CALL for EFL writing instruction: Anoverview of research trends focusing      on blog, forum, and wiki         Terumi Miya...
Online writingDefinition:• Writing activity mediated by the Internet• (Potentially) bi-directional• Computer-Mediated (CM)...
Chat                       Wiki        BlogForum   Web conference                          Email                          ...
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous• Synchronous: at the same time  – Chat               SCMC• Asynchronous: at different times  ...
No reply…No reply…                              No reply…            SLW 2012 Tamsui               5
Time concept in online communication           (MiyazoeSLW 2012 Tamsui 2012)                    & Anderson,            6
Research trends of online writing          in CALL 2001-2012• Review of five major CALL international journals• SCMC for S...
CALL research articles 2001-2012                                                  CALICO                                  ...
Online writing articles 2001-2011No. of Articles    150    140    130    120    110    100     90     80                  ...
Writing focused articles 2011-2012No. of Articles    30    20                                                             ...
Online writing tool use in CALL 2001-2012                                   wiki                                          ...
Research trends of online writing tool use            in CALL 2001-2012100%90%                           forum80%         ...
“Telecollaboration”       SLW 2012 Tamsui   13
“Telecollaboration”How   Email                                         Where   LMS      Chat                 When         ...
Online writing research topics            in CALL 2001-2012                                 Online           Writing      ...
Miyazoe 2003-2005       No. of Articles  30  20                                                                       CM w...
Research trends of online writing tool use            in CALL 2001-2012100%90%80%                                         ...
“…there is, as yet, no conclusive evidence that networkedcommunication actually leads to an improvement inwritten products...
A Writing Class in Autumn 2004-2005           SLW 2012 Tamsui            19
School LANCMC System for Writing Class Management           SLW 2012 Tamsui                20
Pair Work via Online Writing                                           Whole Class Activity via Online Writing            ...
Simultaneous Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes                  SLW 2012 Tamsui                 22
250200                                     Quantity                N = 47 (two classes)150                                ...
Participants        EAP        Sophomores in one universityClass        Class                     Class   Total:A: 23     ...
Blended Learning Class        SLW 2012 Tamsui   25
Methods• Survey     Paper-and-pen, final examination day     SPSS• Interviews     Semi-structured, volunteers     SPSS Tex...
Wiki collaboration                Concept of Wiki-based Collaborative Translation      SLW 2012 Tamsui                    ...
Preferred online writing activity                                Wiki-Blog-Forum              SLW 2012 Tamsui             ...
Readability of students’                              forum and blog postingsMore difficult                               ...
Textalyserhttp://textalyser.net/      SLW 2012 Tamsui    30
Gunning-Fog Index formula• Grade Level = 0.4 (ASL + PHW)  where,  ASL = Average Sentence Length (i.e., number of  words di...
Readability of students’                              forum and blog postingsMore difficult                               ...
Category networks for  forums, blogs, and wikis                                Forum       BlogWiki              SLW 2012 ...
(Sato,2012 Tamsui   SLW 2009)        34
Free web tools• Email                          • Moodle   – Gmail• Chat   – Skype   – MS messenger• Blog   – Edublogs.org ...
GuidesSLW 2012 Tamsui   36
Thank you for listening! For questions/suggestions:t.miyazoe@mail.dendai.ac.jp          SLW 2012 Tamsui     37
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CMC for EFL writing instruction 20120430

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CMC for EFL writing instruction 20120430

  1. 1. CALL for EFL writing instruction: Anoverview of research trends focusing on blog, forum, and wiki Terumi Miyazoe, PhD Tokyo Denki University (TDU)
  2. 2. Online writingDefinition:• Writing activity mediated by the Internet• (Potentially) bi-directional• Computer-Mediated (CM) writing• Digital writing SLW 2012 Tamsui 2
  3. 3. Chat Wiki BlogForum Web conference Email SNS Text message Second Life Tweeter LMS Etc. SLW 2012 Tamsui 3
  4. 4. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous• Synchronous: at the same time – Chat SCMC• Asynchronous: at different times – E-mail – Forum – Blog ACMC – Wiki SLW 2012 Tamsui 4
  5. 5. No reply…No reply… No reply… SLW 2012 Tamsui 5
  6. 6. Time concept in online communication (MiyazoeSLW 2012 Tamsui 2012) & Anderson, 6
  7. 7. Research trends of online writing in CALL 2001-2012• Review of five major CALL international journals• SCMC for SLA: A Research Synthesis (Sauro, 2011) SLW 2012 Tamsui 7
  8. 8. CALL research articles 2001-2012 CALICO 40 % 30 20 System 10 CALL 0 ReCALL LL&T CALICO CALL LL&T ReCALL System TotalTotal 286 276 148 214 426 1350 SLW 2012 Tamsui 8
  9. 9. Online writing articles 2001-2011No. of Articles 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 Online writing 70 Writing focused 60 Total 50 40 30 20 10 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 SLW 2012 Tamsui 9
  10. 10. Writing focused articles 2011-2012No. of Articles 30 20 Online writing Writing focused 10 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 SLW 2012 Tamsui 10
  11. 11. Online writing tool use in CALL 2001-2012 wiki 2% 4% 2% email 6% word processor blog 19% 8% email chat forum forum blog 19% wiki CM writing tools Cases Chat mobile Word processor 4 various 40% Email 37 Chat 77 Forum 36 Blog 15 Wiki 12 Mobile 3 Various 7 Total 191 SLW 2012 Tamsui 11
  12. 12. Research trends of online writing tool use in CALL 2001-2012100%90% forum80% various mobile70% wiki facebook60% chat tweeter50% blog wiki40% blog forum30% chat20% email10% word processor email 0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 SLW 2012 Tamsui 12
  13. 13. “Telecollaboration” SLW 2012 Tamsui 13
  14. 14. “Telecollaboration”How Email Where LMS Chat When Web conference Forum Second Life Blog SNS WikiWho NS-NNS What Practice NNS Culture Tandem Why EAP Bilingual tandem ICT With which country SLW 2012 Tamsui 14
  15. 15. Online writing research topics in CALL 2001-2012 Online Writing community change Learner Comparative reactions studies Intercultural Exploratory experience reportInteraction Online Course analysis design writing SLW 2012 Tamsui 15
  16. 16. Miyazoe 2003-2005 No. of Articles 30 20 CM writing Writing focused 10 MA TESOL PhD 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Interaction in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in an English for AcademicPurposes (EAP) Writing Course for University Students in Japan SLW 2012 Tamsui 16
  17. 17. Research trends of online writing tool use in CALL 2001-2012100%90%80% various mobile70% chat facebook60% tweeter50% wiki40% blog forum30% chat20% email10% word processor 0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 SLW 2012 Tamsui 17
  18. 18. “…there is, as yet, no conclusive evidence that networkedcommunication actually leads to an improvement inwritten products.”Dr. Ken Hyland, Second Language Writing (2003, p.155)Dr. Mark Warschauer & Richard Kern, Network-basedLanguage Teaching: Concepts and Practice (2000)Dr. Norbert Pachelor (CALL expert in Europe) SLW 2012 Tamsui 18
  19. 19. A Writing Class in Autumn 2004-2005 SLW 2012 Tamsui 19
  20. 20. School LANCMC System for Writing Class Management SLW 2012 Tamsui 20
  21. 21. Pair Work via Online Writing Whole Class Activity via Online Writing SLW 2012 Tamsui 21
  22. 22. Simultaneous Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes SLW 2012 Tamsui 22
  23. 23. 250200 Quantity N = 47 (two classes)150 Sociology 27 Sociology 30100 Mean 50 0 TOEFL1 TOEFL2 Quality TOEFL Tests Word Count 3 2.5 2 1.5 TOEFL 1 1 TOEFL 2TEEP (Test in English for 0.5Educational Purposes) Attribute 0Writing Scales (Weir, 1990) Line Graph Representation of Rater Difference for TOEFL 1&2 SLW 2012 Tamsui 23
  24. 24. Participants EAP Sophomores in one universityClass Class Class Total:A: 23 B: 18 C: 20 61 Tokyo, Japan SLW 2012 Tamsui 24
  25. 25. Blended Learning Class SLW 2012 Tamsui 25
  26. 26. Methods• Survey Paper-and-pen, final examination day SPSS• Interviews Semi-structured, volunteers SPSS Text Analytics for Survey• Text analysis Forum and blog posts textalyser• Consent for analysis and publication SLW 2012 Tamsui 26
  27. 27. Wiki collaboration Concept of Wiki-based Collaborative Translation SLW 2012 Tamsui 27
  28. 28. Preferred online writing activity Wiki-Blog-Forum SLW 2012 Tamsui 28
  29. 29. Readability of students’ forum and blog postingsMore difficult Spring FallGunning-Fog Index for forumEasier More difficult Gunning-Fog Index for Blog SLW 2012 Tamsui 29
  30. 30. Textalyserhttp://textalyser.net/ SLW 2012 Tamsui 30
  31. 31. Gunning-Fog Index formula• Grade Level = 0.4 (ASL + PHW) where, ASL = Average Sentence Length (i.e., number of words divided by the number of sentences) PHW = Percentage of Hard WordsRetrieved from http://www.readabilityformulas.com/gunning-fog-readability- formula.php SLW 2012 Tamsui 31
  32. 32. Readability of students’ forum and blog postingsMore difficult Spring FallGunning-Fog Index for forumEasier More difficult Gunning-Fog Index for Blog SLW 2012 Tamsui 32
  33. 33. Category networks for forums, blogs, and wikis Forum BlogWiki SLW 2012 Tamsui 33
  34. 34. (Sato,2012 Tamsui SLW 2009) 34
  35. 35. Free web tools• Email • Moodle – Gmail• Chat – Skype – MS messenger• Blog – Edublogs.org – Blogger.com• Forum – Google Docs – SNS• Wiki – wikispaces.com (Miyazoe, Daniels, Anderson, 2011) SLW 2012 Tamsui 35
  36. 36. GuidesSLW 2012 Tamsui 36
  37. 37. Thank you for listening! For questions/suggestions:t.miyazoe@mail.dendai.ac.jp SLW 2012 Tamsui 37

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