WEEK 6 NONVERBAL

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  • One of the best that i have seen on the subject,so far..I rate it .' Excellent.' Keep it up Terry 34. A. Chakravarti, formerly Sr. Director NHRC-India
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WEEK 6 NONVERBAL

  1. 2. Welcome to Class  <ul><li>Dr. Brennan </li></ul>
  2. 3. Conversation <ul><li>Five Stages - The Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocated </li></ul>Opening
  3. 4. Conversation <ul><li>Five Stages - Feedforward </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Tone </li></ul>Opening Feedforward
  4. 5. Conversation <ul><li>Five Stages - Business </li></ul><ul><li>Substance of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>No Permanent Record </li></ul>Opening Feedforward Business
  5. 6. Conversation <ul><li>Five Stages - Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Signal End of Business </li></ul><ul><li>May Backup to Business if not Finished </li></ul>Opening Feedforward Business Feedback
  6. 7. Conversation <ul><li>Five Stages - Closing </li></ul><ul><li>Signals End of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Express Pleasure in Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Leave-Taking Cues </li></ul>Opening Feedforward Business Feedback Closing
  7. 8. Conversation <ul><li>Maintaining Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Turns </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-Maintaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-Yielding </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  8. 9. Conversation <ul><li>Maintaining Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Listener Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-Requesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-Denying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backchanneling </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  9. 10. Conversation <ul><li>Reflections on the Model of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Not All Conversations Fall into Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Lengths of Stages can Vary </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Competence Affects Interpersonal Attractiveness </li></ul>
  10. 11. Conversation <ul><li>Repairing Conversational Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Excuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I Didn’t Do It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It Wasn’t So Bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, But… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motive for Excuses </li></ul><ul><li>Good and Bad Excuses </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  11. 12. Conversation <ul><li>Conversation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Open to New Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of Relying too Heavily on First Impressions </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Conversation <ul><li>Conversation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility - Realize... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two Situations or People are the Same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Takes Place in Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is in State of Flux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every Situation offers Different Option </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Conversation <ul><li>Metacommunicating </li></ul><ul><li>Explain feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Use talk to examine communication patterns </li></ul>
  14. 15. Nonverbal Communication
  15. 16. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>What is nonverbal communication? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>What is nonverbal communication? </li></ul><ul><li>The information we communicate without using words. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Researchers have suggested: <ul><li>That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Researchers have suggested: <ul><li>That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal. </li></ul><ul><li>55% of communication is sent through facial expressions, posture and gestures. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Researchers have suggested: <ul><li>That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal. </li></ul><ul><li>55% of communication is sent through facial expressions, posture and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>38% of communication is sent through tone of voice. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Researchers have suggested: <ul><li>That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal. </li></ul><ul><li>55% of communication is sent through facial expressions, posture and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>38% of communication is sent through tone of voice. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Volunteers please? I need your assistance 
  22. 23. Space and Distance - Proxemics. <ul><li>Proxemics – how we use space and distance. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Space and Distance - Proxemics. <ul><li>Proxemics – how we use space and distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward T. Hall - 4 Distance Zones </li></ul><ul><li>1. Public Zone – 12+ feet </li></ul>
  24. 25. Space and Distance - Proxemics. <ul><li>Proxemics – how we use space and distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward T. Hall - 4 Distance Zones </li></ul><ul><li>1. Public Zone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social Zone – 4-12 feet </li></ul>
  25. 26. Space and Distance - Proxemics. <ul><li>Proxemics – how we use space and distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward T. Hall - 4 Distance Zones </li></ul><ul><li>1. Public Zone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social Zone </li></ul><ul><li>3. Personal Zone – 18 inches – 4 feet </li></ul>
  26. 27. Space and Distance - Proxemics. <ul><li>Proxemics – how we use space and distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward T. Hall - 4 Distance Zones </li></ul><ul><li>1. Public Zone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social Zone </li></ul><ul><li>3. Personal Zone </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intimate Zone – 0 -18 inches </li></ul>
  27. 28. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Influences on Space Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  28. 29. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways.
  29. 30. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>1. Environmen t – Unlike verbal communication, nonverbal communication can take place when we aren’t around for people to get an impression of us. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Room or homes we live in tell a good deal about us; the pictures of family members, the books/magazines on the coffee table, the posters/pictures on the wall. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>The environment we choose can also tell about us. If you take a date out for him/her birthday, you send a message if you go to a posh restaurant with low lighting, plush carpet with velvet cushion seats, and a menu you hold in your hand. </li></ul><ul><li>You give another message if you take your date to a place with fluorescent lighting, plastic chairs, tile floors and the menu posted on the wall. You not only send a message to your date of what you think of him/her, but also something about you. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>2. Feedback – In the communication process, we send feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>In nonverbal communication we nod our heads, smile, look at our watches, etc. Body posture or positioning is also important feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>In verbal communication feedback is spoken or written. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>3. Continuity – Unlike verbal communication, which begins and ends with words, nonverbal communication is continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Example, in a store, a woman picks up and puts down a loaf of bread and gives the impression that she can’t make up her mind. </li></ul><ul><li>A man waiting in line shifting his feet and juggling the coins in his pockets shows he’s in a hurry. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>4. Channel – Nonverbal communication uses multiple channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication uses one channel. </li></ul><ul><li>The five senses: sight, sound, taste, touch and smell. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>5. Control – Nonverbal communication has little control. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication has more control. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: People cannot lie in their nonverbal communication but can lie verbally. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>6. Structure – Verbal communication has rules that govern the correct use of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured - Nonverbal communication has little structure or rules and is spontaneous. Usually norm driven and used. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>7. Acquisition – Nonverbal communication is not taught, people pick it up through imitating others. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication is formally taught. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Verbal and nonverbal communication differs in seven important ways. <ul><li>1. Environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>3. Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Channel </li></ul><ul><li>5. Control </li></ul><ul><li>6. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>7. Acquisition </li></ul>
  38. 39. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nonverbal Cues Accent What A Person Is Saying. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, pointing when giving someone directions; tone of voice, energy, posture. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nonverbal Cues Complement Verbal Messages By Adding Meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: “I’m sorry” = pat on the back or “I love you” = hug the person </li></ul>
  40. 41. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nonverbal Cues Contradict Verbal Messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional – cross your fingers or winking to indicate that you are lying </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional – child falls and scrapes his/her knee grabbing the knee, with tears in eyes saying, “I’m ok!” </li></ul>
  41. 42. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>4. Nonverbal Cues Regulate Also “Regulate” Verbal Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: During a conversation with your boss you can tell the conversation is coming to an end when your boss stands up out of his/her chair or shifts papers on the desk. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>5. Nonverbal Cues Repeat Verbal Messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: With raised eyebrows and a questioning look or motion with your head or hand and repeat your verbal message, “Are you alright?” </li></ul>
  43. 44. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>6. Nonverbal Cues Substitute For Verbal Messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: You get a dirty look from your significant other when you arrive home late. </li></ul><ul><li>You send balloons and flowers to that someone special. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbor waves as you pull out of the driveway. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Contradict </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Regulate </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Cues Substitute For </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  45. 46. The principles of nonverbal communication <ul><li>Four principles underlie the workings of nonverbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nonverbal comm. is culturally determined </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nonverbal messages may conflict with verbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nonverbal messages are largely subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>4. Nonverbals show our feelings and attitudes </li></ul>
  46. 47. Types of Nonverbal communication
  47. 48. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>Paralanguage – the way we say something. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate – speed at which one speaks can have an effect on the way a message is received. People speak at rates that vary from 125 words per minute to 200+ wpm. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars argue that the faster someone speaks the more competent they seem. Of course, the listener may not be able to understand what the speaker is saying. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>Paralanguage – the way we say something. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch – highness and lowness of the voice. Some people feel high-pitched voices are not very pleasant, but low-pitched voices are seen as insecure or shy. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>Paralanguage – the way we say something. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume – Loud/soft level of vocal quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Fillers – Non words such as “uh”, “er”, “um”, “you know”, “okay.” </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal fillers give the connotation that we are stuck or searching for the right word. If used too much it becomes distracting. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>Paralanguage – the way we say something. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality – Rhythm, articulation, pronunciation, tempo and resonance. </li></ul><ul><li>Good quality demonstrates competency, honesty and power. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Emblems </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  52. 53. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Emblems : Have a direct translation into words. Does not cross cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>1. “Thumb up” = hitchhiker or good luck. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Circle made with thumb and index finger = </li></ul><ul><li>okay. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators: Accents, emphasizes or reinforces words. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Giving directions while pointing or </li></ul><ul><li>showing how big or how wide. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Displays: Intensity of feelings shown through our facial expressions and body movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: fist on desk </li></ul>
  55. 56. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators: Control the back and forth flow of speaking and listening; head nods, hand gestures and shifts in posture. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Types of Nonverbal communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptors: Nonverbal ways of adjusting to a communication situation. Often used if nervous or uncomfortable in a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Often done subconsciously, sometimes to send a message. </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>Example: Mother comes over to visit and starts moving objects around. This sends a message that you are untidy or you’re still my little child or I’m still your mom and in charge. </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>We all find ways to adapt to situations. Maybe we play with jewelry, drum on table or move around in our seats. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>The Body - Body Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Height and Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>General Attractiveness </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  60. 61. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Facial Expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Affect Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Blends </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  61. 62. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Facial Management Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify </li></ul><ul><li>Deintensify </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralize </li></ul><ul><li>Mask </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  62. 63. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Eye Communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Gaze! </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of Eye Contact </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  63. 64. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Functions of Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling Nature of Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Lessening Physical Distance </li></ul>
  64. 65. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Functions of the Eyes - Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Lack of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Block Unpleasant Stimuli </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  65. 66. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Eye Communication - Pupil Dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Dilated Pupils More Attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil Size Reveals Level of Emotional Arousal </li></ul>
  66. 67. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Artifactual Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing – Style and Color </li></ul><ul><li>Body Adornment </li></ul><ul><li>Space Decoration </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  67. 68. Clothing: <ul><li>Clothing – Affects what people think about status, affiliation, norms and conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniforms – military, school. Identifies you with a particular organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational – nurses, police officer, business suits. Clothing employees are expected to wear, not as strict as uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure clothing – jeans, sweatshirts. People exert their personal identities here. </li></ul><ul><li>Costumes – hats, boots, etc. Highly individualized dress. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Body Adornment <ul><li>Hair Color and Style </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up </li></ul><ul><li>Tattoos </li></ul><ul><li>Piercing </li></ul><ul><li>Jewelry </li></ul>
  69. 70. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Touch Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Touch (haptics) is very important for babies and people of all ages . </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  70. 71. Touch Communication – 5 categories: <ul><li>1. Functional professional touch – has a specific reason. Example: doctor’s office </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social polite touch – acknowledge someone else. Example: handshake </li></ul><ul><li>3. Friendship warmth touch – hugs between friends. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Love-intimacy touch – usually between parent-child and lovers. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Arousal touch – used as expression attraction. </li></ul>
  71. 72. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Touch Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intention to Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeting and Departure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-Related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch Avoidance </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  72. 73. Touch Communication: <ul><li>1929 US Government study of orphans. </li></ul><ul><li>Orphans dying prematurely. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Marasmaras </li></ul><ul><li>Greek word = “to waste away.” </li></ul>
  73. 74. Touch Communication: <ul><li>Touch increases mental and physical functioning, self-disclosure and compliance and tips for waiters and waitresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-touchers: China, Japan, Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Touchers: Italy, France, Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral: USA, Germany </li></ul>
  74. 75. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Chronemics = the study of time </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Past, Present, or Future </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Time Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Monochronemic - fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Polychronemic – not fixed </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  75. 76. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Taste Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Messages </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  76. 77. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Territories </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Territories </li></ul><ul><li>Public Territories </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial Markers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earmarkers </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  77. 78. Types of territoriality: <ul><li>Primary territory – your exclusive areas. E.g. your desk, room, house, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In these areas you are in control and have great influence over others. </li></ul>
  78. 79. Types of territoriality: <ul><li>Secondary territory – Areas that do not belong to you, but because you have occupied them for a period of time, they are associated or assigned to you. E.g. desk at work or in classroom, a certain spot in the cafeteria, a certain table at the restaurant. Spots or areas you have or feel a certain ownership-like attachment. </li></ul>
  79. 80. Types of territoriality: <ul><li>Public territory – Public areas that are open to all people. E.g. park, movie theater, restaurant, beach, etc. </li></ul>
  80. 81. Territorial Markers <ul><li>Central markers – items you place in a territory to reserve it. E.g. books on your desk or a sweater on a chair to let others know it’s yours. </li></ul>
  81. 82. Territorial Markers <ul><li>Boundary markers – divides your territory from others. Examples: At the supermarket line, you place the bar between your items and another’s or even arm rests in the movies. </li></ul>
  82. 83. Territorial Markers <ul><li>Earmarkers – taken from the practice of branding animals on their ears, are those identifying marks that indicate your possession of a territory or an object. E.g. trademarks, name plates and initials on shirts or briefcases. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: <ul><li>Violation - Most extreme and causes “turf defense.” When you cannot tolerate intruders you may choose to defend your territory and expel the intruders. </li></ul><ul><li>We see this with gangs defending their streets or neighborhood by fighting other gangs. </li></ul>
  84. 85. Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: <ul><li>A less extreme is insulation – a strategy where you set up a barrier of some type between your self and the invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people will do this with sunglasses to avoid eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Others put up fences in their yards or partitions at the office. </li></ul>
  85. 86. Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: <ul><li>Contamination – using, disturbing, breaking, and moving someone else property and/or space. Can also include adding your belongings to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Working at someone’s desk when they are not present. </li></ul><ul><li>Home is robbed or car is broken into and items destroyed or stolen. </li></ul><ul><li>Placing a jacket on someone’s chair. </li></ul>
  86. 87. Improving your nonverbal communication: <ul><li>How do people react to you? Are you surprised? Watch your nonverbal communication to take an inventory of how you speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Videotape your nonverbal communication so you can observe you nonverbal behaviors. </li></ul>
  87. 88. Improving your nonverbal communication: <ul><li>Match your nonverbal communication and your role. Are they in sync? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you use your space? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you use time? </li></ul>
  88. 89. Improving your nonverbal communication: <ul><li>Are you a toucher or nontoucher? </li></ul><ul><li>Step outside of your comfort zone or box and try new ways of nonverbal communication. </li></ul>

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