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IBM Software Group August, 2006 |

  1. 1. Designing and Delivering Reusable Learning Content with DITA John P. Hunt, IBM® Corporation For discussion with the OASIS DITA TC subcommittee on Learning and training content August 31, 2006
  2. 2. <ul><li>Reusable Learning Objects - RLOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter course development cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to deliver training more quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Content Management System - LCMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To support and manage the above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just in time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning delivery to fit the task, the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted learning – knows your skill level, history (ePortfolio) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedded learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In workflows, team spaces, ISV applications </li></ul></ul>Industry context: Smaller, faster, leaner
  3. 3. Industry context: Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs) <ul><li>Concept developed at Cisco in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the content needed to support a particular learning objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a consistent structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available for reuse and repurposing in multiple learning contexts. </li></ul></ul>RLO: Using an address book Learning Module: Team scheduling Learning Module: Effective e-Meetings Learning Module: Using a messaging system
  4. 4. Industry context: RLOs and topic-based DITA <ul><li>Learning content as discrete, reusable information units </li></ul><ul><li>Individual learning objects assume no specific context, making them available for reuse in multiple deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>RLO constructs typed for learning –concepts, facts, procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Individual RLOs aggregated and sequenced to form larger units of instruction, according to identified learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>DITA content stored as topic-based units of information </li></ul><ul><li>Context-free topics that can stand on their own for use in map-driven output contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Extensible topic types structure content for different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Maps group topics by goals and organize them for delivery by sequence or relationship to other topics </li></ul>RLO characteristic… Topic- based DITA… DITA topics and maps provide the basis for a “unifying XML content model” for designing, creating, and delivering reusable learning content.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Specialized learning maps Structure sets of DITA topics as learning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized learning topics Lesson objectives, lesson content, summaries, exercises, assessments </li></ul>Opportunity: Learning content design, creation, and delivery through DITA specialization <ul><li>Specialized processing Generate learning deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Build maps and relationship tables Organize learning objects into lessons and courses and manage relationships and interactions among them </li></ul>Tutorials Courseware & e-learning - ILTs - CBTs - WBTs - SCORMs
  6. 6. Extending DITA to support learning content <ul><li>DITA topic types for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe lesson overviews and objectives, summaries, exercises, assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA map domain for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes collections of DITA topics for assembly and delivery as a learning course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA content domain for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes specific content vocabularies that support learning, such as an instructor note . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA process model for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts together all the pieces for designing, developing, and delivering learning content with DITA. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. DITA topic types for learning reference task concept topic learningOverview learningSummary learningBase learningTopic learningPractice learningAssessment <ul><li>Specialize from DITA base topic type </li></ul><ul><li>Basic content for reusable learning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Directly reuse DITA concept, task, and reference content </li></ul>
  8. 8. The DITA topic types for learning <ul><li>learningOverview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces and identifies the learning objectives for a course, module, or lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>learningTopic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task, reference, and conceptual information that provide procedures, background, and other details that support a learning objective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>learningSummary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recaps the learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>learningPractice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide labs and practice exercises that reinforce a learning objective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>learningAssessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graded items to measure progress against the identified objectives </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DITA map domain for a learning object learningOverview learningSummary learningTopic learningPractice learningAssessment Map domain Supporting topic types Learning object Overview Summary Practice Supporting Task Concept, and Reference topics Assessment
  10. 10. Tutorials Courseware & e-learning - ILTs - CBTs - WBTs - SCORMs Maps: Model goals and objectives Maps: Structure topics for a deliverable Topics: Content to design Deliverables: XML-based processing of maps and topics Design Develop Deliver A DITA process model for learning content
  11. 11. Phases in the process model for learning <ul><li>Identify and model learning objectives and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Organize objectives into lessons and modules </li></ul><ul><li>Develop topic-based content that supports the objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From existing or new topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop topic content for labs and exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Design and develop appropriate assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Write overviews and summaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For each objective and the overall course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure topics for delivery with a map </li></ul><ul><li>Process the map and topics to produce the particular deliverable </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Worked with Bob Bernard and team of DB2 course developers </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Take apart an existing DB2 course and put it back together again, using DITA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course for the Pilot: Using IBM DB2 Query Monitor for z/OS - A simple, yet complete, current course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify learning information types and develop DITA specializations to support them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map topics according to learning best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn the DITA nomenclature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to use the tools available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunk content and create topic-based courseware </li></ul></ul>DITA and learning at IBM: The DB2 pilot and DITA learning specializations Course Unit Unit Module Module Module Module Topic Topic Topic Topic Topic Topic Topic Topic
  13. 13. DITA and learning at IBM: DB2 pilot results <ul><li>Successfully produced a complete training course using DITA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed DITA content types for labs and exercises, learning objectives, lesson summaries, and other structures common to a classroom-based instructor-led training course. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Published results of the pilot on developerWorks and in conference presentations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicked off some of the “buzz” around DITA and learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identified key challenges teams face when making a move to topic-based DITA for learning content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking in topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring the content with information types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minding the context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styling for presentation and delivery </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Original course outline: DB2 Query Monitor <ul><li>Front matter </li></ul><ul><li>Course introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Module 1 – Using Query Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Module 2 – Using Filters and Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Course Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix – Installing Query Monitor </li></ul>
  15. 15. Original Page from the Pilot Course
  16. 16. Example: Mapping topic-based lesson content … 3. Module 2: Using Filters and Profiles 3.1 Overview and Objectives (learningOverview) 3.2 Using Filters and Profiles 3.2.1 Creating or Inserting Filter Lines (learningTopic) 3.2.2 Working With Defined Filters (learningTopic) 3.2.3 Using IBM DB2 QM for z/OS (learningTopic) 3.2.4 Range Filters (learningTopic) 3.3 Working With Monitoring Profiles 3.3.1 Monitoring a Profiles Panel (learningTopic) 3.3.2 Creating a Monitoring Profile (learningTopic) 3.3.3 Managing Profile Lines (learningTopic) 3.3.4 Comparisons for a Dropped Index (learningTopic) 3.4 Module Summary (learningSummary) 3.5 Lab Exercises (learningPractice) 3.6 Assessment (learningAssessment) … Module Module Overview Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic n Module Summary Module Practice Module Assessment
  17. 17. Sample learning overview topic <?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?> <learningover id=&quot;DB2QM201&quot; xml:lang=&quot;en&quot; xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot; xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation=&quot;learningover_shell.xsd&quot;> <title>Using Query Monitor</title> <learningoverbody> <mainpoints> <p>In this module, you'll learn about:</p><ul> <li>The Query Monitor ISPF interface</li> <li>ISPF commands</li></ul> </mainpoints> <duration><title>Duration</title><p>2 hours</p></duration> <objectives> <title>Objectives</title> <ul><li>Describe and navigate the Query Monitor ISPF interface</li> <li>Understand and use ISPF commands</li> <li>Interpret ISPF query results and reports</li></ul> </objectives> </learningoverbody> </learningover>
  18. 18. Sample map for a learning object <ul><li><?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> </li></ul><ul><li><!DOCTYPE map PUBLIC &quot;-//IBM//DTD DITA Map//EN&quot; &quot;../../dtd/map.dtd&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><map title=&quot;DB2 Query Monitor Course - Using Query Monitor&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“querymonitor_over.xml&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“ispf_nav_ref.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“main_panel_ref.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“qm_discovery_task.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“planview_concept.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“dbrmview_concept.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“activate_task.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=“deactivate_task.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=&quot;DB2QMLAB201_practice.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><topicref href=&quot;DB2QM201_Summary.xml&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></topicref> </li></ul><ul><li></map> </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sample HTML Output
  20. 20. Sample PDF Output
  21. 21. The challenges from the pilot <ul><li>Thinking in topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindset shift to thinking of the content as discrete chunks of information, rather than as one single long-flowing narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structuring content with information types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each topic-based chunk of content conveys knowledge about one specific piece of content without directly overlapping with information in other topic-based chunks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minding the context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop content that supports the overall context of the learning objective. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Summary: Opportunity for DITA <ul><li>DITA is a leading-edge solution for content reuse and processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DITA topics – basic level of reuse structured, semantic content organized for deliverables with maps and transformed into deliverables using standards-based XSLT & XSL-FO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA supports well-known methodologies for technical content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic-oriented, task-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA provides the basis for a “unifying XML content model” for designing, creating, and delivering reusable learning content </li></ul>
  23. 23. Some issues for DITA and learning content <ul><li>Content aggregation and granularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does topic relate to a reusable learning object (RLO)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does RLO differ from shareable content object (SCO), and how do both relate to topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where does hierarchical task analysis fit here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we directly reuse/repurpose content from core DITA types, such as task, concept, reference, for learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can DITA topics and maps address the aggregation/dis-aggregation of content for learning delivery? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-text objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What level of DITA support do we need for non-text objects? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Types for Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the specific set of types needed for learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The CISCO &quot;Reusable Learning Object Authoring Guidlines&quot; white paper is a must-see on this topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, the SCORM spec on sequencing has good information about information types used for learning content - http://www.adlnet.org/screens/shares/dsp_displayfile.cfm?fileid=998. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps provide the obvious place to handle sequencing and relationships. How do we develop this out for learning content? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCORM sequencing spec suggests a very rich set of altnernatives; we need an understanding for how this relates to maps or map specializations. See http://www.adlnet.org/screens/shares/dsp_displayfile.cfm?fileid=998. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, good info at Carnegie Mellon's Learning Systems Architecture Lab - http://www.lsal.cmu.edu/lsal/expertise/projects. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Some relevant standards <ul><li>SCORM = Shareable Content Object Reference Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An XML-based presentation for structuring & sequencing content for learning delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A run-time environment for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A metadata model to associate with learning content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMS Question-Test Interoperability (QTI) Specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessments and test questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DITA = Darwin Information Typing Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML-based content reuse </li></ul></ul>

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