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History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
History 140 english in north amercia
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History 140 english in north amercia

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History 140

History 140

Published in: Spiritual, Sports
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  • 1. The English in North America<br />By: Tessa Stark<br />History 140Professor Michael Arguello<br />
  • 2. American Colonies  8 - New England1600-1700<br />During the seventeenth century, the social and economic pressures within England that generated the Chesapeake colonies also spawned the colonization of a region to the north named New England<br />The New English colonists differed markedly from their Chesapeake contemporaries<br />This different set of colonists adapted to a colder, less abundant, but far healthier environment<br />But in classic Puritan fashion, the New English thanked their God for leading them to a land where they had to work hard<br />Emigrants who preferred a chance to get rich could head farther south to the Chesapeake<br />Puritan values helped the colonists prosper in a demanding land. In the process, they developed a culture that was both the most entrepreneurial and the most vociferously pious in Anglo-America<br />
  • 3. American Colonies  8 - New England1600-1700<br />In crowded England, labor was plentiful and cheap, but land was scarce and expensive<br />New England reversed that relationship, offering abundant land but precious little labor to develop those tracts into productive farms<br />Church and state were united in early modern England, and Law demanded that everyone support the official Church of England with taxes and regular attendance<br />The crown employed the Anglican Church to promote political as well as religious conformity<br />A system of church courts (without juries) gave the crown a vehicle to extort revenue and to punish dissidents<br />In 1620, King James I demanded sermons against “the insolvency of our women and their wearing of broad-brimmed hats, pointed doublets, their hair cut short or shorn”<br />
  • 4. American Colonies  8 - New England1600-1700<br />The merger of church and state in service to a hierarchical social order gave political significance to every religious issue<br />Begun as an epithet, “Puritan” persists in scholarship to name the broad movement of diverse people who shared a conviction that the Protestant Reformation remained incomplete in England<br />Puritans longed to experience the “New Birth”: a transforming infusion of divine grace that liberated people from profound anxiety over their spiritual worthlessness and eternal fate<br />Nonetheless, Puritans were incorrigible doers, seeking out the preached word, reading the Scriptures, perfecting their morality, and proposing radical schemes for improving society and disciplining the unruly and indolent<br />The Puritan movement especially appealed to residents of the most commercialized area in England: the southeast, particularly London, East Anglia, and Sussex<br />
  • 5. American Colonies  8 - New England1600-1700<br />Puritanism reinforced the values of thrift, diligence, and delayed gratification that were essential to the well-being of the middling sort<br />This Puritan vision appealed to many pious and propertied people weary of the economic upheaval, crime, and poverty of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries<br />That grudging accommodation between Puritans and most church hierarchy eroded late in James’s reign and collapsed in 1625 upon the accession of his son as King Charles I. Married to a Catholic princess, Charles hoped to reconcile English Catholics by restoring some church ceremonies previously suspended to mollify the Puritans<br />During the late 1620s and early 1630s, Laud and most other bishops enforced the new Anglican orthodoxy, dismissing Puritan ministers who balked at conducting the high church liturgy<br />The Puritan emigrants followed French and English mariners, fishermen, and fur traders who had visited the New England coast during the summers<br />The first Puritan emigrants consisted of 102 Separatists, subsequently called the Pilgrims<br />By 1630 about fifteen hundred English dwelled in the Plymouth colony<br />
  • 6. American Colonies   9 - Puritans and Indians 1600-1700<br />The New English saw the Indians as their opposite—as pagan peoples who had surrendered to their worst instincts to live within the wild, instead of laboring hard to conquer and transcend nature<br />A proponent of Puritan emigration had predicted that in New England, “religion and profit [would] jump together.”<br />The southern New England Indians possessed cultural, and especially linguistic, affinities, but lacked political unity<br />The natives spoke related Algonquian languages, similar to those of the Virginia Indians, but they certainly had nothing like the paramount chiefdom of Powhatan<br /> In southeastern New England the leading tribes were the Mohegan and Pequot of Connecticut, the Narragansett of Rhode Island, the Patuxet and Wampanoag of the Plymouth colony, and the Nipmuck, Massachusett, and Pennacook of the Massachusetts Bay colony<br />The natives’ highly productive horticulture supplied most of their diet and belied the English insistence that all Indians were nothing more than hunters<br />
  • 7. American Colonies   9 - Puritans and Indians 1600-1700<br />To facilitate their hunting and gathering, the Indians also set fire to the forest beyond their fields<br />With fire the Indians shaped and sustained a forest that suited their needs. Regular burning favored large hardwoods, many of which yielded edible nuts<br />As in Virginia and Iroquoia, the Algonquian division of labor ran along gender rather than class lines<br />In contrast to the colonists, who assigned most outside farmwork to men, Indian women planted, weeded, tended, and harvested the crops<br />As a consequence of their mobile way of life, Indians acquired few material possessions, and they shared what they had<br />
  • 8. American Colonies   9 - Puritans and Indians 1600-1700<br />Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy and matter from, their environment<br />Coming from a more crowded, competitive, and capitalist land where about half the population lacked sufficient food, shelter, and clothing, the colonists marveled at the apparent abundance of nature, the vast numbers of fish, birds, trees, and deer<br />Puritans insisted that the Christian God meant for them to enjoy the land, in reward for their godly industry and to punish the Indians for their pagan indolence<br />Nonetheless, to perfect their land titles, the leading colonists usually tried to buy tracts of the Indians’ land, offering trade goods in return for their marks on paper documents called deeds<br />The Indians were also astonished that the colonists so rapidly cleared the forest<br />
  • 9. American Colonies   9 - Puritans and Indians 1600-1700<br />In the early seventeenth century, the arrival of colonial goods, diseases, and people shook up the power relations between rival Indian groups<br />To the surprise and dismay of the Wampanoag, as the Plymouth colonists grew in number and strength, they expanded their settlements and openly treated the Indians as inferiors<br />During the 1630s, the Great Migration augmented colonial strength by establishing the populous and powerful Massachusetts colony<br />The first major conflict between the New English and the Indians erupted in 1636<br />In May 1637, Narragansett and Mohegan warriors guided the Puritan forces deep into the Pequot territory to surprise a palisaded village beside the Mystic River<br />Connecticut. In the next big war, in 1675-76, the Pequot helped the colonists to attack the Narragansett<br />In 1643, Uncas seized Miantonomi and surrendered him to the Connecticut authorities<br />

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