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  • IBM plans to work with Hoplon to combine of the most important inventions in the company’s history – Cell and Mainframe – for use in next generation gaming and virtual worlds akin to Second Life and the online games that many of our children and even friends play today. Remarkable attributes of each technology combine to create seamless virtual worlds with stunning graphical abilities and incredible scale. The playing field of these games and simulations can be made larger than ever before. Hipersocket technology actually is key to this process - providing fast communication between all the virtual servers contained in a single machine – allowing a much faster, seamless gaming experience for users. Distributed server environments show seams as individual pieces of the playing field are divided from server to server. Capitalizing on emerging opportunities such as 3D Internet is one way IBM is positioning itself for growth.
  • Note that when a solution contains many small servers there low fragmentation since the quantization is more granular. However, this also means that either the partitioning or the latency to shared data is high It also means that many quanta of capacity are idle most of the time (off peak).

Linux_on_Z_Uniforum.ppt Linux_on_Z_Uniforum.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Linux on System Z An Introduction Scott O. Lundell [email_address]
  • Trademarks The following are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of other companies. * Registered trademarks of IBM Corporation * All other products may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. Java and all Java-related trademarks and logos are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in the United States and other countries. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Microsoft, Windows and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. SET and Secure Electronic Transaction are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic Transaction LLC. Notes : Performance is in Internal Throughput Rate (ITR) ratio based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput that any user will experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput improvements equivalent to the performance ratios stated here. IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply. All customer examples cited or described in this presentation are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual customer configurations and conditions. This publication was produced in the United States. IBM may not offer the products, services or features discussed in this document in other countries, and the information may be subject to change without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the product or services available in your area. All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. Information about non-IBM products is obtained from the manufacturers of those products or their published announcements. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the performance, compatibility, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. Prices subject to change without notice. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography. DB2* DB2 Connect DB2 Universal Database e-business logo GDPS* Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex HyperSwap IBM* IBM eServer IBM logo* Parallel Sysplex* System z Tivoli* VM/ESA* WebSphere* z/OS* z/VM* zSeries*
  • Agenda
    • Introduction to Linux on System Z
    • System Z Hardware Overview
    • Hypervisor Comparisons
    • Linux on System Z Value Proposition
    • Platform Placement Guidelines
      • Operating System
      • Hardware
    • Best Fit and Good Fit Examples
  • What is Linux
    • A fully-networked UNIX-like operating system
    • Multi-user, multitasking, multiprocessor
    • Coexists with other operating systems
    • Open Source software
      • Community Development Network
      • Fosters Fast Technical Innovation & Support
      • Guarantees No Single Vendor Control
    • Runs on multiple platforms
    Pervasive Computing Intelligent Networking Supercomputing Approximately 1% of Linux code is platform specific Applications are not binary compatible across platforms
  • What is Linux on System Z
    • A native System Z operating environment
      • Pure Linux, an ASCII environment
      • Exploits IBM S/390 hardware, including IEEE floating point
      • Linux for S/390 - 32-bit
      • Linux for zSeries - 64-bit
    • Not a unique version of Linux or other operating system
      • Developed and supported by the Open Source Community
      • Distributed by SuSE, RedHat, and Others
    • Not a replacement for other IBM System Z operating systems
    • Can be run under z/VM or in its own LPAR
      • Hardware provides a pool of capacity
  • What System Z Hardware Brings to Linux
    • The most reliable hardware platform available
      • MTF measured in decades
      • RAS features built into hardware
    • Scalability
      • Both Physical and Logical
      • Non-disruptive capacity upgrade on demand
    • Designed to support mixed work loads
      • Complete work load isolation
      • High speed inter-server connectivity
      • High Internal Bandwidth, sophisticated cache nest
      • Virtualization
    • Hipersockets
      • Virtual network between LPARs, at memory speed
    • Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL)
      • Lower priced hardware
      • Protects against software costs
  • Linux on System Z Value Proposition
    • Virtualization -- Primary Value
      • Consolidation of many servers – “Lots of Little”
      • Cost savings
        • Software
        • People, particularly in volatile environment
      • Lifecycle management
        • Rapid provisioning
        • Reclamation and reuse
      • Environmental issues
        • Floorspace
        • Power and cooling
  • IBM System z10 IBM System z10
  • z10 EC – Under the covers (Model E56 or E64) Internal Batteries (optional) Power Supplies 3x I/O cages Fiber Quick Connect (FQC) Feature (optional) Processor Books, Memory, MBA and HCA cards 2 x Cooling Units InfiniBand I/O Interconnects 2 x Support Elements FICON & ESCON FQC Ethernet cables for internal System LAN connecting Flexible Service Processor ( FSP) cage controller cards
  • Quad-core chip MCM Memory DIMMs
  • z10 Configuration Options
    • 1 – 4 books per machine
      • 5 different configurations
        • Special high-end configuration is fifth
    • Each book has 12 – 17 general purpose processors
      • Processors are purchased and turned on individually
      • Additional processors on MCM used for spares and SAPs
    • Maximum of 64 general purpose processors per machine
  • Non-disruptive Hardware Changes
    • Books can be added, and in some situations removed
    • Unused engines on MCMs can be turned on and off
      • Disaster recovery
      • Temporary capacity
      • Upgrades
    • New resources immediately available to all Linux virtual machines
  • Simplified Design Differences Between Distributed and Z Core Core Core Core Core Core Core Core Bus Healthy Cores Adequate Bus Great Performance* Good Throughput* Core Bus Core Core Core Core Core Core Core Adequate Cores Healthy Bus Good Performance* Great Throughput*
  • Comparison of 64-way Machines System Z Application Processors Other Machines Additional processors on I/O Cards Application Processors System Assist Processors Spares Cross check processors
  • Hypervisor software/firmware runs directly on server Hypervisor software runs on a host operating system System z LPAR and z/VM ® POWER ™ Hypervisor VMware ESX Server Xen Hypervisor VMware Server Microsoft ® Virtual Server HP Integrity VM User Mode Linux ® S/370 ™ SI-to-PP and PP-to-SI, Sun Domains, HP nPartitions Logical partitioning Physical partitioning IBM eServer ™ pSeries ® LPAR, HP vPartitions Adjustable partitions Partition Controller ... SMP Server OS Apps OS Apps Hypervisor SMP Server ... OS Apps OS Apps Host OS SMP Server Hypervisor ... OS Apps OS Apps Hardware Partitioning Bare-metal Hypervisor Hosted Hypervisor Server is subdivided into fractions each of which can run an OS Hypervisor provides fine-grained timesharing of all resources Hypervisor uses OS services to do timesharing of all resources
    • Characteristics:
    • Bare-metal hypervisors offer high efficiency and availability
    • Hosted hypervisors are useful for clients where host OS integration is important
    • Hardware partitioning is less flexible than hypervisor-based solutions
    Server Virtualization Approaches
  • Trap and Emulate Hypervisor Calls (“Paravirtualization”) Direct Hardware Virtualization Examples : CP-67, VM/370 Benefits : Runs unmodified OS Issues : Substantial overhead Load Add Store PrivOp Load ... Hypervisor PrivOp emulation code
    • VM runs in user mode
    • All privileged instructions cause traps
    Trap Examples : POWER Hypervisor, Xen Benefits : High efficiency Issues : OS must be modified to issue Hcalls Load Add Store Hcall Load ... Hypervisor service
    • VM runs in normal modes
    • OS in VM calls hypervisor to access real resources
    Load Add Store PrivOp Load ... Hypervisor service
    • VM runs in normal modes
    • Hardware does most of the virtualization (SIE architecture)
    • Hypervisor provides control
    Exit Examples : System z LPAR, z/VM Benefits : High efficiency, runs unmodified OS Issues : Requires underlying hardware support Virt Mach Virt Mach Virt Mach Translate, Trap, and Emulate Load Add Store TrapOp Load ... Hypervisor PrivOp emulation code
    • VM runs in user mode
    • Some IA-32 instructions must be replaced with trap ops
    Trap Examples : VMware, Microsoft VS Benefits : Runs unmodified, translated OS Issues : Substantial overhead Virt Mach Call Hypervisor Implementation Methods Hypervisor calls also supported
    • Supports a wide range of unmodified Windows and Linux versions
    • Guest OS runs in User Mode; privileged instructions trap to Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)
      • “ Trapping and mapping” is a significant source of performance overhead
    • Guest OS binary code is translated incrementally at load time
      • Instructions that behave differently in User Mode vis-à-vis Supervisor Mode must be replaced with explicit trap instructions so the appropriate behavior will occur
    • Modified Linux device drivers run in the VMkernel
    • Intel VT hardware feature is used only for 64-bit guests
    Memory Service Console OS VMkernel Scheduler Memory Mgmt SCSI Driver Ethernet Driver VMM VMM VMM VMM Application Application Application Application Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS x86 SMP Hardware VMware ESX Traps Cannot add or remove VM resources on the fly No isolation or protection of VMs from failures in I/O adapters or drivers VMware ESX Server nic nic NIC Disk CPU
    • Virtualize everything with up to 100% utilization rates
      • CPU, memory, network, I/O, cryptographic features, coupling facility, ...
    • Massively scale your workload on a single System z mainframe
      • The Linux-on-z/VM record is 97,943 virtual machines
      • Each virtual machine on z/VM can access up to 24,576 devices
    • Security for everything
      • Highest security classification for general purpose servers in the world
      • System z LPAR technology is EAL 5 certified
    • Non-disruptively add anything
      • 54x CPU scalability per mainframe, 32x CPU scalability per z/VM LPAR
      • z/VM is designed to support up to 8 TB of active virtual memory
    IBM System z: The Ultimate Virtualization Platform Consolidate all types of workloads Smart economics: start small and grow big in the same box Secure your virtual servers and reduce business risk Rapidly respond to workload spikes
  • IBM System z Server Virtualization Linux Example CP1 CP2 CP3 CP4 CP5 LPAR1 z/OS LPAR2 z/OS LPAR3 Linux z/VM Linux LPAR4 z/VM z/VM Linux IBM System z Server Real CPUs Logical CPUs Real CPUs Logical CPUs Virtual CPUs Virtual 2 CPUs IFL1 IFL2 IFL3 Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux
  • Virtualization with z/VM V5.4 LPAR z/VM Linux Memory I/O and Network Linux Real Resources CPU Virtual Resources z/OS CMS Linux Configure virtual machines with z/VM-unique facilities Up to 256 channel paths Add virtual CPUs non-disruptively (up to 64) z/VM can provision virtual machines with a mix of real and virtual resources with exceptional levels of scalability, availability and security Up to 256 GB* Up to 32 CPUs* Simulate resources not in the LPAR Optimize virtual servers with dedicated real resources More than 1 TB* (in aggregate) * z/VM V5.4 maximums
  • System z Virtualization Architecture Summary Memory dedicated to an LPAR,can be reconfigured I/O shared among entire machine
  • z/VM Technology: Disk Support Supports Both Traditional Mainframe and FCP Disk
    • z/VM Minidisks
      • Used for user filesystems
      • Partial or full pack
      • Shared or exclusive
      • Can use minidisk caching
    • Dedicated FC devices
      • Full FC LUNs
      • Managed by Linux guest
    • Virtual Disk (VDISK)
      • In Memory disk,
      • Ideal for Linux page spaces
    • Temporary Disks (TDISK)
      • Temporary work or utility disks.
    Managed by Linux You can mix/match both traditional z/VM (ECKD) and FC attachment for each guest ECKD Storage Device Managed by z/VM CP z/VM Memory Linux z/VM Control Program Linux VDISK z/VM Minidisk Cache (ECKD Devices Only) TDISK TDISK Shared Minidisk FC Disk Linux VDISK VDISK … Minidisk Minidisk Minidisk
  • System z and N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) z/VM z/VM Linux1 Linux2 Linux3 Linux4 Linux2 Linux3 Linux4 Linux1 Linux1 Linux1 Linux1 Linux2 Linux2 Linux2 Linux2 Linux3 Linux3 Linux3 Linux3 Linux4 Linux4 Linux4 Linux4 Without N_Port ID Virtualization FCP Disk With N_Port ID Virtualization = Virtual Worldwide Port Name (WWPN) Linux1 Linux2 Linux4 Linux3 Linux1 Linux2 Linux4 Linux3
  • Linux on System Z Value Proposition
    • Virtualization
    • Close Proximity to z/OS Data
      • Hipersockets
    • Other zSeries Features
      • Disaster Recovery
      • Availability
        • Ability to create HA configuration with no additional hardware
      • Backup Capabilities
      • Security
        • The most secure network is no network
      • Technology Refresh Cycle
      • Others
  • Everyone can virtualize So what makes System Z different….
  • Simplified Computer Architecture C Cache design can have a great impact on performance and workload characteristics Front side bus Memory Disk C C C P P P SAP
  • Internal Bandwidth Example Memory Processors Cache Private Cache C-C Bus Shared Cache Effective BW C-M-C Speed C-C Bus Speed Infinite Reported BW Zero Zero C-C Bus Speed
  • What determines system capacity
    • Single system capacity is determined by:
      • Processor speed
      • Memory hierarchy
      • I/O structure
    There's more to performance than just processing power CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time CPU Busy I/O Busy Processor, memory, and I/O times vary greatly by application and by machine type
  • Relative single system capacity There's more to performance than just processing power CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time CPU Busy CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time zSeries Others Data Intensive Workloads Compute Intensive Workloads The relative difference between Data Intensive and Compute Intensive is an order of magnitude CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time zSeries CPU Time Memory Time I/O Time Others
  • Fragmented Whitespace Growth Headroom Spike Average Capacity Quantum A "Typical" Intel Server Utilization Profile zLinux Why Virtualization Works VMWare
  • Sweet Spots of Various Platforms
    • WinTel
      • Low hardware cost
      • Dedicated servers
      • Software that only runs on WinTel
    • System Z
      • Virtualization (lots of little)
      • Data intensive
      • Skewed or skewless OLTP
      • Large or unpredictable working sets
      • Applications with fine grained interactions
      • Lots of different applications simultaneously
      • High QoS Requirements
    • System P
      • Virtualization (moderate amount of medium)
      • Compute intensive
      • Parallel applications
      • Skewless OLTP
      • Controlled or distributable working sets
      • Workload with common characteristics
  • Hardware selection for Linux applications Technical Considerations Other Considerations Quality of Service Data intensity Speed of deployment Other Architecture
    • Application availability
      • Certification of solution on hardware/software platform
    • Workload Management
    • Manageability and scaling characteristics
      • Especially DB2 on z/OS
      • Proximity of data to application
      • The best network is an internal network!
    Compute intensity System Z Other Architecture Other Architecture Other Architecture System Z System Z System Z
  • Where to deploy – z/OS or Linux on System Z? Technical Considerations Other Considerations Quality of Service Degree of portability Speed of deployment Linux z/OS
    • Application availability
    • Workload Management function and granularity
    • File sharing across a Sysplex
    • Manageability and scaling characteristics
    • Availability of skill
    Linux Linux z/OS z/OS
  • z/OS and zLinux Comparison
    • WLM
      • Most sophisticated
      • Allows highest utilization
    • Tight Integration between Applications
    • RACF
      • Highest level of security
    • RAS
      • Best HW and SW RAS
    • Shared Everything
      • Requires careful testing
    • Sysplex
    • SW Pricing
      • Generally MLC
      • Capacity based
    • Fast Context Switching
    • Sophisticated HW Cache Hierarchy
    • Incremental costs decrease with increasing capacity
    • VMRM
      • Hard and soft caps
      • Utilization higher than distributed, lower than z/OS
    • Network Hop between Virtual Servers
    • Linux Security
      • Multiple options
    • RAS
      • zSeries HW, Linux SW
    • State of the Art Virtualization
      • Isolated yet shared
    • Clustering done with SW
    • SW Pricing
      • OTC, distributed basis
      • Engine based
    • Fast Context Switching
    • Sophisticated HW Cache Hierarchy
    • Requires “Critical Mass” for cost savings
    z/OS zLinux
  • What Makes Best Fit
    • Leverage classic strengths of the zSeries
      • High availability
      • High I/O bandwidth capabilities
      • Flexibility to run disparate workloads concurrently
      • Requirement for excellent disaster recovery capabilities
      • Security
    • Shortening end-to-end path length for applications
      • Collocation of applications
      • Consolidation of applications from distributed servers
      • Reduction in network traffic
      • Simplification of support model
    • WebSphere MQSeries ®
    • DB2 Connect ™
    • CICS ® Transaction Gateway
    • IMS Connect ™ for Java ™
    • Web Logic/WebSphere Application Servers and Java applications for production and development
    • Applications requiring top end disaster recovery model
    • ComServer and Communications Controller for Linux
    • LDAP security services
    • IBI Web Focus
    Best Fit
    • Evaluate server choices
      • Correct application availability,
      • Supporting applications,
      • Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
      • Politics within the organization
    • Issues that can influence architecture decision
      • Shortening end-to-end path length for applications
      • Collocation of applications
      • Consolidation of applications from distributed servers
      • Reduction in network traffic
      • Simplification of support model
    What Makes a Good Fit
    • SAP Application Servers
    • DB2 UDB
    • Oracle Database
    • Apache Web serving
    • SAMBA
    • Network Infrastructure, FTP, NFS, DNS etc..,
    • e-Mail solutions
    Good Fit
  • Summary
    • If Linux makes sense for the Enterprise, then...
    • Consider Linux on System Z for that subset where
    • It is cheaper
    • Or where there are other special considerations and benefits