An online oral production system and its application in  a blended learning environment Terumi Miyazoe (Tokyo Denki Univer...
Contents <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Course design </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recording system </li></ul><ul><li>Resear...
English speaking anxiety <ul><li>“ Overcoming Japanese EFL learners' fear of speaking”  </li></ul><ul><li>(Cutrone, 2009) ...
EFL in Japan   <ul><li>English required for  6 years  (middle & high) </li></ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to speak English...
Motivational issues <ul><li>Science students focus on major courses </li></ul><ul><li>Oral English is required course </li...
Solution <ul><li>self-study speaking practice </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010 Voice recording module
Course design CALICO AMHERST 2010 In class Out of class <ul><ul><li>Traditional classroom with teacher, PC & projector </l...
Classroom CALICO AMHERST 2010
Moodle CMS CALICO AMHERST 2010 Audio file Voice recording activity Permission to upload audio files  was obtained from the...
Self-study cycle CALICO AMHERST 2010 listen to model audio check  pronunciation practice make recording evaluate  own speech
browser-based recording Assignment Blog Forum CALICO AMHERST 2010
Simple voice assignment CALICO AMHERST 2010
Describing images CALICO AMHERST 2010
Listen & record CALICO AMHERST 2010
Voice post to blog CALICO AMHERST 2010
Voice post to forum CALICO AMHERST 2010
Voice Shadowing  Model audio Student Records own speech  CALICO AMHERST 2010
Verbal Feedback on writing  CALICO AMHERST 2010
Slideshow with voice captions CALICO AMHERST 2010
Requirements <ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle 1.9 CMS </li></ul><ul><li>voice recording module </li></ul><ul><li>FM...
Browser-based recording <ul><li>Java runtime engine </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to deploy </li></ul><ul><li>No server-end set...
Add voice record assignment CALICO AMHERST 2010 Voice record module
CALICO AMHERST 2010 set assignment deadline.
record CALICO AMHERST 2010 Click & speak.
CALICO AMHERST 2010 Delete & try again
Teacher’s Admin Page CALICO AMHERST 2010 track performance
Student View CALICO AMHERST 2010 Late assignments in red.  check own progress. No submission
Teacher View CALICO AMHERST 2010 Date & time of submission
Grader report CALICO AMHERST 2010 Assignment grades appear in Grader report.
Research Design CALICO AMHERST 2010
Course & learner overview <ul><li>Basic oral English class  </li></ul><ul><li>One year (2 semesters) </li></ul><ul><li>Mai...
Participants: Gender <ul><li>Pre-questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>N=86 </li></ul><ul><li>Post-questionnaire  </li></ul><ul>...
Participants: Age <ul><li>Pre-course </li></ul><ul><li>85 answered, 1 no responses </li></ul><ul><li>Post-course </li></ul...
Methods <ul><li>Post questionnaire  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System usability scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activ...
System Usability Scale (SUS) <ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>10 statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 positively phrase...
System Usability Scale Questions <ul><li>SUS  1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently. </li></ul><ul><l...
System Usability Scale Questions <ul><li>SUS  6. I thought this system was too inconsistent. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS  7. I w...
Application feedback <ul><li>P1. The recorded voice was of a high enough quality. </li></ul><ul><li>P2. The responsiveness...
Course & activity feedback  <ul><li>T1. Voice recording assignment was useful in preparing for  speaking proficiency   tes...
Learner data <ul><li>D1.  Attendance  in face-to-face classes </li></ul><ul><li>D2. Online assignment completion </li></ul...
Analysis  <ul><li>Compare students’ perceptions of “speaking English” before & after the 1-year course </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Class attendance CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD F2F classes 60 1 5 4.38 1.059
Online voice task completion CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD Frequency 60 1 5 3.92 1.169
Relation between  classroom attendance  & online assignments CALICO AMHERST 2010 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01...
Results of SUS total CALICO AMHERST 2010 Overall score 31 out of 50 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD SUS Total 62 21 50 30.63 5.448
SUS results by question item CALICO AMHERST 2010
Application data CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD P1 Sound quality 60 1 5 3.08 .944 P2 Waiting time 60 1 5 3....
Questions from the teacher CALICO AMHERST 2010 improved  speaking ability   N   Minimum   Maximum   Mean   SD   T1 Speakin...
Relation between responses CALICO AMHERST 2010 Online assignment completion &  feeling that assignments were helpful ** Co...
Students’ comments (positive) <ul><li>Somewhat  enjoyable  (reduced stress) </li></ul><ul><li>Recording & re-recording hel...
Students’ comments (negative) <ul><li>Felt  frightened  when “ERROR” sign came up. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes I could  no...
Open Ended Questions Text Analysis CALICO AMHERST 2010
Before the course CALICO AMHERST 2010
Before the course CALICO AMHERST 2010 No. of respondents Total ( % ) Speaking 43 50 Difficult 31 36.0 Necessary 11 12.8 Us...
After the course CALICO AMHERST 2010
After the course CALICO AMHERST 2010   No. of respondents  Total  ( % ) Speaking 34 54.8 Difficult 19 30.6 Necessary 13 21...
Before CALICO AMHERST 2010 After <ul><li>Still difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger link to ‘necessary’ </li></ul><ul><li>...
Problems… <ul><li>server down-  could not complete assignment at the given period </li></ul><ul><li>extra burden  on teach...
Improvements <ul><li>Voice recording system:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual  to explain how to use online recorder  </li></...
References <ul><li>Bangor, A., Kortum, P. T., & Miller, J. T. (2008). An Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scal...
Download modules <ul><li>http://moodlemodules.netcourse.org </li></ul>
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An online oral production system and its application in a blended learning environment

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  • 4. In order to enhance the multimedia capabilities of Moodle, we developed a web-based template that can easily be embedded into any Moodle activity such as a blog, an assignment, or a forum.
  • 7. This is a simple example of the web-based voice recording template embedded in a Moodle assignment.
  • 8. Here a voice assignment is used to elicit spoken responses from learners.
  • 10. In this activity, the instructor is able to author a simple question and response exercise where the learner first listens to a question or comment and then records a response. No other applications other than a Flash-enabled web browser is required to both author or complete the multimedia exercises.
  • 13. After submitting a ‘voice post’, the Flash media player appears on the blog site along with any text or photo uploaded by the user.
  • 16. This is another example of how the template can be embedded into a discussion forum allowing users to add voice posts. The main advantage being that the user can record and playback media without the need of any application outside of the web browser.
  • 14. Here is another example of how the voice recording template can be used. In this activity, instructors are able to quickly leave voice comments linked to specific areas of a student submitted text. It can be used to give audio feedback in a writing course for example. Without ever leaving the web-page, the instructor can highlight specific areas of the student text and record a comment which is then linked to the highlighted text.
  • 17. Using the slideshow activity, users are able to create simple voice narrated slide shows from within the web browser.
  • Transcript of "An online oral production system and its application in a blended learning environment"

    1. 1. An online oral production system and its application in a blended learning environment Terumi Miyazoe (Tokyo Denki University) Paul Daniels (Kochi Institute of Technology) 6/12/10 1:30pm
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Course design </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recording system </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Points to improve </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    3. 3. English speaking anxiety <ul><li>“ Overcoming Japanese EFL learners' fear of speaking” </li></ul><ul><li>(Cutrone, 2009) </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    4. 4. EFL in Japan   <ul><li>English required for 6 years (middle & high) </li></ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to speak English </li></ul><ul><li>Limited native English-speaking teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of native speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural/linguistic differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarity & self-expression = aggressive & ego-centric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid potential errors in etiquette </li></ul></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    5. 5. Motivational issues <ul><li>Science students focus on major courses </li></ul><ul><li>Oral English is required course </li></ul><ul><li>⇒ English class: obligation rather than a source of learning </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    6. 6. Solution <ul><li>self-study speaking practice </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010 Voice recording module
    7. 7. Course design CALICO AMHERST 2010 In class Out of class <ul><ul><li>Traditional classroom with teacher, PC & projector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent listening & speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair work / group sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online assignments via Moodle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly voice recording </li></ul></ul>Moodle (CMS)
    8. 8. Classroom CALICO AMHERST 2010
    9. 9. Moodle CMS CALICO AMHERST 2010 Audio file Voice recording activity Permission to upload audio files was obtained from the publisher.
    10. 10. Self-study cycle CALICO AMHERST 2010 listen to model audio check pronunciation practice make recording evaluate own speech
    11. 11. browser-based recording Assignment Blog Forum CALICO AMHERST 2010
    12. 12. Simple voice assignment CALICO AMHERST 2010
    13. 13. Describing images CALICO AMHERST 2010
    14. 14. Listen & record CALICO AMHERST 2010
    15. 15. Voice post to blog CALICO AMHERST 2010
    16. 16. Voice post to forum CALICO AMHERST 2010
    17. 17. Voice Shadowing Model audio Student Records own speech CALICO AMHERST 2010
    18. 18. Verbal Feedback on writing CALICO AMHERST 2010
    19. 19. Slideshow with voice captions CALICO AMHERST 2010
    20. 20. Requirements <ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle 1.9 CMS </li></ul><ul><li>voice recording module </li></ul><ul><li>FMS (only if using Flash version) </li></ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Player </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    21. 21. Browser-based recording <ul><li>Java runtime engine </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to deploy </li></ul><ul><li>No server-end setup </li></ul><ul><li>No streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Quality recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Slower to load </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive to deploy </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Player </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated setup </li></ul><ul><li>Requires media server </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming audio/video </li></ul><ul><li>More flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Recording quality varies </li></ul><ul><li>Faster response time </li></ul><ul><li>Costly to deploy </li></ul><ul><li>Longer recordings </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    22. 22. Add voice record assignment CALICO AMHERST 2010 Voice record module
    23. 23. CALICO AMHERST 2010 set assignment deadline.
    24. 24. record CALICO AMHERST 2010 Click & speak.
    25. 25. CALICO AMHERST 2010 Delete & try again
    26. 26. Teacher’s Admin Page CALICO AMHERST 2010 track performance
    27. 27. Student View CALICO AMHERST 2010 Late assignments in red. check own progress. No submission
    28. 28. Teacher View CALICO AMHERST 2010 Date & time of submission
    29. 29. Grader report CALICO AMHERST 2010 Assignment grades appear in Grader report.
    30. 30. Research Design CALICO AMHERST 2010
    31. 31. Course & learner overview <ul><li>Basic oral English class </li></ul><ul><li>One year (2 semesters) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly freshmen </li></ul><ul><li>Aged 18 - 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Level: 250 – 400 TOEIC </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook: Open Forum 1 (Oxford University Press) </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    32. 32. Participants: Gender <ul><li>Pre-questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>N=86 </li></ul><ul><li>Post-questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>N=60 </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    33. 33. Participants: Age <ul><li>Pre-course </li></ul><ul><li>85 answered, 1 no responses </li></ul><ul><li>Post-course </li></ul><ul><li>58 answered, 4 no responses </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    34. 34. Methods <ul><li>Post questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System usability scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended comments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-/Post open-ended questionnaires </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    35. 35. System Usability Scale (SUS) <ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>10 statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 positively phrased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 negatively phrased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest score 50, lowest 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Translated in to learners’ L1 </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010 Bangor, A., Kortum, P. T., & Miller, J. T. (2008).
    36. 36. System Usability Scale Questions <ul><li>SUS 1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 2. I found the system unnecessarily complex. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 3. I thought the system was easy to use. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 4. I think I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    37. 37. System Usability Scale Questions <ul><li>SUS 6. I thought this system was too inconsistent. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 7. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this system very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 8. I found the system very cumbersome to use. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 9. I felt very confident using the system. </li></ul><ul><li>SUS 10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    38. 38. Application feedback <ul><li>P1. The recorded voice was of a high enough quality. </li></ul><ul><li>P2. The responsiveness of the application was appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>P3. I felt no reluctance to talk to computer. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    39. 39. Course & activity feedback <ul><li>T1. Voice recording assignment was useful in preparing for speaking proficiency tests . </li></ul><ul><li>T2. Voice recording assignments helped with general speaking ability . </li></ul><ul><li>T3. Online audio delivery was an effective method of study. </li></ul><ul><li>T4. Online recording assignments were an effective method of study. </li></ul><ul><li>T5. Overall, this course was a valuable experience. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    40. 40. Learner data <ul><li>D1. Attendance in face-to-face classes </li></ul><ul><li>D2. Online assignment completion </li></ul><ul><li>D3. Gender </li></ul><ul><li>D4. Age </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    41. 41. Analysis <ul><li>Compare students’ perceptions of “speaking English” before & after the 1-year course </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPSS Text Analytics for Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    42. 42. Class attendance CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD F2F classes 60 1 5 4.38 1.059
    43. 43. Online voice task completion CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD Frequency 60 1 5 3.92 1.169
    44. 44. Relation between classroom attendance & online assignments CALICO AMHERST 2010 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Online assignment completion In class attendance Pearson Correlation .629 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 60
    45. 45. Results of SUS total CALICO AMHERST 2010 Overall score 31 out of 50 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD SUS Total 62 21 50 30.63 5.448
    46. 46. SUS results by question item CALICO AMHERST 2010
    47. 47. Application data CALICO AMHERST 2010 N Minimum Maximum Mean SD P1 Sound quality 60 1 5 3.08 .944 P2 Waiting time 60 1 5 3.43 1.047 P3 Talking to PC 60 1 5 3.53 1.096
    48. 48. Questions from the teacher CALICO AMHERST 2010 improved speaking ability   N Minimum Maximum Mean SD T1 Speaking tests 60 1 5 3.12 0.739 T2 Speaking ability 60 1 5 3.48 0.813 T3 Moodle audio delivery 60 1 5 3.43 0.851 T4 Moodle voice recording 60 1 5 3.40 0.848 T5 Overall course evaluation 60 1 5 3.73 0.918
    49. 49. Relation between responses CALICO AMHERST 2010 Online assignment completion & feeling that assignments were helpful ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Online assignment completion & positive course evaluation T5 course evaluation D2 assignment completion T2 speaking ability Pearson Correlation .607 ** .453 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 N 60 60 T5 course evaluation Pearson Correlation .437 ** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 60
    50. 50. Students’ comments (positive) <ul><li>Somewhat enjoyable (reduced stress) </li></ul><ul><li>Recording & re-recording helped with reading aloud while understanding the meaning of text at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>The system became much easier to use over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Could ‘ touch ’ English in my daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped with reading more smoothly in the L2. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    51. 51. Students’ comments (negative) <ul><li>Felt frightened when “ERROR” sign came up. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes I could not access the server. </li></ul><ul><li>The system in spring ( standalone recording application ) was easier for me. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    52. 52. Open Ended Questions Text Analysis CALICO AMHERST 2010
    53. 53. Before the course CALICO AMHERST 2010
    54. 54. Before the course CALICO AMHERST 2010 No. of respondents Total ( % ) Speaking 43 50 Difficult 31 36.0 Necessary 11 12.8 Useful 7 8.1 Vocabulary 6 7.0 Nervous 6 7.0
    55. 55. After the course CALICO AMHERST 2010
    56. 56. After the course CALICO AMHERST 2010   No. of respondents Total ( % ) Speaking 34 54.8 Difficult 19 30.6 Necessary 13 21.0 Phonology 10 16.1 Vocabulary 9 14.5 Fun 5 8.1 Important 5 8.1
    57. 57. Before CALICO AMHERST 2010 After <ul><li>Still difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger link to ‘necessary’ </li></ul><ul><li>New concepts appear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation, Intonation & rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Problems… <ul><li>server down- could not complete assignment at the given period </li></ul><ul><li>extra burden on teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle/Flash server administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle course administration </li></ul></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    59. 59. Improvements <ul><li>Voice recording system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual to explain how to use online recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test mode with timer setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation of activities </li></ul></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    60. 60. References <ul><li>Bangor, A., Kortum, P. T., & Miller, J. T. (2008). An Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24(6), 574-598. </li></ul><ul><li>Brooke, J. (1996). SUS: A quick and dirty usability scale. In P. W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B. A. Weerdmeester & I. L. McClelland (Eds.), Usability Evaluation in Industry (no page number). London: Taylor & Francis. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutrone, P. (2009). Overcoming Japanese EFL l learners' fear of speaking. University of Reading Language Studies Working Papers, 1, 55-63. Retrieved from http://www.reading.ac.uk/AcaDepts/ll/app_ling/internal/Cutrone.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Tullis, T., & Albert, B. (2008). Chapter 6: Self-reported metrics. In Measuring the User Experience (pp. 123-166). Amsterdam: Elsevier. </li></ul>CALICO AMHERST 2010
    61. 61. Download modules <ul><li>http://moodlemodules.netcourse.org </li></ul>

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