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Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning
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Sense of Learning Community in Blended Learning

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  • 1. Sense of Class Community in Learning Management System (LMS)-based Blended Learning in a Japanese University Context Terumi Miyazoe, PhD Tokyo Denki University ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 2. Presentation plan <ul><li>15-minute presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Key concepts and hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Prior research </li></ul><ul><li>My research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 3. Key concepts and hypothesis <ul><li>Blended learning: Combination of weekly F2F meetings + online written assignments (forum discussions) </li></ul><ul><li>LMS: Learning Management System </li></ul><ul><li>CCS: Classroom Community Scale </li></ul><ul><li>-> sense of “class community” </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 4. Classroom Community Scale (CCS) <ul><li>Invented by Alfred P. Rovai (2002a) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the strength of class unity for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Two subscales: learning (10) and connectedness (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty statements with five-point rating from strongly disagree to strongly agree </li></ul><ul><li>Potential total score: 20-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Higher CCS score = higher learning and satisfaction </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 5. Original CCS ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 6. Prior research <ul><li>Few studies available </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai (2002a): perceived interaction, learning, and CCS are correlated in distant education </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai and Jordan (2004): compared F2F, online, and blended learning, the last CCS as the highest </li></ul><ul><li>Dawson (2006): strong correlation between interaction and CCS </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 7. CCS applicability <ul><li>Female students scored higher in CCS than males students. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance education </li></ul><ul><li>-> F2F, online, and blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>-> Australia </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 8. Research questions <ul><li>Is CCS a viable predictor of higher perceived learning quality in blended learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do participants perceive the same blended learning experience? </li></ul><ul><li>->   Blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>->   Japan </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 9. Methods <ul><li>Mixed-methods approach (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) ->Paper-and-pen question survey + semi-structured interview + field notes </li></ul><ul><li>Given to both students and instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese version of CCS reliability </li></ul><ul><li>(Cronbach's test alpha coefficient) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.786 (N = 154) for connectedness item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.755 (N = 158) for learning item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.839 (N = 151) for total CCS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>higher than 0.700 is very good </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 10. Participants <ul><li>Fall 2007 to spring 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Three universities (A, B, C) in Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Nine classes of 212 students (valid 200) </li></ul><ul><li>Males: 139, Females: 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Course takers of English for general, academic, and technology purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Used LMSs: Blackboard or Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning exposure: 10, 15, 30 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Online writing activities throughout the course periods </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 11. Results 1 ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 12. Results 2 ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 13. Results 3 ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu Gender N Min Max Mean SD Male CCS connectedness 137 14 42 29.79 4.999 CCS learning 137 16 48 34.21 4.747 CCS total 137 30 86 64.09 7.922 Female CCS connectedness 61 18 45 31.89 6.440 CCS learning 61 27 49 37.84 5.380 CCS total 61 51 95 69.77 10.291
  • 14. Results 4 ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu CCS connected CCS learning CCS total Class Students Students Students Instructor A3 29.55 33.39 62.94 4.0 A4 30.06 32.92 63.03 2.5 B3 29.45 36.15 65.60 4.0 B4 32.12 36.88 69.00 3.0 B5 31.28 36.44 68.44 3.5 C1 31.33 38.29 69.62 2.5 C2 31.59 37.18 68.88 4.0
  • 15. Relationship between F2F and online spheres ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 16. Summary and discussions <ul><li>CCS is a viable predictor of students’ satisfaction with learning in any mode of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>CCS is also valid in the Japanese context. </li></ul><ul><li>Female students may tend to be more satisfied in an online learning community. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers may form wrong perceptions on CCS in their classes. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of online interactive components could affect learners’ perception of learning space. </li></ul><ul><li>-> CCS provides a way to measure online learning by comparing other contexts and countries. </li></ul><ul><li>-> It is a way to clarify which components contribute to higher learning satisfaction and effectiveness in online learning.   </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 17. References <ul><li>Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dawson, S. (2006). A study of the relationship between student communication interaction and sense of community. Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 153-162. </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended Learning Systems: Definition, Current Trends, and Future Directions In C. J. Bonk & C. R. Graham (Eds.), The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs (pp. 3-21). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P. (2002a). Development of an instrument to measure classroom community. Internet and Higher Education, 5 (3), 197-211. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P. (2002b). Sense of community, perceived cognitive learning, and persistence in asynchronous learning networks. The Internet and Higher Education, 5(4), 319-332. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P., & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended Learning and Sense of Community: A Comparative Analysis with Traditional and Fully Online Graduate Courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5(2). [Assessable at http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/192/274 ] </li></ul><ul><li>Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques (1st ed.). California: SAGE publications, Inc. </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu
  • 18. <ul><li>Thank you very much! </li></ul>ED-Media 2009 Hawaii Honolulu

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