Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change johanesburg 2011



A presentation about REDD+ in Tanzania and the likely threats and opportunities to forest dependent communities

A presentation about REDD+ in Tanzania and the likely threats and opportunities to forest dependent communities



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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change johanesburg 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Involving forest-dependent communities in Climate Change Mitigation: Challenges and Opportunities for Successful Implementation of REDD+ in Tanzania   Presentation for: INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS Johannesburg, South Africa. 29 & 31 August 2011   Thabit Jacob, MSc.Candidate Institute of Resource Assessment University of Dar es Salaam
  • 2. Outline of presentation
    • Background to the presentation
    • What is REDD
    • Highlight of REDD negotiations under the UNFCC
    • Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania
    • Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania
    • REDD+ Pilot projects in Tanzania
    • Opportunities from REDD+
    • Risk of poor involvement of forest- dependent communities
    • Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Background to the Presentation
    • This presentation is based on preliminary reflection of an ongoing 5 years research programme undertaken collaboratively between Tanzanian and Norwegian universities
    • The methodology is based on an extensive literature review and several expert interviews.
  • 4. WHAT IS REDD+
    • Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for some 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the entire global transport sector put together.
    • Being a large source, forests could, however, be turned into great sinks. This demands halting deforestation and regenerating degraded forests.
    • REDD stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation plus (+) sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
    • It is an important part of global policies to address climate change. REDD seeks to reduce emissions from the forest sector in developing countries
  • 5. WHAT IS REDD+.....
    • The basic idea behind REDD+ is simple: Countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation should be financially compensated for doing so.
    • Previous approaches to curb global deforestation have so far been unsuccessful, and REDD provides a new framework to allow deforesting countries to break this historical trend.
    • With REDD+, we may significantly reduce global emissions at a reasonable cost, while also taking due account of the rights and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities.
    • It also present opportunities for improving biodiversity, rainfall patterns and soil quality, and helping developing forest countries adapt to climate change.
  • 6. Global GHG sources by sector Source, IPCC 2007
  • 7. Time Carbon Stocks Baseline (without project) Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD)
    • Field activities need to use specific, robust methodologies to measure and monitor baselines and increases in forest carbon or reductions of emissions – and these are complex!
    Adopted from P. Z. Yanda (2010) With REDD activity CO 2 emissions avoided
  • 8. REDD+ Negotiations - Highlights
    • Kyoto protocol addressed afforestation and reforestation strategies but deforestation and forest degradation were excluded.
    • In 2005 REDD was thus reintroduced in UNFCCC negotiations in Montreal at COP 11
    • in December 2007 in Bali at the COP 13 of UNFCCC, It was formally proposed for inclusion in the official negotiation agenda for a post 2012 regime.
    • Discussions continued at COP 14 in Poznan , Poland, in December 2008
    • In 2009 consensus was reached at the COP 15 held in Copenhagen Denmark
    • Copenhagen agreement was followed by international commitments and funding pledges to REDD pilot countries including Tanzania.
    • Recently at the COP 16 in Cancun in Mexico, issues such as sustainable financing and rights of forest-dependant communities were high on the agenda.
    • More discussion are expected later this year when Durban will host COP 17
  • 9. Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania
    • Forests and woodland cover about 33.5 mill. ha in Tanzania. This is approximately 38 % of total land area.
    • There is a significant deforestation in Tanzania with a rate in the range 100.000 – 500.000 ha/year ( FAO & MNRT)
    • Major drivers for deforestation/forest degradation are agricultural expansion, needs for timber, fuel wood and charcoal production, fodder and livestock grazing.
    • Forest degradation is also prevalent in Tanzania, both in reserved forests and on general land. The rate is estimated around 500.000 ha/year.
    • There is significant climate mitigation potential in Tanzania’s forest sector
  • 10. Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania
    • With partnership from the Norgwenia government, the UN REDD Programme, Clinton foundation and other doners Tanzania embarked on REDD+ initiative back in 2008 in what is known as REDD READNESS phase
    • The partneship focus on; developing PILOT PROJECTS test the effectiveness of the REDD mechanism; developing technologies for measuring carbon sequestration; and promoting research and capacity building programmes related to climate change challenges
    • It expected that experiences from such pilots and in-depth studies will provide inputs to the development of the REDD Strategy
    • The national REDD strategy is currently a draft document being reviewed by various stakeholders
  • 12. Opportunities from REDD+
    • REDD has the potential to achieve significant multiple benefits;
      • Has the potential to deliver large cuts in emissions at a low cost within a short time frame
      • Poverty alleviation
      • Improving governance (accountability in benefit sharing)
      • Conserving biodiversity
      • Provision of other environmental services, water
      • quality/regulation and soil conservation among others.
    • exclusion from decision-making due to centralized , top-down forest management
    • Renewed state control over forests
    • Violations of rights over forests and forest resources
    • Land speculation land grabbing
    • Risks of eviction of these communities from their land
  • 14. Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania
    • Insecure tenure is a major issue, which is likely to make investments unattractive.
    • Also without formal tenure rights to land or carbon, there are risks that traditional land, forest, and resource rights of these communities will be violated.
    • REDD+ could act as an incentive for government or investors to occupy poorly defined ‘surplus’ land.
    • land grabbing and exclusion by the more powerful (including government) will affect the poor and landless people to a great deal.
    • Lack of clarity over rights to carbon and lack of access to legal systems even where rights are well defined may exclude poor people
  • 15. Challenges cont....
    • Establishing and maintaining clear benefit sharing systems is a demanding task with previous initiatives (WMA, PFM, JFM) proved ineffective and controversial
    • High transaction costs of implementing REDD+ in areas where forests (or their ownership) are fragmented, may exclude communities from REDD+ schemes.
    • Lack of regular, reliable, specific and accurate database for computing baseline emissions . This is likely to affect the establishment of regular and efficient monitoring systems for accurate quantification of carbon stock
  • 16. Way Forward
    • Improve tenure security to strengthen local resource rights, including customary rights.
    • Research capacity in regards to baseline conditions and measurements of carbon
    • There is a need for greater political understanding and commitment
    • Understanding of markets and other funding mechanisms
    • Enhance transparency and accountability
  • 17. Conclusion
    • Tanzania expects to learn more from the ongoing pilot (demonstration) projects
    • Tanzania must also continue engagement with UNFCCC climate change talks and COPs particularly the upcoming conference in Duran to protect gains already achieved and push for more
  • 18. Thank you Thabit Jacob: [email_address]