Think Globally, Teach Locally: English in Kazakhstan


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Think Globally, Teach Locally: English in Kazakhstan

  1. 1. Think Globally, Teach Locally: English in Kazakhstan Prof. Rashit Z. Zagidullin Global Language Convention 8-11 April 2010 Melbourne, Australia
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Many Cultures, One Community: Language Policy in Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shift in Kazakhstan’s Education System </li></ul><ul><li>Think Globally, Teach Locally Strategy at the Kazakh-British Technical University: Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Republic of Kazakhstan: Geography <ul><li>the ninth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, the USA, China, Brazil, Australia, India, & Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>stretches over northern and central Eurasia </li></ul><ul><li>borders two Top 10 countries of the world (Russia & China) & three Central Asian Republics (Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan) & a significant part of the Caspian sea </li></ul>
  4. 4. Republic of Kazakhstan: Politics <ul><li>member of the United Nations since 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, NATO's Partnership for Peace </li></ul><ul><li>chairs the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) this year </li></ul><ul><li>aims at entering the World Trade Organization (WTO) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kazakhstan’s current issues <ul><li>developing a cohesive national identity; </li></ul><ul><li>expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources & exporting them to world markets; </li></ul><ul><li>achieving a sustainable economic growth outside the oil, gas, & mining sectors; </li></ul><ul><li>strengthening relations with neighboring states & other foreign powers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Official Websites on English Teaching & Learning in Kazakhstan <ul><li>the Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan ( ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Native Speakers on Teaching English in Kazakhstan (Jodie) <ul><li>Kazakhstan is still not very open to the West or Western ways. </li></ul><ul><li>English tends to be taught by Kazakhs (badly) & it is generally thought that native speakers aren't needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan is still very Soviet with lots of bureaucracy & red tape. </li></ul><ul><li>English is not widely spoken anywhere & signs are all in Kazakh or Russian. </li></ul><ul><li>It isn't a tourist destination as yet & they are not geared up for it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Native Speakers on Teaching English in Kazakhstan (Chester) <ul><li>That advice is pretty gloomy! There are some great aspects to life here, too. </li></ul><ul><li>You will never feel as appreciated as you are made to feel by your students here. </li></ul><ul><li>They are very respectful, & very interested in people from other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In the bigger cities, people are very interested in the west & western ways… </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kazakhstan as an Independent State <ul><li>part of the Russian Empire for two hundred years </li></ul><ul><li>part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>declared its sovereignty on October 25, 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>declared full independence on December 16, 1991 </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Official Holidays <ul><li>The Republic Day (October 25) </li></ul><ul><li>The Independence Day (December 16) </li></ul><ul><li>The Unity Holiday of the People of Kazakhstan (replaced Labor Day celebrated on the 1st of May) </li></ul><ul><li>The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Advisory Body <ul><li>The Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, established in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>to coordinate the work carried out by the republic-wide, regional, national & cultural centers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kazakhstan in the 20 th century <ul><li>Kazakhstan was the only Soviet republic (out of 15) in which the so-called titular nationality (i.e. ethnic group for which a republic was named) constituted less than 50 percent of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic changes of the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration of Russians, Germans, Poles & some other nationalities to ‘ethnic’ homelands </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration of ethnic Kazakhs (oralmans ) from China, Mongolia, & Russia to Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>Higher birthrate among Kazakhs as compared to the other ethnic groups </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kazakhstan in the 21 st century <ul><li>as diverse as it was in the last century </li></ul><ul><li>‘ with the Kazakhs making up over half the population, </li></ul><ul><li>the Russians comprising just over a quarter, </li></ul><ul><li>and smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Chechens, Kurds, Koreans and Central Asian ethnic groups accounting for the rest’ </li></ul><ul><li>Country profile, 2009 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Downward Trend in Migration: Russians <ul><li>Gennady Belyakov, the chairman of a Cossack organisation & a leading figure in the Russian community, </li></ul><ul><li>There is an exodus but not a flood, but now many are coming back, a smaller percentage, but they are coming back. There is unemployment, but there are no cases of people being impoverished, certainly in Kazakhstan. </li></ul><ul><li>(Greenall, 2005) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Downward Trend in Migration: Germans <ul><li>stronger economic prospects in Kazakhstan, which has enjoyed a double-digit economic growth rate over the last few years, has also had its effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany's migration policy now discourages massive 'return' of Aussiedler & </li></ul><ul><li>assists with vocational training, </li></ul><ul><li>the establishment of cultural institutions & hospitals, </li></ul><ul><li>works with the young in communities of origin. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kazakhstan: Special report on ethnic Germans, 2005) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Human Factors in Migration Processes <ul><li>According to the Germany Embassy in Almaty, </li></ul><ul><li>older people are more hesitant to go nowadays but still consider emigration a viable option for the future prosperity of their children. </li></ul><ul><li>According to a 19-year-old linguistics student Irina Geisler </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the young ethnic Germans would like to return, the other half don't want to leave Kazakhstan. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kazakhstan: Special report on ethnic Germans, 2005) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Many Cultures, One Community <ul><li>Taking into consideration the current trends of migration & the government policy to ensure equality & development of the various national cultures, it may be claimed that Kazakhstan is & will remain in future a country of many cultures & one community. </li></ul><ul><li>Note. Correcting a linguistic mistake (using originally the plural form of people in the names of the Unity holiday & The Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan) to reflect the idea of ‘many cultures, one community.’ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Language Policy in Kazakhstan <ul><li>According to Article 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1995), </li></ul><ul><li>1. The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazak language. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazak language. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The state shall promote conditions for the study and development of the languages of the people of Kazakhstan. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Language Situation in Kazakhstan: Russian & Kazakh <ul><li>In Kazakhstan’s multicultural society the Russian language, being the most widespread, is used by people of different nationalities in communicating with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>The names of streets & institutions are given in both Kazakh & Russian, </li></ul><ul><li>television & radio programmes are broadcast in both languages, </li></ul><ul><li>works of fiction & scientific literature also appear in both languages. </li></ul><ul><li>( Kazakhstan people info , 2010) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language Situation in Kazakhstan: Other Languages <ul><li>Kazakhstan newspapers, along with Kazakh & Russian, are published in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uigur & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German, & local newspapers come out also in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many other languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Kazakhstan people info , 2010) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Kazakhstan as a Bilingual Community <ul><li>While Russian is currently spoken by almost all Kazakhstanis & is used routinely in business & everyday communication, the Kazakh language is spoken by 64.4% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>(Demographics, 2010) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sociolinguistic Factors of Bilingualism (1) <ul><li>The figure (64.4% ) includes some ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, Tartars, Uighurs, Kyrgyzs, Uzbeks, Koreans & even Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Most non-Kazakhs that know the Kazakh language were born and/or have been living for a long period in the countryside, where indigenous Kazakhs are in the majority. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sociolinguistic Factors of Bilingualism (2) <ul><li>The figure (64,4%) does not include many dozen thousand Kazakhs whose language of communication is Russian. </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhs who do not know their mother tongue well enough were born and/or have been living in cities & towns, where - unlike in the rural areas - Russian prevailed as a language of everyday communication & as a language of instruction. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sociolinguistic Factors of Bilingualism (3) <ul><li>In the higher education system of the Soviet Kazakhstan the language of instruction was predominantly Russian </li></ul><ul><li>In the then capital of Kazakhstan Alma-Ata (now Almaty) there was only one secondary school where the language of instruction was Kazakh & few ‘bilingual’ (Russian-Kazakh) schools for the city population of over one million. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Kazakhstan-2030 Program <ul><li>Our young state would grow up & reach its manhood & with it our children & grandchildren would also become grown up people …. They would be well-educated & healthy. They would be prepared to work in conditions of modern market economy sticking though to the traditions of their forefathers. They would have an equally good command of the Kazakh, Russian & English languages . </li></ul><ul><li>Nazarbayev, 1997 </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1999 Kazakhstani Law on Education <ul><li>According to the Law, the study of English is a prerequisite for the development & professional formation of a person on the basis of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>national & universal values, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific & practical achievements, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training of a qualified specialist able to compete in the labor market. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. English & Turkish as Additional Languages in Kazakhstan <ul><li>English gained its popularity among the youth since the collapse of USSR and 30% of megapolis dwellers, especially younger generations are fluent in English </li></ul><ul><li>another spoken foreign tongues which are more or less popular among Kazakhstanis is Turkish due to its proximity to… Kazakh. </li></ul><ul><li>(Demographics, 2010) </li></ul>
  28. 28. English & Turkish as Additional Languages in Kazakhstan (2) <ul><li>The main reasons of the popularity of Turkish in Kazakhstan are similar to those of English: </li></ul><ul><li>political & economic relationships </li></ul><ul><li>introduction of Turkish as a language of instruction in Kazakhstani schools & universities </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to study at the higher education institutions in Turkey </li></ul>
  29. 29. Layman’s opinion: English or Russian? <ul><li>As a matter of fact, the idea is great. There is a saying, ‘a man lives as many lives as many languages he/she knows.’ From this perspective language knowing is a great benefit. And the role of English is world-wide recognized. </li></ul><ul><li>(Niko, 2009) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Nico’s answer: Russian! <ul><li>But knowing the language of your nearest neighbors & main partners in all spheres of cooperation is more important. You can do without knowing English, but without knowing, say, Russian, it will be rather difficult. That’s why there shouldn’t be any bias regarding this issue. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Scholar’s opinion: English or Russian? <ul><li>Due to the facts that it does not have the status of a state language in Kazakhstan and is not burdened - as in Russia - with the complex duty of national idea carrier, in pragmatic & tolerant Kazakhstani community Russian performs its primary function, that of the language of communication, including the international one. </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Economic Meaning of Language: General <ul><li>As Dale Carnegie says, ‘business is an art of communicating’ & everything that helps communication promotes business. </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>And vice versa, languages may prejudice the success in business. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Economic Meaning of Language: German <ul><li>one of the reasons of the negative attitude to the capabilities of industrious Germany, according to Bakhard Schwenker , president of a strategic consulting agency , is German – the language that has Nazi past because of which there is ambivalence regarding German in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, it is not widely spread & is difficult for learning & using in business communication. </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Economic Meaning of Language: English <ul><li>That’s why German is increasingly being replaced by English in business communication even in Germany itself. </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Economic Meaning of Language: Russian <ul><li>Taking into account the language factor is a manifestation of the urge towards standardization of all elements of business, as well as of the across-the-board globalization of world economic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the world languages – Russian – may be considered as an element of unification of a huge economic space called post-Soviet . </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Dramatic Changes of the Role of Russian <ul><li>Having been a rather controversial champion of ideology, propaganda & culture, nowadays it proves to be a language of communication & its communicative advantages are coming to the foreground. </li></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Khvan: Russian or English? Russian! <ul><li>Without belittling the merits of other languages, it is worth recognizing that none of the titular languages of the post-Soviet countries can objectively claim the status of a world language – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neither by the territory of distribution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nor by the number of speakers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while English & other world languages do not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have long-standing traditions in this part of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>globe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Khvan, 2005) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Threat of Kazakh? <ul><li>According to the BBC News , Russians & other smaller minorities in Kazakhstan ‘generally live in harmony, though ethnic Russians resent the lack of dual citizenship and having to pass a Kazakh language test in order to work for government or state bodies.’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Country profile, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>The way out is to learn Kazakh. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Entering the Global Education Community <ul><li>Bologna process </li></ul><ul><li>Programs for Studying Abroad </li></ul><ul><li>New Educational Institutions in Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>New Curricula & Syllabi </li></ul><ul><li>New Majors & Courses </li></ul>
  40. 40. Programs for Studying Abroad <ul><li>the Bolashak ( Brilliant Future , in Kazakh) President’s program </li></ul><ul><li>foreign educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>international organizations </li></ul>
  41. 41. English Medium Educational Institutions in Kazakhstan <ul><li>the Miras Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakh-Turkish Lycées </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul>
  42. 42. Old Generation Universities <ul><li>Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi (KazNU) </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakh University of International Relations & World Languages named after Ablai-Khan (KazUIR&WL) </li></ul>
  43. 43. New Generation Universities <ul><li>Kazakhstani Institute of Management, Economics & Strategic Research under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (KIMEP) </li></ul><ul><li>University of International Business (UIB) </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakh American University (KAU) </li></ul><ul><li>International Academy of Business (IAB) </li></ul><ul><li>Suleyman Demirel University (SDU) </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakh British Technical University (KBTU) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Case Study <ul><li>Implementing ‘Think Globally, Teach Locally’ Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>at the Kazakh British Technical University (KBTU) </li></ul>
  45. 45. KBTU History <ul><li>the Memorandum on Mutual Understanding signed by the British Prime-Minister Tony Blair & the RK President Nursultan Nazarbayev in November 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>in accordance with the Kazakhstan’s Government Decree dated August 3, 2001. </li></ul>
  46. 46. KBTU Location <ul><li>Almaty (formerly – Alma-Ata) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Building (formerly House of the Government) </li></ul><ul><li>The Round Hall of the University </li></ul>
  47. 47. KBTU Building (formerly House of the Government, later House of Parliament)
  48. 48. KBTU: “A really higher education” <ul><li>striving for achieving the highest standards in teaching a diversity of academic disciplines related to </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oil & gas engineering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>economics & finance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Innovations at KBTU <ul><ul><ul><li>credit technology system of education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the faculty staff arrangements into tutors, senior lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors , etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transliterated terms ( advisor, syllabus, office hour, registrar office, transcript) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new academic disciplines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Teaching about English & Teaching through English <ul><li>General English </li></ul><ul><li>Business English </li></ul><ul><li>English for Professional Purposes (EPP) </li></ul><ul><li>Remedial Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Business Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to IELTS </li></ul><ul><li>Research Reading & Writing Skills (RRW) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Research Reading& Writing Skills (RRW) <ul><li>Hum 315/316/317 (from Humanities ) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in KBTU Curriculum in 2006-2007 academic year </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike similar courses that were taught in Soviet Kazakhstan or are being taught at Russian/Kazakh medium Universities at present, the RRW aims at developing & integrating skills both in research & in English. </li></ul>
  52. 52. KBTU English Language Department’s Approach to RRW Course <ul><li>a kind of “research literacy” course that integrates some elements of </li></ul><ul><li>prose literacy </li></ul><ul><li>document literacy </li></ul><ul><li>quantitative literacy </li></ul><ul><li>visual literacy </li></ul><ul><li>information & communication technology (ICT) literacy </li></ul><ul><li>+ cultural literacy </li></ul>
  53. 53. RRW Course: Main Objectives <ul><li>to introduce the basics of research & its reporting </li></ul><ul><li>to develop the skills of research planning, data collection & analysis, formatting & writing a research paper in accordance with internationally recognized MLA/APA style </li></ul><ul><li>to provide students with a wide range of language means of writing effective research papers in English </li></ul>
  54. 54. RRW Course: Supplementary Aims <ul><li>to develop critical reading/thinking, decision-making & problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>to foster creativity & self-study skills for life-long learning </li></ul>
  55. 55. RRW Course: Theory AND Practice! <ul><li>Developing research literacy just by reading and/or listening to the lectures without gaining first-hand experience in this activity seems to be a waste of time. </li></ul>
  56. 56. American Institute for Research (AIR) 2006 Survey on Literacy Findings <ul><li>Literacy level is significantly higher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>among students who say their coursework places a strong emphasis on applying theories or concepts to practical problems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in comparison to students who say their coursework rarely touch on these skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(New Study on the Literacy, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. RRW Course: Choosing a Research Method <ul><li>survey (questionnaires or interviews) </li></ul><ul><li>observation (participant & non-participant) </li></ul><ul><li>experiments (small-scale) </li></ul><ul><li>case study (the least popular) </li></ul>
  58. 58. RRW: Choosing the Research Topic <ul><li>the main benefit of the course - the freedom of choice </li></ul><ul><li>the only requirement students should meet when choosing the topic of research is the necessity to combine secondary research & primary research in their project </li></ul>
  59. 59. Students’ Research Topics: Ecology <ul><li>Ecological Problems of the Caspian </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution in the Atyrau Oblast </li></ul><ul><li>Main Problems in Almaty: Traffic Jams, Pollution, Earthquakes </li></ul>
  60. 60. Students’ Research Topics: Health <ul><li>The AIDS or Healthy Life Style </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism among Young People </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking in Younger & Older Generations </li></ul>
  61. 61. Students’ Research Topics: Interests & Hobbies <ul><li>The Popularity of the Classical Music among the Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages & Disadvantages of the Cyberlife </li></ul><ul><li>The Lack of Face-to-Face Communication </li></ul><ul><li>What Terrorism Means to You </li></ul>
  62. 62. Students’ Research Topics: Kazakhstan <ul><li>Nuclear Power Stations in Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>Football in Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Wonders of Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Creation & Originality of an Ancient Kazakh Musical Instrument Zhetigen </li></ul>
  63. 63. Students’ Research Topics: Oil & Gas <ul><li>Among dozens individual/group research projects only two were the ones that are directly associated with the students’ majors, namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the Most Suitable Drilling Rigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Biggest Oil Fields in the World </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Students’ Research Topics: Education <ul><li>Why Do Many People Prefer to Study Abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>The Role & Meaning of English in the Teaching Process at the KBTU </li></ul>
  65. 65. Students’ Survey: English at KBTU <ul><li>2006-2007 academic year </li></ul><ul><li>Group project of 4 fifth-year students of the Finance & Economics Faculty (FEF) </li></ul><ul><li>Team leader: Sakina Bakisheva </li></ul><ul><li>Survey: March 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>10 item questionnaire in English, Kazakh & Russian </li></ul>
  66. 66. Students’ Survey: Procedure <ul><li>Target group: 76 students representing all three faculties & all five years of study </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents could answer both </li></ul><ul><li>anonymously (28,9%) </li></ul><ul><li>non-anonymously (71,1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete confidentiality was guaranteed </li></ul>
  67. 67. Table 1 Level of English at Entering the KBTU 100 % 76 Total 1.3 % 1 N/A E 5.3 % 4 Advanced D 23.7 % 18 Upper Intermediate C 43.4 % 33 Intermediate B 26.3 % 20 Pre-Intermediate А Percentage Number of Respondents Level of English Categories of Answers
  68. 68. Table 2 Number of Classes Needed for Learning English 100 76 Total 21. 1 16 12 - 16 hours D 28.9 22 8 - 12 hours C 39. 5 30 4 - 8 hours B 10.5 8 Up to 4 hours А Percentage Number of Respondents Number of Classes (in hours) per week Categories of Answers
  69. 69. Table 3 Best Distribution of Credits for Learning English 100% 76 Total 11.8 % 9 There is no need to study English at all, one should begin to study (other) subjects in English right away D 51 . 3 % 39 To get half credits within the first year & to start learning (other) subjects in English C 15 . 8 % 12 To get all credits within one year B 21. 1 % 16 To distribute 16 credits equally for 2 years А Percentage Number of Respondents Most Effective Method of Learning English (as in the questionnaire) Categories of Answers
  70. 70. How many hours a week are you learning (did you learn) English? <ul><li>45 students ( 59.2%) : 4 - 8 hours </li></ul><ul><li>20 students (26.3%): up to 4 hours </li></ul><ul><li>9 students (11.8%): 8 - 12 hours . </li></ul><ul><li>Diametrically opposite are answers of two students: </li></ul><ul><li>one of them (a FEF fifth-year student) wrote, ‘I don’t study English at all’, </li></ul><ul><li>the other student selected the category ’12 – 16 hours a week.’ </li></ul>
  71. 71. How well do you learn English within the number of credits allocated? <ul><li>More than half respondents (56.6%) selected the category ‘well’, about a quarter (23.7%) – ‘perfectly’, that makes up 80.3 %. </li></ul><ul><li>12 students (15.8%) thinks that they are learning the subject satisfactorily, & only three students (3.9%) – « badly ». </li></ul>
  72. 72. Are you getting (did you get) very tired during English classes? [Students] <ul><li>More than half respondents (53.9%) selected the category ‘Sometimes,’ about a third answered, ‘Never,’ while 6 & 5 students ( 7.9% & 6.6% , respectively ) chose the categories ‘Yes, very badly’ & ‘Often,’ that amounts to less than 15%. </li></ul><ul><li>The students that conducted the survey write, ‘Students are tired of intensive courses (most of all students of first year). It is negatively influence to their health ( Sic! – R.Z.).’ </li></ul>
  73. 73. Are you getting (did you get) very tired during English classes? [Teachers] <ul><li>Though there are some language mistakes in wording the findings & the conclusion on negative influence of intensive courses seems to be too categorical (since there wasn’t any medical research), </li></ul><ul><li>English teachers should lend an attentive ear to the opinion of the researchers & complaints of their respondents . </li></ul>
  74. 74. Survey Findings of Special Interest for University Managers & English Teachers <ul><li>Questionnaire Items 5, 6, 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Have you improved your level of English at the higher education institution? (3 variants of answer: ‘Yes,’ ‘No,’ & ‘Rather’ and one open answer question) </li></ul><ul><li>Open answer question ‘How would you like to study English?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Open answer question ‘Your suggestions on studying English.’ </li></ul>
  75. 75. Have you raised your level of English at the higher education institution? <ul><li>Only 2 respondents chose open answer question: </li></ul><ul><li>One of them (a FOGI first-year student) wrote, ‘Not quite’, </li></ul><ul><li>while the other (a FOGI fourth-year student) answered at greater length, ‘ Technical – yes, colloquial - no, regress.’ </li></ul>
  76. 76. KBTU Students’ Self-Assessment of Their Progress in English <ul><li>To ease the analysis the above answers may be added to category B (‘Rather’), hereupon the number of respondents that selected this answer amounts to 30, whereas the groups of respondents, having diametrically opposite opinions, make up 32 (‘Yes’) & 14 (‘No’) students. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, positive dynamics is stated by 62 students (81.6% ), while 14 students ( 18.4%) think that their level of English has not changed. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Students’ Feedback on Teaching English <ul><li>Only 35 students ( 46.1% ), but a wide range of opinions, ideas & suggestions: </li></ul><ul><li>from humorous ( to study English in the KBTU park) to rather serious, where teaching terms (interactivity, creativity etc.) appear, </li></ul><ul><li>from unsophisticated (I don’t know) to sophisticated (by Harvard system, by Oxford system, by the existing system), </li></ul><ul><li>from favorable, tolerant (I have no reason to complaint) to rather critical (to teach really in English those subjects that are allegedly taught in English (professionally)’, etc. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Most Typical Students’ Answers on the Ways of Learning/Teaching English <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>“ Intensively”, “deeply”, “permanently” , “every year”, and even “round the clock”. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ more emphasis on professional English” , “more speech practice” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>“ using high technologies (i.e. to watch more video, computer, as well as games on certain topics” </li></ul><ul><li>“ to use case studies, group projects”, </li></ul><ul><li>“ there must be more projects, at least 4 projects per semester, plus full defense” </li></ul><ul><li>В наиболее концентрированном виде пожелания студентов выражены в следующем ответе: « Native speakers + одновременно подготовка к IELTS и TOEFL + параллельно все предметы на английском». </li></ul>
  79. 79. The Most Focused Suggestion on Teaching English Locally <ul><li>“ Native speakers + at the same time preparation for IELTS and TOEFL + simultaneously all subjects in English” </li></ul>
  80. 80. Summing up the Students’ Survey <ul><li>The overwhelming majority of KBTU students consider English part and parcel of the teaching process of the Kazakh British Technical University. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting & diverse data, obtained during the survey, can serve as an indicator of the students’ opinion on the quality & duration of the English course, its optimal arrangement & distribution of credits, & on the ways of improving the teaching process of this subject, as well as of other subjects at the university . </li></ul>
  81. 81. New Ambitious Goal: IELTS Preparation <ul><li>100% participation of the KBTU students in the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) preparation program aimed at achieving 6.0 level (i.e. a level of a competent user) by the day of graduating from the university </li></ul>
  82. 82. Conclusion <ul><li>Kazakhstan is a high literacy state: 99.1% literacy rate for males & 97.7% for females. </li></ul><ul><li>The future of any state depends on its level of education. This is my fourth visit to Kazakhstan, I have already been to Atyrau & Almaty and I have been able to see for myself the high level of education of your nation, which is a key to success of any country. </li></ul><ul><li>(Condoleezza Rice, October 2006) </li></ul>
  83. 83. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>According the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009 the Republic of Kazakhstan takes the first place among 129 countries on the EFA Development Index (EDI) & its components. </li></ul><ul><li>The other 10 Top countries are Japan, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom, Italy, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Croatia, & New Zealand. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>At the Second European Forum of Education Ministers in Budapest on March 11, 2010 Kazakhstan officially joined the Bologna declaration, which aims to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards more comparable & compatible throughout the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>( Kazakhstan Joins Bologna Process, 2010) </li></ul>
  85. 85. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>Kazakhstan has made significant steps toward internationalization of higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s Ministry of Education & Science is creating conditions for expanding the mobility of Kazakh students & teachers, inviting more foreign students to the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 19,000 Kazakhs were studying in 35 countries of the world last year. </li></ul><ul><li>( Kazakhstan Joins Bologna Process, 2010) </li></ul>
  86. 86. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>But no country in the world pursuing efforts to catch up with the global trends in education can send all its young citizens to study abroad or invite foreign teachers (including native speakers of English) to teach all of them. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>145 universities in Kazakhstan (30 of them signed the Great Charter of Universities) </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of university students is more than 633,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio of students to 10 000 people is 512 </li></ul><ul><li>About 38,000 university professors & teachers; 41.3% of them have scientific degrees of doctor & candidates of science. </li></ul><ul><li>( Sources: Kazakhstan Joins Bologna Process, 2010; Higher </li></ul><ul><li>education aims of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2009) </li></ul>
  88. 88. Conclusion Cont’d <ul><li>Alongside integrating with global education community & developing English as an additional language within the Triunity of Languages Program, Kazakhstan’s English teachers do have their fair share of work: Thinking Globally, Teach Locally. </li></ul>
  89. 89. References <ul><li>EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009: Overcoming inequality: why governance matters. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan Joins Bologna Process, Deepens Educational Integration (2010). Retrieved March 29, 2010, from content/news/ASTANA%20CALLING/2010-03-16 </li></ul><ul><li>New study of the literacy of college students finds some are graduating with only basic skills (2006): Release of the American Institutes for Research. Retrieved September 12, 2007, from </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education aims of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the way to the Bologna process (February 5, 2009). Speech of Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan Zh. K. Tuymebaev. Almaty: Kazakh National University after Al- Farabi. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from…/2009_god/files/ Speech_of_Minister_of_Education_and_Science </li></ul>
  90. 90. Think Globally, Teach Locally: English in Kazakhstan <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>for Your Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Rashit Z. Zagidullin </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul>