GEOL 404/504 Advanced GIS


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  • Hold on a minute…what in the world is a workspace? A workspace is a folder on your workstation where you store your GIS coverages and files. Each workspace needs an Info folder. You can instruct AI to create a workspace or AI will create a workspace for you when you set your workspace to an existing folder. How do you do this…simple type &workspace c:winntprofiles…etc [NOTE THE &] If you are going to do all this typing it certainly makes sense to use AML’s. It will also be helpful to use AML’s to set up some routine configurations each time you run AI. To help you out and get you going I have created two simple AML’s that you should download from the Server and copy to your Personal profile folder. The personal folder will be your ROOT or HOME WORKSPACE. Your workspace will contain coverages. Coverages differ from themes in that they are a set of files stored in a coverage folder --the name of the coverage-- and the workspace’s info folder.
  • Your assignment this week is to read the fundamentals review. This is available…. Prepare for your first quiz next week. This will be worth 20 points. Download the station file and workspace AML (Adv-A.AML, Adv-B.AML). Plan your file organization within the personal folder of your hard drive. You should have an ArcInfo folder and an Idrisi folder. Within or under each of these you should have other sub-folders. Plan some organization scheme so you can navigate your GIS data quickly and efficiently. Get logged in!
  • GEOL 404/504 Advanced GIS

    1. 1. GEOL 404/504 Advanced GIS Sudhanshu Sekhar Panda, PhD Lecturer/GeoSTAC Coordinator GIS Training and Research Center Idaho State University Spring 2006
    2. 2. Lecture 2: Geodatabase
    3. 3. Why Geodatabase? <ul><li>What do you need to do with your GIS data? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some suitable habitat mapping of endangered species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of trade center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed analysis and modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a need to represent and store data in a way that supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful and accurate analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational workflows. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geodatabase supports for all these </li></ul>
    4. 4. ArcGIS Data Structures ArcGIS Organizing Spatial data Vector Objects Shape files Coverages Raster Objects Grids Images GDB <ul><li>Discrete representation </li></ul><ul><li>Use square cells </li></ul>ArcGIS is an information system for geographic data
    5. 5. Workspaces <ul><li>Arc/Info geo-datasets </li></ul><ul><li>ArcView shape files </li></ul><ul><li>Geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>DB2 with its Spatial type </li></ul><ul><li>Informix with its Spatial type </li></ul><ul><li>SQL Server </li></ul><ul><li>Oracle </li></ul><ul><li>Oracle with Spatial or Locator </li></ul><ul><li>Personal geodatabases (Microsoft Access) </li></ul><ul><li>Coverages </li></ul><ul><li>Shapefiles </li></ul><ul><li>Grids </li></ul><ul><li>TINs </li></ul><ul><li>Images ( numerous formats ) </li></ul><ul><li>Vector Product Format files </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided design files ( numerous formats ) </li></ul><ul><li>Geography markup language ( numerous profiles ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tables ( numerous formats ) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct read of 100+ vector and raster formats </li></ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul>Geodatabase File-Based Data Sets
    6. 6. What you will learn? <ul><li>geographic data storing ability of geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the differences between the two types of geodatabases </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>If raster dataset can be created in a personal geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>How to access information about a geodatabase and its components </li></ul>
    7. 7. What Geodatabase Can Store? <ul><li>Geodatabase is a relational database (recall your principles of GIS experience) </li></ul><ul><li>A container for storing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship among the two </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a geodatabase, a vector data features and their associated attributes can be stored in a structure so that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can work together as an integrated system using rules, relationships, and topological associations. </li></ul></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    8. 8. Advantages of Geodatabase <ul><li>It provide advantages for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining GIS data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using geodatabase GIS features can be created that support real world feature behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Data access from a centralized location possible </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    9. 9. What Geodatabase can Do? <ul><li>Centralized GIS data management </li></ul><ul><li>Can accommodate large sets of features without tiles or spatial partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Two-, three-, four-dimensional vector features, curves, and multipart features can be stored </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate geometry coverages can be converted to geodatabase without any complicacy </li></ul><ul><li>You can classify features within a feature class using subtypes </li></ul><ul><li>Can specify spatial relationships using geodatabase topology rules </li></ul><ul><li>Validation rules available with geodatabase can prevent errors </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    10. 10. What Geodatabase can Do? (cont..) <ul><li>Automatic annotation update is possible when the representing feature is edited or deleted </li></ul><ul><li>Can add intelligence to features stored in a geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>Can model flow of resources using geometric network based on topological relationship availed through geodatabase </li></ul><ul><li>Can model relative locations along linear features </li></ul><ul><li>More than one person can edit a geodatabase at a single point of time </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnected editing possible </li></ul><ul><li>XML data exchange is possible through geodatabase </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    11. 11. Types of GeoDatabases <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*.mdb file extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiuser/ Professional (ArcSDE) </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    12. 12. Personal Geodatabases <ul><li>Personal geodatabases support single user editing but multiple users reading at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>No versioning support is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, users will employ multiple personal geodatabases for their data collections and access these simultaneously for their GIS work </li></ul><ul><li>Only vector data can be stored but raster data can be only referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Can store only up to a maximum size of 2 GB data </li></ul><ul><li>Database management system is through Microsoft Access </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    13. 13. ArcSDE Geodatabases <ul><li>ArcSDE is a server software product used to access massively large multiuser geographic databases stored in relational database management systems (RDBMSs). </li></ul><ul><li>It is an integrated part of ArcGIS and a core element of any enterprise GIS solution. Its primary role is to act as the GIS gateway to spatial data stored in a RDBMS. </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    14. 14. ArcSDE Geodatabases <ul><li>Multiuser Geodatabases </li></ul><ul><li>Multiuser geodatabases require the use of ArcSDE and work with a variety of RDBMS storage models </li></ul><ul><li>Multiuser geodatabases are primarily used in work group, department, and enterprise settings </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely large, continuous GIS databases </li></ul><ul><li>Many simultaneous users </li></ul><ul><li>Long transactions and versioned work flows </li></ul><ul><li>Multiuser geodatabases readily scale to extremely large sizes and numbers of users. Through many large geodatabase implementations, ESRI has found that RDBMSs are efficient at moving the type of large binary objects required for GIS data in and out of tables. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses DB2, Oracle, Informix, SQL Server, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>No size limits </li></ul><ul><li>Can accommodate vector and raster data </li></ul>
    15. 15. GIS Database Requirements <ul><li>Scale to large sizes (multiple terabytes). </li></ul><ul><li>Scale to large numbers of users (hundreds to thousands). </li></ul><ul><li>Provide advanced GIS data models and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain spatial data integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Support multiple users. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver fast data retrieval. </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple data structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Support long transactions and GIS work flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Support multiple uses and applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Proven to work through real case studies. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Geodatabase Structure <ul><li>Stand-alone feature classes </li></ul><ul><li>Feature dataset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature classes inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should share the same spatial reference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-spatial tables </li></ul><ul><li>DEMO </li></ul>
    17. 17. What is inside a Geodatabase? Stored outside personal geodatabase but can be referenced Through geometry network We can manage flow of Resources: electricity, water, etc..
    18. 18. Defining Geodatabase Structure <ul><li>Import existing data </li></ul><ul><li>Create the structure manually </li></ul><ul><li>Use CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer ArcGIS Desktop Help ( Contents tab -> Building a geodatabase -> Building geodatabases with CASE tools </li></ul></ul>(ESRI, 2006)
    19. 19. Importing Data to Geodatabase <ul><li>Feature dataset </li></ul><ul><li>Feature class </li></ul><ul><li>XY tables </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship class </li></ul><ul><li>Raster datasets </li></ul><ul><li>Raster catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Survey datasets </li></ul><ul><li>ArcToolbox </li></ul><ul><li>Generate files (CAD Feature Class) </li></ul>(ESRI, 2006) Refer ArcGIS Desktop Help loading, Object Loader loading, data, described
    20. 20. Importing Shape Files <ul><li>You can import a shape file into a Geodatabase using the wizard in Arc Catalog. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the default values or use custom values. </li></ul><ul><li>You can change the coordinate system if you so desire. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Importing Coverages <ul><li>This is done by right clicking the geodatabase and selecting import and choosing feature class (multiple) </li></ul><ul><li>You have the option of using custom values including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial index values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can modify the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>field names </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Importing Interchange Files <ul><li>Interchange (*.e00) formats should be changed in Arc Toolbox first </li></ul><ul><li>You should use the Conversion tools to guide you through converting the interchange format to another format of your desire. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Importing An Arc View GIS Project <ul><li>Ensure that all data paths are correct. </li></ul><ul><li>After verifying that the ArcView GIS project contains no table joins and that all themes will load cleanly, save and close the project and quit out of ArcView GIS. </li></ul><ul><li>Start ArcMap in the Data View mode. Choose File > Import from ArcView project. Browse to locate and select the *.apr file. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views become Data frames. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes become Layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one layout is allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics and text are imported. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Importing Tables <ul><li>Table Must be in Info or dBase format. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Arc Catalog. </li></ul><ul><li>Right click on Info or dBase file. </li></ul><ul><li>Select export- table to Geodatabase. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the wizard. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You will be prompted to change illegal and duplicate field names. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Importing Raster Grids <ul><li>You must use Arc Info or Arc Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Raster must be imported into a Geodatabase first. </li></ul><ul><li>You can select one of three storage parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tile Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Compression </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Importing CAD Feature Class <ul><li>Supported Feature classes include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AutoCAD's DWG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro Station's DGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing Interchange File (DXF) formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Arc Catalog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select the CAD file. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right click on it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click Export – CAD to GeoDatabase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can make a new feature data set, or feature class. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can also select the coordinate system, and Grid size. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Data Importing with Converting <ul><li>Arc Catalog and Arc Toolbox are the primary tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Imported files need to have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial index grid size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata importing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported formats include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Geodatabase Load to ArcSDE <ul><li>Example of Loading geodatabase to ArcSDE server for public access </li></ul>spanda: Subject to they were provided with access
    29. 29. Key Concepts <ul><li>This topic provides you with knowledge in GIScience. </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn/experience some GIS-housekeeping. </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn/experience new techniques and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn new techniques to create GIS data. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Getting started... <ul><li>Assignments… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise hand-out </li></ul></ul>
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