E books in academic libraries - a briefing paper
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Briefing paper for staff / colleague circulation on growth of eBooks and prospective issues / suggestions for an academic library

Briefing paper for staff / colleague circulation on growth of eBooks and prospective issues / suggestions for an academic library

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    E books in academic libraries - a briefing paper E books in academic libraries - a briefing paper Presentation Transcript

    • eBooks in academic libraries- a briefing paper 2010
      Terry O’Brien
      Deputy Librarian, WIT Libraries
      August 2010
    • “By the year 2020, 40% of UK research monographs will be available in electronic format only, while a further 50% will be produced in both print and digital. A mere 10% of new titles will be available in print alone by 2020” (British Library 2005)
      This is probably an underestimation
      eBooks – the future is now
    • In the above report, CIBER – the Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research at UC London, refer to the “inexorable rise of the eBook” and “a student population, hungry for digested content”
      According to CIBER, print sales will fall sharply as electronic publishing matures and consumer demand grows
      By 2017, eBooks will be the default format for textbooks, scholarly books and reference works
      Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future
    • Up to now a relatively low uptake of e-books
      Why?
      • Too few e-books
      • High pricing and complex pricing models
      • Bundling solutions did not meet needs
      • Complex licensing issues, digital rights management (DRM)
      • Multiple formats and platforms
      • Uncertain market
      • Lack of key e-texts
      • Discoverability - poor marketing by libraries
      This is all changing …
      Some background
    • Significant growth in eBook adoption by libraries is expected in next couple of years
      Usage of eBooks is a different issue!
      eBooks are no longer a new technology, although the market is evolving quickly
      The argument over print versus technology is a philosophical one at this stage
      eBooks, eReaders are (very close) mainstream
      The consumer market is exacerbating expectations in the academic library sector
      Adoption and usage
    • Here to stay, but print books also for the forseeable future, the internet has meant growth in all book sales because of increased visibility
      Adoption and usage of eBooks on the rise, practically all Irish academic libraries are now using eBooks
      Enable on-campus access, remote access, 24/7 access, multiple campus access and concurrent use
      Enhanced user experience, functionality: searching, saving, cross-referencing, OCR, cut and paste, look inside, chapters, rough cuts, Tables of Content, paragraphs, hyperlinks, favorites, EndNote compliant
      More accurate usage metrics, monitor flows can measure page turns and type of usage
      eBooks are …
    • Publishers
      Students
      Librarians
      The market - consumerism
      Space
      Cost
      Convenience
      Accessibility
      Environmental
      Peaks in demand (exam time & semesterisation)
      Distance, off-campus and part-time learners are very important user groups
      eBook - Demand drivers
    • eBooks offer chapters, paragraphs, sentences etc as units of consumption
      According to CIBER this appeals to digital consumers and students who prefer bite size chunks of information
      eBooks are not read sequentially and this is part of their actual appeal, sometimes called ‘dipping’
      eBooks tend to be scanned not read, eBooks are not read cover to cover in the traditional sense
      Cover to cover reading preference remains for print
      No theft of eBooks
      Usage
    • Most frequent use of eBooks relates to textbooks and reference research
      eBooks for ‘use’ (specific) more than ‘read’ (cover to cover)
      eBook usage tends to be stronger amongst undergraduates and academic staff. Postgraduates and researchers veer more towards monographs, conference proceedings, journals
      There is evidence to suggest that men are greater users of eBooks and that business students are more likely to use over any other subject discipline (JISC Studies, 2009)
      Usage II
    • eBooks best ‘support learning activities in certain subjects where information is structured in relatively discrete blocks and where a premium is placed on currency’ e.g. business, law, computer science (UCG, eBook seminar, May 2010)
      UK market still quite small – according to Publishers Association £150m in 2009, of which 80% academic-professional, but the growth of the iPad, Kindle and Smartphones will increase this dramatically
      Amazon already report eBook sales superseding hardbacks in certain categories (The Guardian, 2010)
      Cost and availability of readers is prohibitive although iPad and Amazon Kindle recently launched in UK/Ire
      According to CourseSmart (US), sales of textbook downloads rose some 400% from 2008-2009
      Usage III
    • Offline viewing is possible with some suppliers
      eBooks can be linked and incorporated into VLEs
      Digital Rights Management (DRM) has been an issue but publishers and aggregators are tending to solve this problem at point of access and through control monitors
      Individual publishers will have different agreements with aggregators but from an end user perspective – fair usage and copyright educational exemptions generally apply to printing and downloading
      Copyright rules apply to eBooks
      Usage IV
    • Quick overview
      Positives
      Negatives
      Demand
      Simultaneous/concurrent users
      Off campus/remote access
      Content versatility – search and scanability
      eBook fully index'able
      Space – no shelving
      Reduced back-end work
      No repairing or covering
      Can be easily integrated
      No physical security issues
      Offer convenience and flexibility
      Complexity
      Licensing
      Software
      Reading screens
      DRM
      Locating actual eBooks
      Confusion - platforms
      Cost
      Turnaways
      Pace of change in consumer market is rapid
    • Workflow changes in terms of acquisitions
      Offer portability, convenience, instant access, simultaneous usage
      Potential for longer-term cost savings and flexible usage by more users
      Established eJournal adoption (primarily through databases) will aid familiarity
      Development growth has mirrored adoption of e-journals
      Physical book sales are as yet increasing despite eBooks
      Impact
    • When eBooks are purchased, one of the main issues relates to ensuring usage. This is best achieved by -
      • Incorporating full MARC records and subject headings into the library catalogue. Most aggregators supply these
      • Making eBooks available directly through library catalogue rather than separate resource lists
      • Marketing and promotion is essential - library website, staff contacts, alerting, institutional and dept. publicity
      • Place eBook links into VLEs and reading lists, this can also apply to parts of books and chapters
      • eBook access can also be achieved through other pathways such as link solvers, A-Z listings and federated search
      • Digital visibility is also increased through abstract and keyword searches in search engines
      Discovery
    • In most cases the license agreement is with the aggregator (on behalf of the publisher)
      The academic library model is similar to that used for databases – registered staff and students have access on campus and (authenticated) off-campus
      eBooks are generally bought in perpetuity meaning access/ownership is forever (though may not be the case with bundles)
      The license normally allows for concurrent and multiple (though not unlimited) users
      DRM imposes certain printing, copying restrictions again dependant on the publisher
      Multiple suppliers may mean multiple licensing agreements
      Licensing
    • Direct cost approx. up to 20% higher than physical book cost, although higher cost usually relates to concurrent usage and it may be that certain titles are actually cheaper
      Ownership models vary but generally cost is direct
      Some aggregators charge an annual platform fee – normally a moderate payment irrespective of number of titles bought
      Others charge a monthly fee, some use token or slot systems
      Cost may be offset by indirect cost savings - less back end work required, less multiple copies required
      Most publishers now offer a pay per title model with no minimum order requirements
      Bundle and subject packages are available but don’t necessarily represent value or efficiency
      Packages do generally involve discounts
      Fees & ownership
    • Dawsons
      Coutts(MyiLibrary)
      EBSCO(formerly NetLibrary)
      Swetswise
      Ebrary
      Safari
      Coutts and Dawsonera score best in surveys and are most widely used. EBSCO are new to the market and Safari, although strong on IT, have had some negative comment because it uses a token system and monthly fees. Ebrary are strong on collections and open access, Swetswise offer total procurement and acquisition solutions
      Main vendors / aggregators
    • 18,000 + active publishers, 1/4m + titles
      Simultaneous, multi-user access, no turnaways
      Full-text and subject searching
      Full DRM
      No plug-ins or readers necessary – viewed as flowable text via jpeg format
      Flow control measures
      Highly recommended
      Multiple authentication access – IP on, EZ proxy or ATHENS off-campus
      MARC records
      VLE and bibliographic software compliant
      No minimum order requirement, widely used in academic libraries
      COUNTER usage reports
      Annual platform charge – c. €500
      Dedicated OASIS catalogue
      Coutts – main details
    • 130,000 + eBooks
      OPAC ready MARC records
      COUNTER usage reports
      No minimum order
      No platform fees
      Use ‘access credit’ system
      DRM – online and download
      Perpetual access
      Offer rental model
      Bib software compliant
      Does not allow IP authentication – password required
      EZ proxy for off campus
      One-off hosting fee but not a subscription service
      Widely used
      Printing, copy limited at 5% across the board
      Dawsonenter dedicated catalogue
      Dawsonera – main details
    • Many publishers offer eBooks directly, without the aid of aggregators, and through their own platforms, some of which include –
      • Wiley-Blackwell
      • Ovid
      • SpringerLink
      • Taylor & Francis
      • Informaworld
      • Emerald
      • Royal Society of Chemistry
      • Elsevier
      Direct Publishers
    • Google Book project may have a major impact on eBooks
      Google eBookstorelaunched December 2010
      Print on demand such as Springer’s MyCopy and Coutts Lightning Source
      Free or ‘open access’ eBooks
      Tablets, Smartphones, Notepads becoming increasingly ubiquitous
      eReader market – developments post-iPad could change
      Colour screens and better display technologies
      Other developments
    • Some publishers such as Cengage are appealing directly to students by offering rentals or purchase of eTextbooks, eChapters, student packages and freebies - CengageBrain
      Overdrive type services. Overdrive are a digital products distributor who offer integrated digital library reserves. Primarily used by public libraries as focus is on downloads to individual user devices. Very impressive
      WhisperNet - wireless delivery system for the Kindle that allows user to download books without the use of an outside internet provider
      PDA – ebrary pushing patron-driven acquisition meaning patrons decide what eBooks library should have. Allows real-time updating ebrary PDA
      Other developments II
    • There are many free eBooks available on the web but many are of limited value
      Can add volume to a collection but how widely used is questionable and in terms of textbooks, quality is variable
      Gutenberg does give access to many classics outside of copyright and in a variety of formats
      Google Book project may change the landscape and has potential to be an amazing resource
      Although a somewhat useful resource, are not a replacement for a proper demand driven eBook collection
      Some contain advertisements, nearly all in pdf format, lack of integration into catalogue makes ‘discovery’ difficult
      Many publishers give some free access for branding or marketing purposes
      Free eBooks
    • Some of the best known and most widely used include –
      BookBoon (all in pdf)
      eScholarship from University of California
      Project Gutenberg (classics)
      Google Books (subject to publisher agreements, incl. previews )
      Wiley’s Dummies.com (incl. video’s, chapters, how to’s etc.
      Free eBooks
    • eBooks are generally accessed in two broad ways by academic libraries – Download or Streamed (Flowable text)
      In most basic form, eBook is a downloadable pdf form (often cannot be saved)
      Many academic libraries currently use flowable html to view / stream books from a hosted server (connection required). The book is then ‘viewed’ and used subject to DRM. Also enables multiple types of access
      The download model is a little bit more difficult because of ownership issue. Public libraries overcome this by using services such as Overdrive which enable expiry of books based on pre-defined loan dates etc.
      Consumers are currently buying books that they download and personally own
      Accessing eBooks
    • Downloads work on e-readers and smartphones. Reading device is what controls the reading experience
      Flowables work on pc’s and tablets. The platform performs the other functions.
      From user perspective, full ownership gives more security. Flowable approach is more vulnerable, more control and DRM to publisher (but this probably suits academic libraries better at the moment)
      Streamed books enable enhanced metrics – no. of book titles, cost per use, cost per title used, age books used
      Aggregators use COUNTER compliant statistics http://www.projectcounter.org/
      ePub format – free open industry standard for eBooks (not supported by Kindle)
      Accessing eBooks
    • The eReader market is very fluid and is evolving rapidly
      In academic libraries context, computers remain primary tool for downloading, storing, retrieving
      eReaders market aimed mainly at casual reader but publishers are focussing more on getting content to students via eBook model
      eReaders represent what students in future will expect - portability, cost-effective, access at any point in time, flexible not static content
      The eReader consumer market (leisure, recreation etc.) has exacerbated user expectations but requirements of academic libraries and their users is different (i.e. research and study purposes) to the commercial market
      eBooks and eReaders
    • Theft of books reduces but theft of eReaders a problem?
      All support pdf save for iPad but there is an app for that which will convert pdf to ePub
      Swopping eBooks between eReaders will be difficult
      Content compatibility across platforms is a real problem – Adobe ePub, Kindle AZW, iPad (Educause, 2010)
      Some eReaders cannot be used in the dark due to electronic ink / electronic paper displays (EPDs)
      eReaders can hold up to 1500 books, may have ‘Text to speech’ functionality and the Kindle 2 for example has a ‘Read aloud capability’
      Commercial eReaders have made huge improvements to screen, text, readability, electronic ink technology, energy efficiency but remain prohibitively expensive
      Commercial eReaders
    • Some commercial eReaders available include -
      • Kindle DX (Amazon)
      • Kindle 2 (Amazon)
      • Nook (Barnes & Noble)
      • iPad and iPhone (Apple)
      • Sony Reader Touch (Sony)
      • Opus (Bookeen)
      • iLiad (IREX)
      PDA’s can also read eBooks but do not have electronic ink display
      Convergence of eReaders with more general-use devices (smartphones, pda’s, notepads, tablets etc.)
      Dedicated eReader & eBook devices
    • Likely that money spent on eBooks will not be in addition to print books but a compliment or replacement. In other words print book budgets will decrease as eBook budgets increase. However some separate initial investment may be required to begin an eBook collection
      Ideally for us – eBooks that can be viewed (streamed) and/or downloaded onto a variety of formats is preference
      Develop site license model for loaning digital texts to multiple users simultaneously
      CIBER/JISC studies - - eBook needs to be placed in broad context of scholarly information provision “e-books are being dropped into an already crowded information environment”
      Mainstream penetration - consumer appetite for digital content consumption growing rapidly
      Some issues to consider
    • eReaders a separate issue, will need monitoring over next years but no real evidence yet that our users will use eReaders to access library material i.e. eTextbooks
      In time all library content – journal articles, books, texts may be delivered to eReader or smartphone devices
      Problem of how best to “read” the eBooks a library invests in– the solution for now comes from the aggregators platforms rather than eReaders
      Quandary for libraries - “invest in proprietary eBook files that only work on a limited number of devices or on non-proprietary file formats supported on a number of eReaders” (Educause, 2010)
      Some more issues to consider
    • Set up accounts with aggregators semester 1 2010
      Avoid multiple formats and platforms where possible
      eBook budget part of wider acquisitions budget
      eBook should be treated as an eResource in terms of management
      Purchase next 100 books in eBook form and monitor costs, usage and effectiveness
      Recommendations for WIT Libraries I
    • Thereafter purchase eBooks not for sake of it, but only if quality and demand established
      Avoid buying subject collections for now, bulk eBook collections are simply not read or used
      Dispense with all multiple copy purchasing unless completely unavoidable
      Purchase individual titles
      Look at specific suppliers for specialist areas
      Develop a hybrid acquisitions approach to books
      Recommendations for WIT Libraries II
    • Books vs. eBooks – Does One Have to Win?
      http://www.pdviz.com/books-vs-e-books
    • Highwire Press 2009 Librarian eBook survey
      Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future, (CIBER, UCL) 2008
      eBooks - Costs and Benefits to Academic and Research Libraries (Springer.com White Paper)
      eBooks – The End User Perspective (Springer.com White Paper)
      The Book http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOorZQLsmuA&feature=related
      Some further reading