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a large source, forests could, however, be turned into great sinks. This demands halting deforestation and regenerating degraded forests. </li></ul><ul><li>REDD stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation plus (+) sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an important part of global policies to address climate change. REDD seeks to reduce emissions from the forest sector in developing countries </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS REDD+..... <ul><li>The basic idea behind REDD+ is simple: Countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation should be financially compensated for doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous approaches to curb global deforestation have so far been unsuccessful, and REDD provides a new framework to allow deforesting countries to break this historical trend. </li></ul><ul><li>With REDD+, we may significantly reduce global emissions at a reasonable cost, while also taking due account of the rights and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities. </li></ul><ul><li>It also present opportunities for improving biodiversity, rainfall patterns and soil quality, and helping developing forest countries adapt to climate change. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Global GHG sources by sector Source, IPCC 2007
  7. 7. Time Carbon Stocks Baseline (without project) Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) <ul><li>Field activities need to use specific, robust methodologies to measure and monitor baselines and increases in forest carbon or reductions of emissions – and these are complex! </li></ul>Adopted from P. Z. Yanda (2010) With REDD activity CO 2 emissions avoided
  8. 8. REDD+ Negotiations - Highlights <ul><li>Kyoto protocol addressed afforestation and reforestation strategies but deforestation and forest degradation were excluded. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 REDD was thus reintroduced in UNFCCC negotiations in Montreal at COP 11 </li></ul><ul><li>in December 2007 in Bali at the COP 13 of UNFCCC, It was formally proposed for inclusion in the official negotiation agenda for a post 2012 regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions continued at COP 14 in Poznan , Poland, in December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009 consensus was reached at the COP 15 held in Copenhagen Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Copenhagen agreement was followed by international commitments and funding pledges to REDD pilot countries including Tanzania. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently at the COP 16 in Cancun in Mexico, issues such as sustainable financing and rights of forest-dependant communities were high on the agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>More discussion are expected later this year when Durban will host COP 17 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania <ul><li>Forests and woodland cover about 33.5 mill. ha in Tanzania. This is approximately 38 % of total land area. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a significant deforestation in Tanzania with a rate in the range 100.000 – 500.000 ha/year ( FAO & MNRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Major drivers for deforestation/forest degradation are agricultural expansion, needs for timber, fuel wood and charcoal production, fodder and livestock grazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest degradation is also prevalent in Tanzania, both in reserved forests and on general land. The rate is estimated around 500.000 ha/year. </li></ul><ul><li>There is significant climate mitigation potential in Tanzania’s forest sector </li></ul>
  10. 10. Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania <ul><li>With partnership from the Norgwenia government, the UN REDD Programme, Clinton foundation and other doners Tanzania embarked on REDD+ initiative back in 2008 in what is known as REDD READNESS phase </li></ul><ul><li>The partneship focus on; developing PILOT PROJECTS test the effectiveness of the REDD mechanism; developing technologies for measuring carbon sequestration; and promoting research and capacity building programmes related to climate change challenges </li></ul><ul><li>It expected that experiences from such pilots and in-depth studies will provide inputs to the development of the REDD Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The national REDD strategy is currently a draft document being reviewed by various stakeholders </li></ul>
  11. 11. REDD+ PILOT PROJECTS IN TANZANIA
  12. 12. Opportunities from REDD+ <ul><li>REDD has the potential to achieve significant multiple benefits; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the potential to deliver large cuts in emissions at a low cost within a short time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty alleviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving governance (accountability in benefit sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of other environmental services, water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality/regulation and soil conservation among others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. RISK OF POOR INVOLVEMENT OF FOREST- DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES <ul><li>exclusion from decision-making due to centralized , top-down forest management </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed state control over forests </li></ul><ul><li>Violations of rights over forests and forest resources </li></ul><ul><li>Land speculation land grabbing </li></ul><ul><li>Risks of eviction of these communities from their land </li></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania <ul><li>Insecure tenure is a major issue, which is likely to make investments unattractive. </li></ul><ul><li>Also without formal tenure rights to land or carbon, there are risks that traditional land, forest, and resource rights of these communities will be violated. </li></ul><ul><li>REDD+ could act as an incentive for government or investors to occupy poorly defined ‘surplus’ land. </li></ul><ul><li> land grabbing and exclusion by the more powerful (including government) will affect the poor and landless people to a great deal. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity over rights to carbon and lack of access to legal systems even where rights are well defined may exclude poor people </li></ul>
  15. 15. Challenges cont.... <ul><li>Establishing and maintaining clear benefit sharing systems is a demanding task with previous initiatives (WMA, PFM, JFM) proved ineffective and controversial </li></ul><ul><li>High transaction costs of implementing REDD+ in areas where forests (or their ownership) are fragmented, may exclude communities from REDD+ schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of regular, reliable, specific and accurate database for computing baseline emissions . This is likely to affect the establishment of regular and efficient monitoring systems for accurate quantification of carbon stock </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. Way Forward <ul><li>Improve tenure security to strengthen local resource rights, including customary rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Research capacity in regards to baseline conditions and measurements of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for greater political understanding and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of markets and other funding mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance transparency and accountability </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Tanzania expects to learn more from the ongoing pilot (demonstration) projects </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania must also continue engagement with UNFCCC climate change talks and COPs particularly the upcoming conference in Duran to protect gains already achieved and push for more </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thank you Thabit Jacob: [email_address]

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