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Alphabet

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Russian Alphabet

Russian Alphabet

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    Alphabet Alphabet Presentation Transcript

    • The Russian Alphabet
    • Group 1
      • Letters that look and sound more or less like their English counterparts
    • Group 2
      • Letters that look and sound more or less like their Greek counterparts
    • Hard and Soft Consonants part 1
      • Most consonant letters may be pronounced either hard or soft
      • Soft = pronounce a “y” sound simultaneously with the consonant
        • та, тя
      • Hardness or softness is indicated by the letter following the consonant
    • Hard and Soft Consonants part 2
      • A consonant followed by a soft sign ( ь ) is soft
        • мат ‘checkmate’
        • мать ‘mother’
      • A consonant followed by a soft vowel letter is soft
        • Hard: э, о, ы, у, а (та)
        • Soft: е, ё, и, ю, я (тя)
      • Otherwise a consonant is hard
      • A few consonants are always hard or always soft, regardless of what follows (more about this next time)
    • Stress
      • Almost all Russian words have exactly one stress: ма́́ма
      • Most Russian words are pronounced the way they are spelled, except that some unstressed vowels change their pronunciation
    • Vowel “reduction” part 1
      • Rule 1: о > а in syllable immediately before stress or at very beginning of word
        • профе́ссор ‘professor’
        • Оклахо́ма ‘Oklahoma’
      • Rule 2: о/а > ə (“uh”) in other unstressed syllables
    • Vowel “reduction” part 2
      • Rule 3, part 1: unstressed е/я > i not at end of word
        • Петербу́рг ‘Saint Petersburg’
      • Rule 3, part 2: unstressed я > yə (“yuh”) at end of word
        • Япо́ния ‘Japan’
    • Group 3
      • Letters without obvious English or Greek counterparts