select supp_nation, cust_nation, l_year, sum(volume) as revenue from ( select n1.n_name as supp_nation, n2.n_name as cust_nation, extract(year from l_shipdate) as l_year, l_extendedprice * (1 - l_discount) as volume from supplier, lineitem, orders, customer, nation n1, nation n2 where s_suppkey = l_suppkey and o_orderkey = l_orderkey and c_custkey = o_custkey and s_nationkey = n1.n_nationkey and c_nationkey = n2.n_nationkey and ((n1.n_name = 'FRANCE' and n2.n_name = 'GERMANY') or (n1.n_name = 'GERMANY' and n2.n_name = 'FRANCE')) and l_shipdate between date '1995-01-01' and date '1996-12-31'
group by supp_nation, cust_nation, l_year order by supp_nation, cust_nation, l_year and o_totalprice < C1 and c_acctbal < C2 ) as shipping
Cost Domination Principle Cost of executing any “foreign” query point in the first quadrant of q s is an upper bound on the cost of executing the foreign plan at q s Cost of executing q s with Plans P 4 and P 1 is less than 91 and 90, respectively. Cost of Query point q s with plan P 2 is 88 q s
Given a pair of distinct points q 1 (x 1 ,y 1 ) and q 2 (x 2 ,y 2 ) in 2-D selectivity space, we say that q 2 ≻ q 1 , if and only if x 2 ≥ x 1 , y 2 ≥ y 1 and result cardinality R q2 ≥ R q1
Cost Domination Principle
If points q 1 (x 1 ,y 1 ) and q 2 (x 2 ,y 2 ) are associated with distinct plans P 1 and P 2 respectively, in the original space, the cost of executing query q 1 with plan P 2 is upper-bounded by the cost of executing q 2 with P 2 , if and only if q 2 ≻ q 1
With Plan Reduction by Swallowing , significant decrease in duplicates and islands
# Duplicates Original Reduced # Islands Original Reduced Databases Opt A Opt B Opt C 130 13 80 15 55 7 38 3 1 0 8 3
Plan Switch Points [Q9, OptA] Plan Switch Point: line parallel to axis with a plan shift for all plans bordering the line. Hash-Join sequence PARTSUPP ►◄ SUPPLIER ►◄ PART is altered to PARTSUPP ►◄ PART ►◄ SUPPLIER
Venetian Blinds [Q9, Opt B] Six plans simultaneously change with rapid alternations to produce a “Venetian blinds” effect. Left-deep hash join across NATION, SUPPLIER and LINEITEM relations gets replaced by a right-deep hash join.
Footprint Pattern [Q7, Opt A] P7 exhibits a thin broken curved pattern in the middle of P2 ’s region. P2 has sort-merge-join at the top of the plan tree, while P7 has hash-join
Speckle Pattern [Q17, Opt A*] An additional sort operation is present on PART relation in P2 , whose cost is very low
Plan-Switch Non-Monotonic Costs [Q2, Opt A] Plan Diagram Cost Diagram 26% Selectivity 50% Selectivity 26%: Cost decreases by a factor of 50 50%: Cost increases by a factor of 70 Presence of Rules? Parameterized changes in search space?
Intra-Plan Non-Monotonic Costs [Q21, Opt A] Plan Diagram Cost Diagram Plans P1, P3, P4 and P6 Nested loops join whose cost decreases with increasing input cardinalities