CNIPMMR



                            Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017       Communication



"This project has been...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
Training module: Communication                                                                                      Pilot ...
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  1. 1. CNIPMMR Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 Communication "This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." TRAINING MODULE COMMUNICATION THE MODULE WAS DEVELOPED BY: The National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises of Romania (CNIPMMR) Contents: ● INTRODUCTION a. Introduction into the topic b. Terms used c. Scope d. Categories of users e. Details on the organisation who created the module ● MODULE CONTENT CHAPTER 1: COMMUNICATION PROCESS CHAPTER 2: TYPES OF COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 3: COMPETENCES OF COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 4: IMPROVEMENT OF THE COMMUNICATION COMPETENCES CHAPTER 5: REVIEW, CONCLUSIONS ● CASE STUDIES, EXAMPLES ● BIBLIOGRAPHY • INTRODUCTION: a. Introduction into the topic The module aims to the acknowledgement with the usual communication terms and techniques in business, but also the presentation of the methods of communication improvement. Likewise, the module aims to provide information related to the improvement of the business communication, the way of creating the profile and interacting with our interlocutor by using the analysis of the handwriting, tone and speaking rhythm, how to make the usual documents used in business and also how to understand and use in our advantage the language of the body, the space, the clothing, the time, the silence, the colours and so 1/24
  2. 2. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 on. In conclusion, the subjects that will be discussed are essential for anyone who desires to communicate in an efficient way, whichever may be his professional environment. b. Terms used Communication: the communication is an interpersonal process of transmission and reception of symbols endowed with significance. The communication is a transmission of information for which an answer is waited for. (Jose Aranguren). Organization communication: the efficacious communication may have a direct and positive impact on the company’s balance, particularly by opening new business opportunities. Communication with the employees: a good communication confers to the employees a sense of the improvement and recognition of their own value. The employees must be informed and involved in the company’s activity. Communication with the community: providing relevant information for the community in which you act in order to be considered a good neighbour. You may distinguish yourself to other companies, by underlining your innovative, ethical, transparent and open to business attitude. Communication with mass-media: the media is one of the most efficacious way of communicating the message to a as wide as possible public. Communication by written: it may be under the form of information bulletin, memo type announcements or e-mail, Internet sites, magazines and online video clips, published magazines, publishing of articles in specialized magazines, annual reports, technical reports, press communicates, letters of presentation, invitations, etc. Verbal communication: elements related to the content and the meaning of the words and elements related to the sonorous expression of the human voice. Non-verbal communication: between 50% and 95% from the transmitted message depend on the manner of communication, not on what we communicate. Competences of communication: refer to the technical and social competences required for an effective exchange of information with the others. c. Aim According to some of the most representative definitions of the communication, 126 formulations suggested by different authors and having been gathered in a book by the American researchers Frank E.X. Dance and Carl E. Larson, almost twenty years ago, we may say the communication is a  transactional process: where the two actors – the transmitter and the receiver – exchange information in a certain context, attenuated or distortional information by the communication parasites (noises – disturbing factors), that engenders a certain retroaction (feedback) and certain effects;  complex: the information are generally encoded in a message – a set of symbols of verbal communication and non verbal communication – transported from the transmitter to the receiver by means of a certain media channel;  inevitable and continuous. The communication is rarely carried out by only one channel. In most cases, any message is encoded both by symbols of the verbal communication (messages encoded by words), and by symbols of the non verbal communication (gestures, emotions, looks, etc.). Taking into account that the communication represents the understanding between people and groups, it is an interdependent and continuous process and an agreement is not necessarily reached, it is not possible to say that there is a field in which we do not communicate continuously and receive continuously pieces of information from the others. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2/24
  3. 3. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 d. Categories of users Depending on the target group, besides the top or average management – general manager, assistant director, sales manager, human resources advisors, area directors from the IMM with production activity, services, retail trade or distribution, advisors, contractors, specialized personnel in the financial field, employees, there may be organizational communication, communication with the employees, communication with the community, communication with the mass-media. • MODULE CONTENT CHAPTER 1: COMMUNICATION PROCESS By the communication, we aim to be understood (by the senses), in general, seen, heard, listened to or read, to be understood, to be accepted, to provoke a reaction, a change of behaviour or attitude. Learning objectives:  Components of the communication COMPONENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION Context: when do we communicate?; why do we communicate?; what is our objective? Physical environment: determination of the most usual places in which conversations take place (in the street, at the shop, in taxi, on trips, at the place of work, at the physician’s, etc.). Communication climate: it may be negative or positive. Message: the message is the basic unit of the communication, situated at the intersection between the communication and the representation of reality. It may consist of: written pr pronounced words, visual images, music, noise, signs, symbols, colours, gestures, etc. The dimension of the message originality is given by the information. The message includes what we believe and feel, information (facts, opinions, experiences, emotions, attitudes and beliefs), actions, and expected answers. Communicators: the transmitter transmits by a transmission channel (communication), a deliberate message, to the receiver. Both the transmitter and the receiver are characterized by socio-cultural, psychological, behaviour factors. Communication channels: they are based on the presence of the communication partners (direct communication/face to face), interactive channels (phone, e-mail, messenger), personal static channels (memories, letters, reports), impersonal static channels (files, bulletins, reports, magazines, books). Language: it is the way of expressing the ideas and the communication mean of the ideas from a man to another. Language means a whole of signs used in order to express and transmit feelings and ideas.  Language and tongue: the tongue is only a certain type of language.  Sign: all that can be useful in the people’s communication, namely natural not systemized signs (gestures, mimic expressions, cries) and systemized signs: conventional written language, language of the deaf-mute (totality of gestures and signs done with the fingers), articulated language, the word, the language itself.  The language consists in the sight (mean of communication by images, paintings), hearing, sense of touch, gestures, mimic, articulated words.  The language of the gestures and signs expresses especially emotions and practical needs.  The ideas and the judgments are expressed by the articulated word, the word being their exteriorization form and sometimes the image of the ideas. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3/24
  4. 4. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017  The gestures and the sound that express an emotion do not become language until they are understood by other people, when they are consciously chosen in order to communicate to the others what we wish or feel. Noises: they may be obstacles, distortions, barriers. Feedback: the communication does not mean to say something in order to be listened to and understood. People hear only what they want to, i.e. what are useful to their interests. The feedback had three basic functions: assurance, adjustment, understanding. CHAPTER 2: TYPES OF COMMUNICATION The communication involves the expression of personal ideas, feelings or emotions, their understanding by other people. Learning objectives:  Types of communication  Objectives of communication  Styles of communication  Efficacy of communication TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Depending on different criteria, the communication may be: interpersonal, group, public, mass, vertical, horizontal, verbal, para-verbal, non verbal, mixed, accidental, subjective, instrumental, unidirectional, bidirectional, referential, operational-methodological, attitudinal communication • Interpersonal communication: it involves strictly two participants and has the following objectives: the interlocutor’s persuasion, self knowledge, discovery of the exterior world, determination and conservation of significant relationships with other human beings, helping mutual aid, game and divertissement. William Schutz defines „the interpersonal needs” as being the need of inclusion, need of control and need of affection. • Group communication: hypostasis of the interpersonal communication. It supposes more than two participants. The group formation is determined by the existence of a common objective and had as essential feature, until recently, the participants’ physical approximation. This „obstacle” is exceeded at present by the continuous development of the technical means: phone (teleconferences), computer (internet), etc. • Public communication: it supposes the presence of a unique transmitter and a multitude of receivers. There are three conceptions (theories), that, from the chronological point of view have successively dominated the theoretical approach of the communication sciences: o The action theory or the target theory. It oversizes the orator’s part in detriment of the audience (the public). According to this theory, the orators’ qualities – natural and/or exercised are enough so that he could be understood by any audience, considered a passive receiver. Example: the philosophic speech – that prefers the orientation to the truth, more often than to a more or less informed public. o The interaction theory or the ping-pong theory. It recognizes the important part of the interlocutor. It allows a new conception about communication, based on the notice of its cooperative character. Example: the existence of an answer (feedback), the alternation of the replies supposing the successive change of the receiver part in the transmitter, the communication reminding in this case the ping-pong game that gave it the name. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4/24
  5. 5. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 o The transaction theory or the spiral theory. It has appeared as a consequence of the development of the researches over the non verbal communication. It recognizes the communicative value of the behaviour. • Mass communication: it supposes the obligatory presence of one of the mass communication institutions (written or audiovisual press) and it must have one of the following forms: book production, written press, radio or television broadcasting. The mass communication functions are the information function, the interpretation function, the instructive-cultural function, the connection function, the divertissement function. Depending on the target group, the communication may be: organization communication, communication with the employees, communication with the community, communication with mass-media. • Organization communication: an efficacious communication may have direct and positive impact on the enterprise’s balance, especially by opening new business opportunities. Other beneficial results deriving from the communication may be: bigger levels of satisfaction and loyalty of the clients, improvement of the company’s reputation, as well as of the marks and product, employees more motivated and more productive, better relationships with the local community and the public authorities, larger savings from the point of view of the costs. The organization communication may be formal (ascendant communication, descendent communication, horizontal communication) and informal (the rumours). The communication at organization level is carried out on four levels:  Level 1: operational level – communication about the activity of the enterprise: subjects related to the marker, relationships with the local suppliers, conservation and satisfaction of the clients, product’s safety, quality of the product/service, disclosure of information, labeling and package, ethics of marketing and advertisement, consumers’ rights, post sale services and consumers’ education, criteria for the selection of the business partners, working and life conditions.  Level 2: motivational information – subjects related to the place of work: innovative actions started by your company, improvement of the working conditions, wages, benefits, creation of places of work, actions of improvement of the work satisfaction, health, safety, employees’ training and development, equal opportunities upon employment, diversity, equilibrium between work/life (flexible working programme, equilibrium between family and work) for your employees.  Level 3: promotion information – subjects related to the community: voluntary activities supported by the company, sponsorships, methods through which the company promotes the economic regeneration, efforts of improvement of the social integration, (ethnic tolerance and social cohesion), of the health assistance or the education within the community, the quality of life (entertaining or cultural activities), local infrastructure and safety.  Level 4: general information – subjects related to the environment: methods of environment protection, method of conservation of energy pr water, reduction of the air and water pollution, reduction of the degree of use of dangerous chemical products, reduction of wastes quantity. Who speaks about your company? The answer is: everyone, the competitors, the employees, the clients, the consumers, the business partners, the suppliers, the neighbours and the investors, but also the press, the consumers partnerships, the syndicates, the public authorities, the community organizations and institutions and event the concerned non profit organizations. There are many communication methods in an enterprise: meetings, information bulletin, special events, reports, posters, leaflets, prospectus, web sites, advertisements, information maps, product labels, packages, etc. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5/24
  6. 6. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 • The communication with the employees: the employees must be informed and involved in the company’s activity. The efficient mean of communication with the employees depends on the number of employees and the available resources (experience, time, funds, infrastructure, etc.) For example, in case of a small IT company, the communication is made more by the intranet network and by e-mail, than in case of a small textiles factory. The employees have a maximum performance when they: know what they are expected to do, what duties and power they have, what chances they have to express the opinions related to the problems affecting them. A good communication confers to the employees a sense of the involvement and recognition of their own value. If there is no communication, the employees make suppositions: communicate! The telepathy has not been proved yet. The communication with the employees may be of group or individual. The ordinary means used for the communication with the employees are: information bulletins, announcements, letters, meetings. The group communication is essential for the efficacy of the team work and it depends on the group size. The bigger is the group, the more difficult is the communication. The group structure: the communication is better in informal group than in those with a clear hierarchical structure. The group composition: the communication is better in the joint groups. The working physical environment: an agreeable climate may enable the exchange of information. The group communication is carried out by:  Regular meetings with all the employees: the smaller is an enterprise, the easier is to organize regularly meetings with the employees. Each meeting is an opportunity of informing the personnel of the company’s progresses and a unique opportunity of obtaining a feedback from them.  The orientation of the new employees: it is probably the less used, but it is the most important opportunity of informing the employees about the values of the company upon their employment.  Annual meetings: the annual meetings may be an excellent channel of organizational communication. It is used speeches, video clips or presentation prospectuses. There are moments for answers and questions. Financial analysts and journalists from the financial media may also participate at the meeting.  Face to face meetings: the face to face meetings may not be limited to the members of the concerned organizations, and it is possible to invite neuter groups hoping to consolidate alliances with them, for the future problems or opportunities.  Suggestions box: the suggestions boxes are an excellent way of involving the employees in the company’s activity. Some of them may have new ideas that the company could wish adopt and other ones may suggest how to improve or to adjust the existing initiatives.  Posters, signs and banners: the posters and the banners are easy to make and cheap enough. They may be placed in the employees’ passage area and they represent a good visual stimulant. The signs comprise information about the legislative modifications or the changes related to the employees’ benefits. • Communication with the community: providing relevant information for the community where you act may have many advantages. If you are considered a good neighbour, this _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6/24
  7. 7. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 may help you to distinguish yourself towards other companies, underlining your innovative, ethical, transparent attitude, and opened to business. There are many ways of communicating to the people information about the company’s activity:  Advertising prospectuses and materials, lists of correspondence. Having updated lists with names and addresses of the people who have shown a clear interest to your company is a first step very important for the communication with them. It is advisable to have separate lists for different target groups, as they are interested in different types of information.  Information bulletins and public reports. The information bulletin and the public reports regularly distributed are excellent methods to inform the clients and other concerned groups of what is happening within the enterprise.  Internet.  Public events.  Web Sites: if the enterprise has a website, it must definitely inform the visitors about the obtained performances. The websites are extremely useful, as they provide information to each category of target public and as they may be easily, rapidly and cheaply updated.  Advertising: the advertisements, as well as the product labels and the websites, offer an opportunity of reaching the numerous target groups – especially clients and consumers. Such advertisements may also attract new employees who wish to work in a company with a good image.  Product labels and packages: the information from the labels or the packages of the products has a huge importance for the clients and the consumers. The labels may differentiate a company‘s products from those belonging to the competition.  Internal/external events: a new idea may be launched by organizing a specific event, for instance, a reception or a press conference, a festivity to celebrate some excellent results or the conclusion of a certain project. The company’s representatives may speak at events organized by the public authorities, ONG, other organizations.  Day of the open doors: the organizations supplying interesting goods and services may organize days of the open doors by which it is possible to attract the community’s sympathy, as well as new consumers/clients.  Tours of the organization, offer of prospectuses, special gifts (coffee cups, lighters or other objects with the organization logo and name), meetings and speeches from the hosts. • Communication with mass-media: media is one of the more efficacious ways of communication of the message to a wide public. However, many people hesitate in dealing with the journalists. What does „news” mean for a journalist? There are some features by which a situation may be presented in the press. The best news usually combines several of the following: people (local relevant celebrities, oppressed people, heroes), something extraordinary or special, extreme situations (the more recent, the first, the greatest, the smallest, the cheapest, the fastest). Type of mass-media communications:  The press news: ideally, it is an objective and direct news, written and distributed to the appropriate media channels. If, for instance, the X Company, with many subsidiaries in the country, celebrates the opening of new subsidiaries, then the news will have to reach the cities where the X Company is present and where the news has a local interest.  The video press news: the video press news is usually sent to the televisions channels. They are made so that they could seem television outside broadcast. They are _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7/24
  8. 8. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 transmitted in a finalized form, good to be transmitted without other changes. Usually, the video press news also includes a part of not edited image that can be used by the journalists when they want to make an own version of the news.  Actualities: they represent sound fragments for the radio receiving sets. There are “quotable quotations” that can be accompanied by press news. • Communication by written:  The information bulletins: although, probably, they are not efficacious for the very small enterprises, the internal regular bulletins may be very useful to inform the employees about what it happens within the companies.  Photo montage, video clips or presentation prospectus. For the company with many employees and many resources, the prospectuses or the video films about the company’s activity may be very useful. The clip must contain a message. The special clips or the video newsletter may be transmitted on the screens from the employees’ canteens and in the places where they spend their breaks. They also may be transmitted by e-mail.  Announcement of the type memo or e-mail: a simple way of informing the employees of the company’s efforts is sending regular announcements or e-mails. This is one of the cheapest methods of communicating with the employees, but the written communication is not enough and has not to replace the communication face to face with the personnel.  Intranet: website with controlled access, for internal use, to inform the employees about the company’s activities. Like the suggestion boxes, the intranet networks allow obtaining feedback from the employees. The Intranet provides: and internal site with description of the departments, newsletters with the results of the organization and points of interest, e- mail accounts for the employees, online magazines and video-clips, employment opportunities and promotion, etc.  Writing e-mail messages that should include the purpose of the message (to whom, why, why is the message sent?), the title of the message (the subject line must be used in order to give a relevant title to the message), the three essential elements of the sage (content, form, style), simple style, clear language, punctuation marks, files attached to the message (text, images, sounds, video). Be careful with the sizes of the attached documents, the applications in which they may be read/edited the attached files, viruses. As the messages confidentiality is uncertain, it is necessary to check out the company’s internal regulation before sending confidential information by e-mail. Attach a business card with the company’s data (letter with a header), attach a legal note. The e-mail messages represent official communications, that’s why it is necessary to avoid the offensive, vexing, inappropriate, illegal, racist or sexist messages. Materials protected by copyright will not be disseminated without the written permission. It is not allowed to contact prohibited organizations.  Personal messages: check out the company’s internal regulation before using the facilities provided by the company to personal purposes.  Magazines published internally: as they are more difficult to make, the magazines usually do not include last hour information. They may be sent by regular mail or they may be published online. The magazines may include subjects as: the objectives of the organization, changes of the management, lines of new products, other elements that can have influence on the company’s performances.  Articles published in specialized magazines. The specialized magazines accept and publish well written articles, potentially interesting for the readers.  Speeches: a speech gives to the employees the feeling that the organization’s leader is interested that they should be involved in the long term plans of the organization. If the organization is interested in the continuous improvement, then a speech followed by a _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8/24
  9. 9. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 session of questions and answers may promote the organization’s point of view and may facilitate obtaining the desired results.  Annual reports: the annual reports include recent financial information, comparisons between the annual turnover, description of the organization management, a letter from the organization leader who speaks about the position and the direction of the organization. The annual reports are sent to the shareholders, to the financial analysts, media with economic profile and to the potential investors who requests a copy of the report. Many organizations place this report on the Internet site, too.  The Internet Sites represent an efficacious mean of communication. The data may be continuously updated, there are links to the e-mail addresses, introduced news and special statements, video tours thorough the company, transcription of recent speeches, annual report, etc.  The Extranet is a computerized network with controlled access, similar to the intranet. Minimally, the extranet includes a website and e-mail. Unlike the intranet, the extranet has a wider coverage that includes other organization from the business environment.  Letters more intimate than the newsletters and the magazines.  The databases allow the companies sending customized letters to the investors, to the actual and potential customers.  The letter of presentation may be a substitute for the press news. The letter of presentation is a letter sent to a journalist. It presents a story that can be no so important, but is still interesting. Unlike the press news that is transmitted to all the media in the same time, the letter of presentation is transmitted only to a channel and, thus, has an exclusive character.  The invitation is generally handed in directly to the invited person. It is usually sent by regular mail or by a messenger, and only in extraordinary cases by fax or e-mail. It must be printed on a higher quality paper. The name of the invited person must appear on the envelope. It is necessary to result from the invitation content “an estimate of the invited person’s competences, a flattering and the certitude he is desired and important”. The content, the form and the style of the invitation depend on the nature and the proportions of the manifestations. It is advisable to print the word “INVITATION” before the beginning formula. The information included in the invitation has to answer the five general questions: o Who? (identity and quality of the host, identity and quality of the invited person, if the invited person comes alone or accompanied, the other persons who are invited any more). o What? (the event or the occasion for which the invitation is done). o When? (the date, day, hour of the event, the requested degree of punctuality. In case the event is long, the invitation has to include a detailed schedule, which will be, of course, observed). o Where? (the exact address, the street, the number, area, pavilion, floor, other orientation references or indications – on the invitation reverse, it is possible to make a short description of the building). o How? (references related to the event, the full programme of the manifestation, the order of the day, the final promise if the meeting is followed by a cocktail/buffet/celebration dinner, the indications related to the outfit of the invited persons my be welcomed: “white tie”, “sport outfit”, “preferable suit”).  Drawing up of the technical report: the technical report is o type of written communication. It has a particularly informative character, it has a variable extent, it is targeted to a restrained public or group. The characteristic sections of the standard report _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9/24
  10. 10. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 format are: abstract, thanks, content, introduction, objectives of the report, theoretical aspects, methods, procedures and experiments, presentation of the results, discussions and interpretation, conclusions, recommendations, bibliography, appendices. Structure your report by using titles, graphical representations. It is well known the drawing up is an iterative process, requires 2-3 rewritings. The final version must have a visual impact, particular quality, preferably written at the computer, a correct length, clarity, fluency.  The Media kits are used to make public complex news that have a lot of valuable elements. For instance, the televisions use the media kits in order to promote the transmissions from the future season. A media kit includes at least a piece of press news, enclosed by supporting documents. Two of the most used documents of this type are: o Fact sheet: a fact sheet usually includes data of the type what – who – where – why – how, from the press news. The fact sheet is a well organized list of facts. o Backgrounder: it is a supplement of the press news. It comprises useful background information about a person from the organization mentioned in the news, about the organization itself. It may contain testimonials from the satisfied clients. It may contain photos opportunities sheets (what, who, when and where) – special instructions for photos, maps. It may include prospectuses, products samples or any other supporting document or object to make the decision of publishing the news.  The press release: it describes a piece of information, a point of view, a position or an official document of possible interest for the public, transmitted to be published by a body or a person. It has the character of the news aimed to diffusion, mentioning that it is drawn up is made by people that are not employees of the newspapers or radio or TV studios. The drawing up of the press release is carried out depending on the features of the chosen body. The steps to be made for the drawing up of a press release: o Check out if the news we wish to make public may awaken the interest of the written press and public. o Check out the information we dispose of. o The release is printed, generally, in A4 format, on blank, simple paper, without or without a header and without decorative borders. All the borders have between two and three centimeters. o The transmitter’s identification box is placed in the upper left corner and has tot include the name of the institution, the full address, the name of the person of contact, the phone number (from the institution headquarters, from home, even a number that can be called by the editor at night, at the closure of the newspaper edition). o The identification box of the release includes mentions related to the date and hour of the release broadcasting and is placed in the right corner, lower than the address. o The corpus of the press release starts at a third party of the page, as the blank space should be used by the editor for different annotations. o The title must be placed between the identification box and the release corpus, aligned to the left. It will not exceed the company’s address with more than a few characters; if necessary, it may be broken into two parts, maximum three superposed lines. It is necessary to write in capitals, and the last line will be underlined. The title has to invite to reading. In order to reach this purpose, the title will be short, as explicit and exciting as possible, with a not too formal tone, in no way in a bureaucratic tone. o The lead (the initial paragraph) is the opening reply or “the attach sentence” resuming the news essence. As a rule, it is distinguished from the rest of the text by the italic or _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10/24
  11. 11. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 bold character, it will include a large part of the answers at the questions who?, what?, where?, when?, why? and will not occupy more than 5-6 text lines. o The text itself of the press release will develop the initial paragraph, presenting the information in descendent order of their importance. This structure of “reversed pyramid” allows an easier lecture, and, from reasons of space or low information interest, it is possible to give up the last paragraphs. o The release text is written at double line, never at one line. If it exceeds one page, it is necessary to specify “continue” in the footnote. o In the low part of the page, it is necessary to appear the first and last name and the signature of the person authorizing the release transmission, eventually the organization stamp. o The Dateline is the box on the right, placed between the title and the lead, specifying the place and the date of the release drawing up. o The used language in the press release must be simple and accessible to the public, without precious expression of excess of jargon. o The short quotations will vivify the text.  Taking notes: write titles for each part of the conference (highlighted, underlined and/or numerated), only in this way your notes will be well structured. Make sure that everything the lecturer presents visually is found in the taken notes or in a written presentation. Use only one colour (black or white) for the main part of your notes and other colours for the additional information or for the schemes. Use distinctive signs to lend importance to the relevant things (ex.: use of symbols as *, for the important matters; +, for notes that have to be filled in;?, for something not understood and that must be resumed).  Propaganda: type of communication integrated in extremely antagonist social relationships. The stake of this communication is the opposition between truth and false, transmission of a conflictive vision, of an incompatibility of the vision on the world suggested by the source and that suggested by an adverse party. • Verbal communication: elements related to the content and the meaning of the words. Elements related to the sonorous expression of the human voice. With this respect, it is possible to make a distinction between two types of language: verbal language or what people communicate by pronouncing and decoding the meaning of the words and the paraverbal language or what people communicate by voice, volume, intonation, rhythm, tonality, accent, pauses, vocal manifestation without verbal content (laughter, voice clearing, groaning, sighing, lalling, champing, screams, cries, whistling etc.). The efficacious explanations must take into account the interlocutor’s point of view, to determine the importance of the subject for the person who listens to them, to check out the understanding, to repeat the message, to record by written the important details.  The speech: the experience of the inter-human communication shows there are four reasons for which a speech is delivered: wish of explanation or information about a matter, wish of persuading somebody of something, wish of describing something, wish of telling something. There are four types of speech: exposition, argument/persuasion, description, story. Structure of a speech: introduction, content, conclusions. All the speeches are carried out from the perspective of those who will listen to them or read them. o Introduction: greetings, personal presentation (first name and last name), subject enunciation, followed potentially by some specifications related to the choice of the presentation title. The presentation of the central idea of the speech (and the arguments), the explanation of the terms that are to be used, defined, if necessary. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11/24
  12. 12. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 o Content: opening of the speech with an anecdote or a joke, reference to the objectives and the aspects you want to approach within the proposed subject, use of a quotation not very long and relevant or the speech subject, development of the central idea, development of the arguments (premises, rationing, conclusion), examples (proofs) that could support the arguments, presentation of statistical fact or data. o Conclusions: explanation of the potential unclear elements appeared during the speech delivery (if they have a significant importance in sustaining the main idea), emphasis on the strong points of the speech, several statement with spectacular character, several interesting stories, overview on the entire speech, anticipation of some questions or delicate aspects. Delivery of the speech: do not start speaking until you make sure the public sit down and pays you all the attention. Establish a visual contact with the audience for approximately 20 seconds, study from one look the organization of your space, take a breath, and find the most comfortable position in front of the audience that is waiting to “hang” on your lips. Try not to use clichés or phony opening phrases as “I have the great pleasure of …”, do not thank or excuse in the first sentences of the speech / at least keep them for the end of the speech. Control your nervous state form the first minutes of the presentation (too alert rhythm of exposition or the trend of not looking at the public). Whichever might be the conjuncture situation, it is not advisable to modify completely the initial structure during the presentation. Finalization of the speech: there are more methods of concluding the presentation: presentation of punctual conclusions; answering some (rhetorical) questions in order to catch again the public’s attention; short jokes to illustrate the applicability of your ideas; invitation to the public of passing to action in the spirit of the statements from the presentation; use of quotation in order to underline the credibility of the exposed performances or results.  Exposition: it answers the intention of information and explanation in order to clarify an idea, analyze a situation, define a term, to give an indication. The exposition explains by making recourse to the understanding.  Argument/persuasion: they have the same purpose of convincing and clarifying. The difference consists in the used method: the persuasion makes use of the emotional appeal, involving a minimum of logic and underlining the communication with the audience in order to obtain a change of attitude, of point of view, of feelings. The argument uses the logic to obtain this change. The argument makes recourse to the understanding, but to the purpose of convincing the audience.  Description: the reflection as accurate as possible of the own experience. To give to the audience the „feeling” of the described things/events, the quality of the direct experience. The description may lead to understanding, but makes recourse especially to the: imagination, audience’s capacity of recreating the qualities of an object or event.  Story: it is the type of speech preoccupied by action, with events in progress and life in movement. Like the description, the story may lead to understanding, based on the imagination, of the audience’s capacity of recreating the qualities of an object or event.  Verbal presentation: the listeners do not want necessarily only information – they want to be taken into account, stimulated, involved, vivified. The public wishes to take part at a succeeded presentation, but usually is intolerant with several mistakes or hesitations. The success of the presentation depends on the maintaining of a permanent visual contact with the audience. It is good to look one by one at each group segment, and then a person or other one. However, it is necessary to avoid staring at only one person from a group, keeping the visual contact with a person for more than 5-6 seconds. o Planning: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12/24
  13. 13. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 a) Divide up the presentation in 3 or 4 parts with titles. An example of used format, with the approximate duration of time (max./min. in parentheses) is the following: introduction 3 min. (2 – 5 min.), content (1 or 2 sections) 6 min. (4 – 7 min.), summary or conclusions 1 min. (1 – 2 min.). b) Put down what you are telling, by using incisive titles, short sentences, structures, diagrams, tables/graphics/diagrams (visual aids). c) Prepare 3 – 4 transparencies, with the following characteristics: to be simple, to last for at most 2 minutes each one, to be structured so that they could help to the audience’s guidance and information. o Preparation of the presentation: a) Prepare the transparencies/the slides: use large drawings, use colours to underline, check out if they are visible from distance. b) Exercise the presentation: try to explain aloud all with respect to the transparencies. If you are nervous, write all these explanations, remove separately the titles for references, add something for diversity, if possible (visual aids, jokes). Read the presentation for 3 – 4 times, ideally in front of a friend, until you are satisfied with the content and the extent. o Use of visual means: the visual materials are aimed to orientate the public, to help to the creation of correlations and ideas connections, to complete what it is said and to form the written variant of your words. The verbal presentation usually is not sufficient, it is necessary to be associated or reiterated by graphical procedures, as underlining, encircles, integration. The visual means include prepared to illustrate the answers at the audience’s anticipated questions. The number of transparencies must be correlated with the volume of information transmitted by the presentation and the available time. It is recommended that, for a 10 minutes presentation, approximately 10 transparencies should be prepared. If it is about a presentation of one hour, it is necessary a ruled sheet every 2-3 minutes. Whichever might be the number of transparencies, it is necessary to observe the rules of orthography, punctuation marks and expression. o The presentation itself: before beginning, check out if the overhead projector and the transparencies are operational / the video-projector is compatible to the computer. Try to have a relaxed and confident position. Don’t hurry, refer to the transparency, but also look as much as possible at the audience. The end of the presentation: try to finish with a high point (something successful), make clear your intention of coming to an end. After the presentation, wait for the feedback – you need a sincere friend that tells you the good and less good points from your presentation. • The press conference: it is an organized meeting between the organization’s representatives and journalists. It is carefully planned, only in situations that satisfy the following conditions: the news is very valuable, it is more advantageous that the meeting should take place with the journalists in group than individually. When a press conference is indeed necessary, invite the media and obtain by phone the confirmation of participation, plan up the strategy of the press conference, the adaptation of the organization’s interests with the media’s (media usually prefers the morning hours). • Press interview: a successful press interview means that you transmitted the message. If you accept to give an interview, practice beforehand with a mate or a friend, thus you will reduce your emotions and it allows you thinking at the best way of transmitting a clear message about the company’s activity. Don’t forget, people want stories easy to understand – it is advisable to avoid the specialized terms and the acronyms. Even if the journalists appreciate the stories sustained by key statistics, take care not to use too many. You will feel more secure of you know the following information before the interview: who the editor works for?, what is the publishing term of the report?, which is _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13/24
  14. 14. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 the trend or the accent of the story?, who else has the editor talked to for this report? What format will the interview have (personal, by phone, tape recorded, directly, in studio, etc.)? Several elementary pieces of advice for interviews: o Be concentrated: if the interview takes place at your headquarters, remove all the disturbing factors and ask your mates not to bother you. Close or redirect the phone and shut down the computer. o Be honest: if you don’t know how to answer a question, admit it and offer yourself to present afterwards that piece of information. o There is no “between us”, it is better to consider that all you tell to a reporter may be part of his news story. • Non-verbal communication: the way we write, we pronounce the words. What we “say” when we think we don’t communicate. Between 50% and 95% from the transmitted message depends on the way of communication, respectively, how friendly and attractive, how interesting, not from what we communicate, but from the involvement with the interlocutor. The non verbal communication is a combination of messages, not expressed by words and able to be decoded, thus creating significances. These signals may repeat, contradict, replace, complement or emphasize the message transmitted by words. Types of non verbal communication:  Paralanguage: the way of telling something.  The using way of the space for communication.  The language of the body: mimic, gestures. The totality of the body movements, positions and facial expressions by which a person communicates by non verbal ways with other persons.  The gesture: a non-verbal signal that denominates a body movement, position or the material expression that encodes or has influence on a concept, motivation or state of soul. It represents information, is neither material nor energy. The gestures include much more than the simple movements of the hands or other visible parts of the human body. The intonations of the voice may record attitudes and feelings as significant as clenching the fist, raising the shoulders, agitating the hand or raising the eyebrows.  Meta-communication: it comes as a complement of the communication. Any communication is developed on two plans: the plan of the content and the plan of the relationship, this latter defining the former one.  Face: situated in the front part of the head – it is, from the non verbal point of view, the most suggestive part of the human body, from the emotional point of view. The face defines the identity, expresses attitudes, opinions and mood, it shows the connection with the others, it is the visual mark of each human being.  Mimic: the way in which the features of the face present the thoughts inside of a person. The experimented speakers may make use of some tricks to assist them in the audience’s convincement. For instance, without saying in words that they are against an idea, they support it by ironically smiling, creating an opposition reaction towards what they say. o The smile, the element that helps the speaker to attract the public’s benevolence, because it transmits friendship, approach and self confidence. o The frowning transmits concentration, maximum attention, but also tension and rigidity. The frowned speaker transmits to the audience a state of tension that could degenerate into a separation. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14/24
  15. 15. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 o Sardonic grin (grimace of the face), induces the idea of insecurity.  The look: an important factor of the non verbal language. It represents the manner by which the connection between the speaker and the audience is conserved. If the look is not directed to the public, there is a feeling of insecurity and hiding of the truth. The permanent visual contact is decisive in order to gain the benevolence and the confidence. In case of a numerous public, in order to create the impression that everybody is looked at, the simplest possibility for a speaker is to look at the public under the shape of the Z letter, from the last seat on the left until the first seat on the right.  Gesture: the gestures made during a speech must attract the attention, without disturbing the public. The lack of the gestures makes the speech lose dynamism and become annoying. The excessive use of the gestures induces to the public a state of agitation, the result being the audience’s fatigue. The avoidance of the aggressive, nervous gestures, the hands held on the hips, the direction of the index to the audience, snapping, denoting indecision or insecurity, playing with different object, passing the hand by the hairs, arrangement of the hair.  The body position: if it is firm, but not rigid, it denotes the confidence in the own words. The orientation towards the public is a supporting element to catch the attention and keep it during the fulfillment of the speech/presentation.  The voice tone: the tone, the rhythm and the volume of the voice may be used to attract the attention and to persuade the public. The tone of the voice is the voice inflexion used by a speaker.  The voice volume: the volume is the voice intensity a speaker addresses to the public. Loud enough to be heard by the public, not very high, it may be understood as an aggression. are the size of the room, the size of the public, the level of the background noises.  Articulation of the words: the art of speaking intelligibly and to issue the adequate sounds by using the lips, the maxillary, the teeth and the tongue. The diction depends on the correct and full articulation of the consonants and the clear enunciation of the vowels.  Techniques of observation: the observation involves a careful and concentrated look. The observation may be subjective, as we have the trend of complementing the image of what we see in order to see what we expect seeing. The observation is efficacious when we identify in advance what we wish to observe, we observe at least twice and we record what we have observed.  The accentuation of the words: refers to the more intense and higher pronunciation of a syllable from a word or a word from a syntactic group. The accent has an important part in changing the meaning of the words and the inducement of messages collateral to the message transmitted by words.  The rhythm of speaking: it is given by the words pronunciation and it represents the way in which are alternated the accentuated words and the not accentuated words, as well as their frequency. The speaking rhythm is chosen depending on what it is desired to communicate, it may be: rare (approximately 200 syllable/minute), normal (around 350 syllable/minute) and fast (around 500 syllable/minute). For the accentuation of the important ideas within a speech, the rhythm breakings are used. A good speaker has to vary the speed of the words pronunciation, depending on the content and the general importance of the message.  The silence: the pauses between the words and sentences are clues about the speaker’s discursive intentions and aptitudes. His affective states, the short pauses divide the ideas inside a sentence. For the improvement of the non-verbal languages, several techniques are required: you’re your body towards the other person, lean a little, choose the same physical level / standing _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15/24
  16. 16. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 up or sitting down, ask for questions more than “speaking”, avoid the movements that can distract the attention, smile and move your head as an answer. For the increase of the non verbal communication capacities, there are some simple methods: rehearsal in front of the mirror, rehearsal in presence of a group (for instance, a group of friends who, based on pre-established criteria, can give a feedback), rehearsal in front of the video camera (the best method, as the speaker may analyze by himself the discourse and can watch his evolution in time). OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION The communication objectives are of two types: • Objectives of information about the company/the product or the campaign – are the most common and easy to obtain, but in the same time they are difficult to measure. • Objectives of motivation of some attitudes and behaviours – they are more difficult to reach, but easier to quantify. Example: “to attract the support of the leaders of opinion in promoting the projects of the ministry X in mass-media, in the following two months". Or: "to attract with 50% more visitors on the site of the company X, in the next month. In order to write the objective of the communication, it is necessary to take into account the nature of the aimed changes, the target public, the expected result, the degree of the change. For the formulation of the communication objectives, it is necessary:  To specify the intention: start with "to" and continue with the verb that describes the desired change. Examples: to increase, to reduce, to keep, to inform, to teach, to determine, to attract, to motivate, to induce, to associate, to maximize, to provoke, etc.  To specify the expected result: the results are related to the knowledge, information, education, recognition, difference, motivation, support, loyalty, behaviour, participation, involvement, measure. Each objective has to be centered on a unique type of result.  To specify the degree of the desired change in measurable terms. The objective must be quantifiable and realistic. This way, each objective will allow you reaching it based on some indicators.  To establish a term for reaching the objective. It is advisable that the results should be successively obtained, so the dates must be established in time. Assessment of the communication objectives The established communication objectives have to be assessed. A list is drawn up, comprising the required indicators, as, for instance: the number of persons that participated at the event, the number of persons that accessed the company’s site, the number of persons from the target public that participated at the communication, etc. Measurement of the indicators It is identified the measurement instruments specific to each chosen equipments. The instruments are: monitoring of the press and analysis of the articles/news content, the opinion polls, the focus-groups, the interviews, systems of registration of the participants at different events (ex: tickets, invitations, online registrations, etc), the analysis of the records of public institutions, obtained database with contacts of the strategic partners, system of authentication of a site visitors, contracting some specialized institutions of quality and quantity research, etc. STYLES OF COMMUNICATION Depending on the dominance degree and the sociability degrees, 4 styles of communication are distinguished: emotive style, directive style, reflexive style, obliging style. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16/24
  17. 17. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 Dominance (D) = tendency of showing a parental and constant attitude of dominating, taking control or controlling the time and the space destined to the bilateral or group communication. Sociability (S) = aptitude of establishing without difficulty relationships with the others. Optimum: Flexible style EFFICACY OF COMMUNICATION Efficacy of communication for the transmitter: all what he wishes to say, all it is necessary to say, all he would like to say, all he succeeded to say. Efficacy of communication for the receiver: what he thinks he was told, what he expected to have been told, what he is listening to, what he understands, what he assimilates, what he feels. What we can remember: 10 % din from what we read, 15 % from what we listen to, 25 % from what we see, 40 -50 % from what we find out by audio-visual methods (we can hear and see), 70% from what we repeat verbally and by written, 80 % from what we apply by practical methods, 90 % from what we apply by practical methods accompanied by comments. The efficient communication consists in transmission of the information to a target group – as the mates, the clients, the consumers or the suppliers – relevant both for the objectives of your company and for the target group. CHAPTER 3: COMPETENCES OF COMMUNICATION The chapter refers to the technical and social competences required for an effective exchange of information with the others, respectively active listening/asking questions, grammar and orthography, methods of presentation, speaking in public, non verbal communication, social label, revision, verbal competences, written communication. The communication competences may be: − Direct: linguistic, discursive, situation, para-verbal competences. − Of expression: expressivity, rhythm, tone, accent, pauses, breath, etc. − Indirect: psycho-linguistic, intellectual, social, cultural, informational. − Of vocabulary: orthography, grammar. − Of gestures: mimic, look. Objective of learning:  Active listening  Presentation of data  Feedback  Barriers and filters in communication  Techniques of catching the attention ACTIVE LISTENING The optimal solution for the fluidization of the communication is the permanent exercise of the active listening, total opening to the interlocutor, the permanent opening towards the subject of the communication without taking over the initiative, the acceptance of other person’s opinion without showing immediately the sagacity or the impatience, prevention of the ideas expressed by him, stimulation of the interlocutor in order to discover his point of view without evaluating it and without issuing a priori opinions. The encouraging of the communication is made by an attitude of respect and consideration. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17/24
  18. 18. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 A good listener listens to what he is told and even what he is not told. He is concentrated on the speaker – words, gestures, states. He accepts, he encourages the expression, he asks for clarifying details, he summaries, does not interrupt, takes notes, keeps the visual contact, he has the position oriented to the speaker, he smiles. • Techniques of listening: most of the people listen less than they should. Why? − We have too much concerns ... − It is not always silence to hear well... − We don’t feel like listening from the beginning... − We have neither time, nor patience.... There are a lot of psychic and physical barriers against listening. In order to exceed these barriers: − Look and show your interest. − Identify the main ideas. − Don’t judge the interlocutor. − Check out if you correctly understood. − Don’t let your emotions have influence on you. − Take notes, encourage the speaker. − Pay attention to the non verbal communication. Several recommendations for a good listening: advance with small steps in the presentation, associate the facts with the emotions, do not involve in conversations, but think about what they are saying, "listen” with the eyes (the non verbal communication). The failure of listening is caused by: lack of concentration, lack of interest, exclusive preoccupation to the own person, concentration on what you will tell, lack of confidence in what you are told, incapacity of following the arguments of the other person. • Technique of questions: when a non compliance is recorded between the message and the reaction of the interlocutor, the simplest method of re-fluidizing the message is by asking questions. By the correct succession of the questions, a plus of information is obtained, a new stimulation for dialogue, reorganization of the discussion, reformulation of the arguments, checkout of the level of perception of the transmitted message, demonstration of the competence through the relevancy of the question, enabling of the self-arguing from the interlocutor. • Techniques of interrogation: the main types of questions are: open questions, closed questions, test questions, reflexive questions, oriented questions, multiple questions. Different types of questions determine different types of answers. The questions are not only a mean of obtaining information; they are also a strong method of changing the attitudes. Don’t hurry to break the silence after asking a question. PRESENTATION OF DATA  Data: fact or idea, presented in a formal mode, susceptible to be used or manipulated (description in figures and letters of some actions, processes, facts, phenomena). Some data have informative character. The data may be classified according to their content and may be primary when supplying elementary and secondary information, when it results from the aggregation of the primary data. According to their type, the data may be basic – fixed and auxiliary data – variable data. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18/24
  19. 19. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017  Information: the significance that is attributed to a date by the conventions used for their communication. Types of information: − According to the method of expression: oral, written, audio-visual. − According to the processing degree: primary, intermediary, final. − According to the transmission direction: ascending, descending, horizontal. − According to the method of organization of the record and processing: technical- operational, of accounting record, statistical. − According to the background: exogenous (from the exterior of he enterprise). − Endogenous (from the interior of the enterprise). − According to the destination: internal, external. − According to the nature of their observation: continuous, discrete.  Gathering, processing and presentation of the data: The data gathering is carried out by directly recording the observed facts, the interrogation of the execution and management personnel, the facts record based on the existing documents. The data processing is carried out by systematizing the data, calculating several indicators, confronting and comparing the data, checking out the conclusions and hypothesis, consolidation of the prognosis calculations. Presentation of data: the data may be statistical (text, tables, statistical series, graphical representations), or not statistical (diagrams, logical diagrams, drawings, etc.). FEEDBACK For an efficacious communication, it is essential to use for the feedback positive language, positive not dubitative terms; the sentences should be short and coherent, the verbs must be at the present tense, the confuse expression should be avoided, to make reference to concrete subjects, to illustrate with positive examples. The feedback is required for learning and contributes to the motivation. The Feedback must be expressed by the employee and the manager, expressed as fast as possible after the occurrence of the event, in a reasonable measure. It should be recorded as specific and objective information, not as a critique. The feedback must be the transmitter’s property. How we offer the feedback: we refer to concrete actions, we bring arguments, we describe, not evaluate, we use neuter terms, we bring criticism in individual discussions, not in group, we issue our opinion clearly and concisely. How we receive the feedback: we listen carefully, we identify the confusing problems and the divergences of opinions, we master our exaggerated reactions, we paraphrase and check out our perceptions, we request examples. BARRIERS AND FILTERS IN COMMUNICATION • Barriers: any obstacle blocking the communication. The obstacles in the communication may be the blockage, the interference, the filtering, the information distortion. • Negative attitudes inhibiting the communication: the most frequent attitudes classified as being negative are the following: focus on the dialogue result; focus on the exposed problem, thus ignoring the reaction and the non verbal signals of the interlocutor; the focus on the own opinions and points of view; the permanent attitude of evaluation or/and of interpretation. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19/24
  20. 20. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 Taking into account the features of the communication that is a transactional process, the communication is intentional, but inevitable and irreversible, the success tactics applied in the communication is the focus on the client. • The communication by philters is carried out taking into account the interests, values, prejudices, attitudes, suppositions, memories, strong feelings, an unfavourable environment, past experiences, expectations. • The obstacles of the communication may be: − At reception: excess of information, perturbing noises, receiver’s values. − Of understanding: long channels, inappropriate messages, vague expression, differences of the interlocutor’s status, inability of listening. − Of acceptance: prejudices, interpersonal conflicts. − Ambiguity: confusions between the denotations and the connotations of the words, lack of moderation in using the synonymy, homonymy or multiple meanings of the words. − Judgments of value: the world is full of contraries, the truth is always relative, we usually think or tell “who is not with me is against me!”; − Early generalization: we usually come to too general conclusions, we use globalizing enouncements, often leading to conflicts. − Prolonged Soliloquy: the persons speaking too much, uselessly and also commit indiscretions are avoided in communication or accepted with reserves. − Not justified confidentiality: keeping too much secrets and systematic refusal of discussing important aspects. − Inappropriate language: abusive use or inappropriate to the communication and to the composition of the audience of jargon or slang; the preciosity of the words and exaggerated abstract notions may annoy, disturb keeps the listeners away. • Perception: mental function of information reception, by the senses. Principles of the perception operation: reference to the past experience, granting of the sense, confirmation of the sense in the environment, risk of the sense error. The perception may be influenced by personal suggestions and reasons. Porter’s attitude: the degree of perception of the communicated message depends on the attitude the interlocutor adopts. Often, during the message enunciation, a real brake in communication appears due to some typical attitude, as: attitude of assessment, display of the a priori opinions, attitude of record. Porter defined synthetically the attitudes a person may have during the communication, as well as the influence that each one may have on the interlocutor. Porter’ attitudes consisted in: − Advisory: consists in substituting oneself to the interlocutor („If I were you, I ....”), in order to tell him what to do, to offer him an immediate solution, without the details of the exposed matter. − Assessment: consists in make a judgment of value either on the idea exposed by the interlocutor or on the interlocutor himself („it is completely wrong!”, or „you are not right...”). − Interpretation: consists in translating, interpreting, reformulating, explaining in a personal manner the ideas and the behaviour of the other person (the sentence begins with „If I understand well...”, or „It means that...”). − Listening, understanding: consists in the real trail of understanding the interlocutor’s point of view, without taking into account the own opinion. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20/24
  21. 21. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 − Support, assistance: consists in reassuring the interlocutor, encouraging him, dramatizing in the meantime what he is saying. It is a paternalist support. − Survey, investigation: consists in obtaining complementary information, by questioning the interlocutor. − Record: consists in making the interlocutor take over a verifiable, realistic information. The prejudices and the stereotypes are barriers in the communication. TECHNIQUES OF WINNING THE ATTENTION They are necessary to make sure the public watches the speech. They are aimed to help winning the public at the beginning of a speech, but also to keep their attention during the speech delivery. They use verbal language and non verbal language. • Verbal language: the techniques that use the verbal language are limited enough. They may be used especially in the introductory part. − Jokes: solution easy to use, the jokes induce a relaxing state among the audience and their benevolence. − The atypical presentation: in a world accustomed with the classical formula "Good afternoon! My name is..." , any other method of presentation is noticed, attracting the interest of the audience. − Quitting the subject: technique used by the more experienced speakers. If, during a speech, the speaker “forgets” for one moment what he is going to say, passing to a completely different matter, the public’s interest will be won again. The experience is necessary as the smallest excess of the limit may lead to a contrary effect. • Use of the non verbal language: the non verbal language offers more possibilities of winning the attention, any special gesture, any voice inflexion, any rhythm breaking. − Gesture: a clap of the hands or snapping. It is important the gesture should not be exaggerated, ostentatious or vexing. − Mimics: important element to win the attention and to keep it, especially when the public is near enough to notice the speaker’s face. A light frowning or grin awakens the interest. Any accentuation may lead to a nervous state and rejection reactions. − The rhythm breakings: they accentuate the importance of certain parts of the speech. The change of the rhythm is made gradually in order not to disturb, but not very slowly, so that it should be perceived. − Increase or reduction of the voice volume represents one of the easiest possibilities of winning the attention. You should not fall in extremes – the public has to hear all they are told, but they don not have to be affected by shouts. − The tone: tones intercalation. Use of an enthusiastic tone, then a calm tone. The accent is on speaking with a different tone than the tone used generally by the speaker. − Moments of silence: a well calculated pause is aimed to awake to the public a light impatience, the feeling of losing control. In the moments of pause, the audience becomes curious, wanting to know what is happening. It is essential the pause should not be too long, so that the insecurity feeling should not create panics or anxiety, but not too short in order to awake curiosity and the feeling that something is being prepared. • Techniques of the communication maintenance: a technique used during the communication is the reformulation, whose objective is both the determination of the interlocutor to follow the transmitted message, and the facilitation of expressing the point of view. You have not to judge the interlocutor, you have not to hurry him to speak, but you should listen to him and create a serene atmosphere . _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 21/24
  22. 22. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 − Techniques of reformulation: to enable the communication by phrases of approval, resume of the last sentence of the interlocutor, summary of the essential. Suggestions for the communication maintenance: − Record the essential from what the interlocutor is saying, as well as his expression manner! − Get off the tone! − Don’t ask questions immediately! − Speak with an enunciation tone! − Accept the silences: “the first to speak loses”! − Don’t evaluate! − Don’t make suppositions! Use the ordinary formulas reformulation: “If I understand well...”, You mean that...”, It means that...”, “So,...”, etc. CHAPTER 4: IMPROVEMENT OF THE COMMUNICATION COMPETENCES The chapter refers o the improvement of the communication competences specific to the managers. The studies show that the managers spend 60% up to 80% from their working time for the verbal communications. Learning objectives:  Specific communication competences SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION COMPETENCES Communication – obtaining, supply of information and conviction for the involvement in the action. The communication consists in interviewing (interrogation and listening), feedback, explanations. Other communication competences are the observation, the demonstration, the motivation.  Stages of Improvement: identify what it is already well, find an aspect requiring improvement. Act, describe where you want to go, describe what it exists, find the progress way, check out if you have better performances, resume the process, make something different, check out somebody, don’t make too large steps, practice whenever possible.  Communication with difficult persons: it is made by noticing the details of the physical behaviour, identifying and repeating what is appropriate. It is necessary to observe the person, don’t think of a stereotype. The observation allows us calming down ourselves. Choose a person you wouldn’t like to communicate with: a severe auditor, a nonconformist adolescent, a neighbour who asks you money again, although he hasn’t paid to you yet the money you lent him last month, a dissatisfied employee. How do you communicate with them? "You have to meditate; you have to think about: who thinks little, is wrong a lot." (Leonardo da Vinci, 1452 - 1515). "When you think all is under control, it means that you don’t walk fast enough!" (Mario Andretti). CHAPTER 5: REVIEW, CONCLUSIONS The efficient communication means any method necessary to make sure the target public „understood” the message. Learning objectives:  Efficacy of the group activity _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 22/24
  23. 23. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 EFFICACY OF THE GROUP ACTIVITY In order to determine the efficacy of the group activity, we have to know which are the main limits of the communication?, which are the main differences between the successful communication at the place of work and in the spare time?, what communication competences does a manager, an actor have to dispose of? And why?  Occult powers in the organizational communication: − Tellers: the people who like listening to themselves speak, especially in public. − Priests: those who provoke “confessions”. − Persons who spread rumours: those who work near the management. − Colporteurs: those who run the rumors. − Spies: often coming from the tellers. − Plotters: when they meet at least two from the above categories. And don’t omit the secretaries!  Communication: − Source of communication. − Encoding process – it represents the transformation of the transmitter’s ideas and concepts on the language and materials used in the presentation of the point of view. − Message – the information structured in the presentation. − Environment – the type of communication used within the presentation, the words, the visual materials etc. − The decoding process: reception and interpretation of the information by the receiver. − The receiver: the person whom the communication is addressed to. − Feedback: reaction to the communication by returning the transmission. The reaction may be verbal or non verbal. − Noise: factors disturbing the communication between the partners of dialogue.  Effects of a successful communication: − The cumulative satisfaction of 4 conditions: The issued message should be received, listened to, saw, read, smelled, touched. The received message should be understood, decoded. The understood message has to be accepted. The message impact should provoke a reaction, a change of attitude, idea or behaviour, favourable to the person who sent the message. − Accumulation of information. − Determination of a better relationship with the interlocutor.  Efficacy of the group communication: a meeting gathers a group of incompatible people, appointed by a person to make something useless for some ungrateful persons. “A meeting means a group of people who are fond of the minutes and lose their hours.” “A meeting is a group of people who decide when the next meeting has to take place.” “A meeting is a group of people who cannot do nothing by themselves and collectively decide there is nothing to do.” Subsequently, the communication is the understanding between people and groups, an interdependent process. An agreement is not always necessarily reached. It’s a continuous process, it is not possible not to communicate, we continuously communicate and we continuously receive information from the other people. REFERENCES: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 23/24
  24. 24. Training module: Communication Pilot project no. RO/03/B/F/PP-175017 Graur Evelina, Tehnici de comunicare, MEDIAMIRA Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, 2001 Chelcea A., s.a. Psihoteste. (2). Cunoaşterea de sine şi a celorlalţi, Ştiinţă şi Tehnică Publishing House, Bucureşti, 1997 Ferréol, G., Flageul, N. Metode şi tehnici de exprimare scrisă şi orală. Polirom Publishing House, Iaşi, 1998 Neculau, A., s.a., 26 de teste pentru cunoaşterea celuilalt. 3rd Edition. Polirom Publishing house, Iasi, 1999 Newsom, D., Carrell, B., Redactarea materialelor de relaţii publice, Polirom Publishing House, Iaşi, 2004 Teretti, A., Legrand, JA, Boniface, J., Tehnici de comunicare, Polirom Publishing House, Iaşi, 2001 Prutianu, S. Manual de comunicare şi negociere în afaceri. Vol. 1 Comunicarea. Polirom Publishing house, Iaşi, 2000 Stanton, N. Comunicarea. Ştiinţă şi Tehnică Publishing House, Bucureşti, 1995 Roco, M., Creativitate şi inteligenţă emoţională, Polirom Publishing House, Iaşi, 2004 Rückle, H. Limbajul corpului pentru manageri. Tehnică Publishing House, Bucureşti, 2000 Visschner, P., Neculau, A., Dinamica grupurilor, Polirom Publishing House, Iaşi, 2001 *** Cum să faci prezentări eficiente. Rentrop & Straton Publishing House, Bucureşti, 1999 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24/24

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