Cop 17 durban roundtable discussions presentation
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Cop 17 durban roundtable discussions presentation



A presentation made in COP17 Durban November 2011.. Its all about REDD+ as a climate change mitigation tool in Tanzania plus the opportunities and threats it present.

A presentation made in COP17 Durban November 2011.. Its all about REDD+ as a climate change mitigation tool in Tanzania plus the opportunities and threats it present.



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Cop 17 durban roundtable discussions presentation Cop 17 durban roundtable discussions presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Involving forest-dependent communities in Climate Change Mitigation: Likely Challenges and Opportunities for Successful Implementation of REDD+ in Tanzania   Presentation for: COP 17 ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSIONS AND EXHIBITION ON AFRICAN YOUNG SCIENTISTS /YOUTH INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS Innovation Centre, Howard Campus University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 30 th November 2011   Thabit Jacob Institute of Resource Assessment University of Dar es Salaam 11/30/2011
  • Outline of presentation
    • Background to the presentation
    • Introduction (What is REDD+, Why REDD+ and Why forest)
    • Highlight of REDD+ negotiations under the UNFCCC
    • Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania
    • Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania
    • REDD+ Pilot projects in Tanzania
    • Opportunities from REDD+
    • Challenges likely to face REDD+ Implementation in Tanzania
    • Potential for IKS contribution to REDD+
    • Youth involvement in REDD+ and Climate Change issues
    • Way forward
    • Conclusion
  • Background to the Presentation
    • This presentation is based on preliminary reflections of my ongoing research which is under a collaborative programme between Tanzanian and Norwegian universities
    • The methodology is based on an extensive literature review and several expert interviews.
  • Introduction
    • During the 13 th Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC (December 2007 in Bali)it was proposed that REDD and forests be included in the official negotiation agenda for a post-2012 regime.
    • Under the Bali Action Plan, both developed and developing countries need to take nationally appropriate mitigation actions, known as NAMAs, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Since then, there have been a number of global and national efforts to
    • address the problem of climate change through adaptation and
    • mitigation activities.
    • The UNFCCC, of which Tanzania is a party, recognizes various mitigation
    • and adaptation options, including pro-REDD+ forestry related
    • activities.
  • What is REDD+?
    • REDD stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus ( + ) sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
    • REDD+ seeks to reduce emissions from the forest sector in developing countries
    • The basic idea behind REDD+ is simple: Countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation should be financially compensated for doing so.
  • Why REDD+?
    • Deforestation and forest degradation is the cause of around 18% of greenhouse gas emissions responsible for global warming (IPCC, 2007)
    • It has been internationally agreed that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation ( REDD+) can play a significant role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to generate new financial stream for sustainable forest management.
  • Global GHG sources by sector Source, IPCC 2007 11/30/2011
  • Why Forests?
    • Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation as sources and sinks of CO2.
    • Carbon Sources : Forest biomass acts as a source of carbon dioxide when burned or when it decays.
    • Carbon Sinks: Forests absorb CO2 and release oxygen into the atmosphere through the natural process of photosynthesis in which CO2 is converted to carbon and stored in the woody tissue of the plant.
  • REDD+ Negotiations - Chronology
    • Kyoto ( 1997) protocol addressed afforestation and reforestation strategies but deforestation and forest degradation were excluded.
    • In 2005 REDD was thus reintroduced in UNFCCC negotiations in Montreal at COP 11
    • in December 2007 in Bali at the COP 13 of UNFCCC, It was formally proposed for inclusion in the official negotiation agenda for a post 2012 regime.
    • Discussions continued at COP 14 in Poznan , Poland, in December 2008
    • In 2009 consensus was reached at the COP 15 held in Copenhagen Denmark
    • Copenhagen agreement was followed by international commitments and funding pledges to REDD pilot countries including Tanzania.
    • Last year at the COP 16 in Cancun , Mexico, issues such as sustainable financing and rights of forest-dependant communities were high on the agenda.
    • More discussion and negotiations are expected here as Durban hosts COP 17
  • Forest resource and degradation in Tanzania
    • Forests and woodland cover about 33.5 mill. ha in Tanzania. This is approximately 38 % of total land area.
    • There is a significant deforestation in Tanzania with a rate in the range 100.000 – 500.000 ha/year ( FAO & MNRT)
    • Major drivers for deforestation/forest degradation are agricultural expansion, needs for timber, fuel wood and charcoal production, fodder and livestock grazing.
    • Forest degradation is also prevalent in Tanzania, both in reserved forests and on general land. The rate is estimated around 500.000 ha/year.
    • There is significant climate mitigation potential in Tanzania’s forest sector
  • Background to REDD+ Program in Tanzania
    • Norway – Tanzania paternship was lauched in 2008 to facilitate REDD+ READNESS phase
    • The Readness phase aims at developing demonstrations/pilots projects to test the effectiveness of the REDD+ mechanism before up- scaling it to other parts of the country
    • It expected that experiences from such pilots projects will provide inputs to the development of the national REDD+ framework
    • The national REDD+ strategy is currently a draft document being reviewed by various stakeholders
  • Expected Opportunities from REDD+
    • REDD has the potential to achieve significant multiple benefits;
      • Has the potential to deliver large cuts in emissions at a low cost within a short time frame
      • Poverty alleviation (carbon credits)
      • Improving governance (accountability in benefit sharing)
      • Conserving biodiversity
      • Provision of other environmental services, water
      • quality/regulation and soil conservation among others.
  • Likely Challenges to face REDD+ in Tanzania Will REDD+ benefits outweigh opportunity costs? Funding! Carbon measurement and estimations Drivers of Deforestation Charcoal, timber, etc Land grabbing and evictions Equitable benefit sharing! Payments take time Managing community expectations 11/30/2011
  • Potential for IKS Contribution to REDD+
    • Indigenous Knowledge Systems has the potential to contribute to the REDD+ initiative in various ways;
      • IKS can be an excellent and cost effective means of supporting REDD+ monitoring. (biomass monitoring, forest custodians have lived with trees for years)
      • IKS can also be applied as an element of early warning systems for extreme degradation levels
      • IKS can also help in monitoring ecosystem goods and services such as Non-Timber Forest Products ( fruits, herbs, medicinal plant ) which can give indication of degradation levels of forests
  • Potential for IKS contribution to REDD+ cont...
    • IKS and its elements of traditional customary governance structures could also serve as a benchmark for designing benefit sharing mechanisms for REDD+ financing
    • Traditional governance systems which is part of IKS has the potential to support forest law enforcement and governance through local reporting of infringements (e.g. illegal logging).
    • IKS has the potential to strengthen ownership and build essential local support to ensure sustainability of REDD+
  • IKS has a role to play in Participatory Carbon Monitoring for REDD+ 11/30/2011
  • Youth in actions Related to REDD+ and Climate Change issues in Tanzania
    • Youth were actively involved during national REDD+ consultation workshops conducted in all 26 regions of Tanzania
    • Youth representatives from various part of Tanzania under the umbrella of FORUM CC (a group of civil society organizations) took part in pre COP 15 and 16 deliberations and pre COP 17 deliberations were conducted in mid November 2011
    • Youth under the umbrella of African Youth Initiative on Climate Change (AYICC) Tanzania Chapter, are actively engaged in climate issues. (Climate Caravan to Durban)
    • The AYSICCIK initiative is another avenue to widen youth in participation in Climate change issues in Tanzania
  • Way Forward
    • Climate Change poses significant challenges to future generations. As youth we have a stake in this future; it is our future.
    • The AYSICCIK initiative with its partners should consider working towards establishing school climate clubs from primary to tertiary levels as a creative way to engage young people in climate change issues
    • These initiatives should be mainstreamed into education systems
  • Conclusion
    • Tanzania must consider IKS as key in the maintenance of forest ecosystems and in supporting the permanence and sustainability of the REDD+ initiative
    • There is a need to reconsider the issue of youth involvement in climate change more seriously
    • There is a need to build capacities of Policy makers on IKS issues related to climate change and REDD+ in particular
    • Tanzania must also continue engagement with UNFCCC climate change talks and COPs particularly the current conference in Duran to protect gains already achieved and push for more
  • Thank you Thabit Jacob: [email_address] Thank You! 11/30/2011