The Russian Alphabet
Group 1 <ul><li>Letters that look and sound more or less like their English counterparts </li></ul>
Group 2 <ul><li>Letters that look and sound more or less like their Greek counterparts </li></ul>
Hard and Soft Consonants part 1 <ul><li>Most consonant letters may be pronounced either  hard  or  soft </li></ul><ul><li>...
Hard and Soft Consonants part 2 <ul><li>A consonant followed by a  soft sign  ( ь ) is soft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>мат  ‘ch...
Stress <ul><li>Almost all Russian words have exactly one stress:  ма́́ма </li></ul><ul><li>Most Russian words are pronounc...
Vowel “reduction” part 1 <ul><li>Rule 1:   о  >  а  in syllable immediately before stress  or at very beginning of word </...
Vowel “reduction” part 2 <ul><li>Rule 3, part 1: unstressed  е/я  > i not at end of word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Петербу́рг ...
Group 3 <ul><li>Letters without obvious English or Greek counterparts </li></ul>
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Alphabet

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Russian Alphabet

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Alphabet

  1. 1. The Russian Alphabet
  2. 2. Group 1 <ul><li>Letters that look and sound more or less like their English counterparts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Group 2 <ul><li>Letters that look and sound more or less like their Greek counterparts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hard and Soft Consonants part 1 <ul><li>Most consonant letters may be pronounced either hard or soft </li></ul><ul><li>Soft = pronounce a “y” sound simultaneously with the consonant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>та, тя </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardness or softness is indicated by the letter following the consonant </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hard and Soft Consonants part 2 <ul><li>A consonant followed by a soft sign ( ь ) is soft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>мат ‘checkmate’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>мать ‘mother’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A consonant followed by a soft vowel letter is soft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard: э, о, ы, у, а (та) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft: е, ё, и, ю, я (тя) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Otherwise a consonant is hard </li></ul><ul><li>A few consonants are always hard or always soft, regardless of what follows (more about this next time) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stress <ul><li>Almost all Russian words have exactly one stress: ма́́ма </li></ul><ul><li>Most Russian words are pronounced the way they are spelled, except that some unstressed vowels change their pronunciation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Vowel “reduction” part 1 <ul><li>Rule 1: о > а in syllable immediately before stress or at very beginning of word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>профе́ссор ‘professor’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Оклахо́ма ‘Oklahoma’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule 2: о/а > ə (“uh”) in other unstressed syllables </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vowel “reduction” part 2 <ul><li>Rule 3, part 1: unstressed е/я > i not at end of word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Петербу́рг ‘Saint Petersburg’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule 3, part 2: unstressed я > yə (“yuh”) at end of word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Япо́ния ‘Japan’ </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Group 3 <ul><li>Letters without obvious English or Greek counterparts </li></ul>

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