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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change  johanesburg 2011
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Climate Change, REDD+ Indigenous Knowledge: International student conference on climate change johanesburg 2011

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A presentation about REDD+ in Tanzania and the likely threats and opportunities to forest dependent communities

A presentation about REDD+ in Tanzania and the likely threats and opportunities to forest dependent communities

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  • 1. Involving forest-dependent communities in Climate Change Mitigation: Challenges and Opportunities for Successful Implementation of REDD+ in Tanzania   Presentation for: INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS Johannesburg, South Africa. 29 & 31 August 2011   Thabit Jacob, MSc.Candidate Institute of Resource Assessment University of Dar es Salaam
  • 2. Outline of presentation <ul><li>Background to the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>What is REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight of REDD negotiations under the UNFCC </li></ul><ul><li>Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>REDD+ Pilot projects in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities from REDD+ </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of poor involvement of forest- dependent communities </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 3. Background to the Presentation <ul><li>This presentation is based on preliminary reflection of an ongoing 5 years research programme undertaken collaboratively between Tanzanian and Norwegian universities </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology is based on an extensive literature review and several expert interviews. </li></ul>
  • 4. WHAT IS REDD+ <ul><li>Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for some 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the entire global transport sector put together. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a large source, forests could, however, be turned into great sinks. This demands halting deforestation and regenerating degraded forests. </li></ul><ul><li>REDD stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation plus (+) sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an important part of global policies to address climate change. REDD seeks to reduce emissions from the forest sector in developing countries </li></ul>
  • 5. WHAT IS REDD+..... <ul><li>The basic idea behind REDD+ is simple: Countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation should be financially compensated for doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous approaches to curb global deforestation have so far been unsuccessful, and REDD provides a new framework to allow deforesting countries to break this historical trend. </li></ul><ul><li>With REDD+, we may significantly reduce global emissions at a reasonable cost, while also taking due account of the rights and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities. </li></ul><ul><li>It also present opportunities for improving biodiversity, rainfall patterns and soil quality, and helping developing forest countries adapt to climate change. </li></ul>
  • 6. Global GHG sources by sector Source, IPCC 2007
  • 7. Time Carbon Stocks Baseline (without project) Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) <ul><li>Field activities need to use specific, robust methodologies to measure and monitor baselines and increases in forest carbon or reductions of emissions – and these are complex! </li></ul>Adopted from P. Z. Yanda (2010) With REDD activity CO 2 emissions avoided
  • 8. REDD+ Negotiations - Highlights <ul><li>Kyoto protocol addressed afforestation and reforestation strategies but deforestation and forest degradation were excluded. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 REDD was thus reintroduced in UNFCCC negotiations in Montreal at COP 11 </li></ul><ul><li>in December 2007 in Bali at the COP 13 of UNFCCC, It was formally proposed for inclusion in the official negotiation agenda for a post 2012 regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions continued at COP 14 in Poznan , Poland, in December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009 consensus was reached at the COP 15 held in Copenhagen Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Copenhagen agreement was followed by international commitments and funding pledges to REDD pilot countries including Tanzania. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently at the COP 16 in Cancun in Mexico, issues such as sustainable financing and rights of forest-dependant communities were high on the agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>More discussion are expected later this year when Durban will host COP 17 </li></ul>
  • 9. Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania <ul><li>Forests and woodland cover about 33.5 mill. ha in Tanzania. This is approximately 38 % of total land area. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a significant deforestation in Tanzania with a rate in the range 100.000 – 500.000 ha/year ( FAO &amp; MNRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Major drivers for deforestation/forest degradation are agricultural expansion, needs for timber, fuel wood and charcoal production, fodder and livestock grazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest degradation is also prevalent in Tanzania, both in reserved forests and on general land. The rate is estimated around 500.000 ha/year. </li></ul><ul><li>There is significant climate mitigation potential in Tanzania’s forest sector </li></ul>
  • 10. Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania <ul><li>With partnership from the Norgwenia government, the UN REDD Programme, Clinton foundation and other doners Tanzania embarked on REDD+ initiative back in 2008 in what is known as REDD READNESS phase </li></ul><ul><li>The partneship focus on; developing PILOT PROJECTS test the effectiveness of the REDD mechanism; developing technologies for measuring carbon sequestration; and promoting research and capacity building programmes related to climate change challenges </li></ul><ul><li>It expected that experiences from such pilots and in-depth studies will provide inputs to the development of the REDD Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The national REDD strategy is currently a draft document being reviewed by various stakeholders </li></ul>
  • 11. REDD+ PILOT PROJECTS IN TANZANIA
  • 12. Opportunities from REDD+ <ul><li>REDD has the potential to achieve significant multiple benefits; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the potential to deliver large cuts in emissions at a low cost within a short time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty alleviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving governance (accountability in benefit sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of other environmental services, water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality/regulation and soil conservation among others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. RISK OF POOR INVOLVEMENT OF FOREST- DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES <ul><li>exclusion from decision-making due to centralized , top-down forest management </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed state control over forests </li></ul><ul><li>Violations of rights over forests and forest resources </li></ul><ul><li>Land speculation land grabbing </li></ul><ul><li>Risks of eviction of these communities from their land </li></ul>
  • 14. Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania <ul><li>Insecure tenure is a major issue, which is likely to make investments unattractive. </li></ul><ul><li>Also without formal tenure rights to land or carbon, there are risks that traditional land, forest, and resource rights of these communities will be violated. </li></ul><ul><li>REDD+ could act as an incentive for government or investors to occupy poorly defined ‘surplus’ land. </li></ul><ul><li> land grabbing and exclusion by the more powerful (including government) will affect the poor and landless people to a great deal. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity over rights to carbon and lack of access to legal systems even where rights are well defined may exclude poor people </li></ul>
  • 15. Challenges cont.... <ul><li>Establishing and maintaining clear benefit sharing systems is a demanding task with previous initiatives (WMA, PFM, JFM) proved ineffective and controversial </li></ul><ul><li>High transaction costs of implementing REDD+ in areas where forests (or their ownership) are fragmented, may exclude communities from REDD+ schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of regular, reliable, specific and accurate database for computing baseline emissions . This is likely to affect the establishment of regular and efficient monitoring systems for accurate quantification of carbon stock </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  • 16. Way Forward <ul><li>Improve tenure security to strengthen local resource rights, including customary rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Research capacity in regards to baseline conditions and measurements of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for greater political understanding and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of markets and other funding mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance transparency and accountability </li></ul>
  • 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Tanzania expects to learn more from the ongoing pilot (demonstration) projects </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania must also continue engagement with UNFCCC climate change talks and COPs particularly the upcoming conference in Duran to protect gains already achieved and push for more </li></ul>
  • 18. Thank you Thabit Jacob: [email_address]

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